Observations on the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-borers with special reference to the West Coast
L N Santhakumaran, J C Jain
The paper highlights the economic importance of the destruction of fishing craft in India by marine wood-destroying agencies. The annual loss involved is to the extent of over 94 million rupees. Thirty-nine spectes and one variety of woodborer have so far been recorded from India, of which Bankia campanellata, Bankia carinata, Bankia rochi, Dicyathifer manni, Lyrodus pedicellatus, Teredo clappi, Teredo furcifera, Nausitora hedleyi, Martesia striata, Sphaeroma terebrans, and Sphaeroma annandalei are widely distributed and quite destructive. Of the 59 timber species used in the construction of fishing craft, all are quickly damaged by these pests. Timber species which are in good demand for boat building are Tectona grandis, Artocarpus hirsutus, Calophyllum ionophyllum, Hopea parviflora, Lagerstroemia lanceolata, Mangifera indica, Melia composita, Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Pterocarpus marsupium, Shorea robusta, Salmalia malabarica, Terminalia alata, Terminalia paniculata, Tetrameles nudiflora and Xylia xylocarpa. Materials used for the indigenous methods of preservation of boats have been included together with details of special preparations. Crude fish oil, cashew nut shell oil, poon seed oil, neem seed oil, crude engine oil, red-ochre, lime plaster, animal fat, castor oil, ground nut oil, coal tar, karanjel oil and 'chandrus' constitute a series ingredients, used either alone or in various combinations. The indigenous preservative formulations have no particular efficacy to prevent biodeterioration, with the result the problem persists much to the disadvantage of the fishing industry.
Keywords: MARINE BORERS; FISHING BOATS; INDIA; INDIGENOUS METHODS; OILS; FISH OIL; LIME; ANNUAL LOSS; BLACK DAMMAR; TIMBERS USED