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The Effect of Soil on the pH of Untreated Southern Pine in Ground Contact
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10742
Untreated southern yellow pine samples were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and then one, two, four and eight weeks after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH.
C Vidrine, C Schauwecker, L Jin, A F Preston

Accreditation: mutual benefits for research and industry
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20452
The wood preservation laboratory of the CIRAD had its first ISO 17025 accreditation from the COFRAC in 2006 for 5 standardized test procedures. The so called “first cycle” of its accreditation will be mid-2010. This laboratory is now accredited for 8 tests and is planning to increase the field of its quality management and accreditation. This poster describes how research projects, pre-normative research and industry impacted the quality management activities.
L Martin, N Leménager, C Baudassé, M-F Thévenon

Status of Wood Protection in Slovenia
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40491
Status of wood protection in Slovenia is described in this document. The most important factors that influence use of wood in our country are outlined. Furthermore, there are companies that formulate wood preservatives, their products and wood impregnation facilities are listed as well.
M Humar

Situation of Wood Protection in Spain
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40511
This paper shows the actual situation of Spanish Wood Protection. In the evolution of this sector over the last years, three factors have been very important: the increase of the use of wood for both structural and decorative uses in construction, the development of the Technical Building Code, and the transposition and implantation of the Directive of Biocides to Spain in October 2002.
B J Duval, J M Solis, T de Troya, M J Prieto

Quality assurance approach of the German TMT manufacturers
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40513
Due to an increasing number of TMT manufacturers in central Europe, an organisation of TMT manufacturers was founded in Germany in the beginning of 2010. Since the current level of product testing and property declaration is not satisfying, one of the first activities is the establishment of a quality assurance system. In this paper a concept for quality assurance (QA) will be outlined.
W Scheiding, C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp

Non Toxic Remedial Treatment of Bamboo Structures/Furniture
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40516
Molds and beetles often attack bamboo furniture and structures when used in untreated or inadequate preservative treatment. Remediation or eradication of infestation often involves expensive chemicals (fumigants) and specialized methods, which are not available in villages. Novel inexpensive methods using easily available chemicals were developed for controlling such infestations. Whereas application of common baking soda can be used to prevent molds, fumigation with ammonia or localized heat treatment can get rid of beetles in fixed structures.
S Kumar

Building With Wood an strategic action in Spain
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40530
This paper explains the objectives and results of the “Building with Wood” project, mainly at Spanish level. As far as the wood preservation field is concerned, the present abstract also informs about the main goals of the project in this matter.
M Conde García, J I Fernández-Golfín Seco, J Galván Rodríguez

The 41st Annual Meeting of IRG. Programme
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60286
IRG Secretariat

The 41st Annual Meeting of IRG. Poster abstracts
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60287
IRG Secretariat

Budget for 2010 (forecast May 2010)
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60288
IRG Secretariat

Budget for 2011
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60289
IRG Secretariat

IRG Documents 2010
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60297
IRG Secretariat

Reporting minutes of the Plenary Meeting 2010
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60299
IRG Secreatariat

Section reports from IRG 41
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60300
J Norton

IRG Strategic plan development 2010-2011
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60301
J Norton

Annual Report 2009
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60283
IRG Secretariat

Agenda 2010 Plenary Meeting
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60284
IRG Secretariat

The 41st Annual Meeting of IRG. Abstracts of documents
2010 - IRG/WP 10-60285
IRG Secretariat

Sensitivity to Copper of Basidiospores from Copper Tolerant Fungi: Fomitopsis palustris and Oligoporus placentus
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10707
Copper continues to be an important fungicide in wood preservation. It is the primary component of the preservatives that have replaced chromated copper arsenate for treated wood in residential construction in North America. However, a co-biocide is normally needed to protect against copper tolerant organisms. Previous work has shown that the spores of at least one copper tolerant fungus, Oligoporus placentus, were not very tolerant of copper. This explained the unexpectedly good performance of copper-only preservatives when just exposed to spores and not exposed to mycelium of such fungi. This work was designed to determine if the same was true of another copper-tolerant fungus that produces basidiospores in agar culture. An agar medium bio-assay was used to assess inhibition of basidiospore germination and mycelial growth of Fomitopsis palustris (Berk. et Curt) with O. placentus (Fr.) Gilb. & Ryvarden, as a known reference. The spores of F. palustris and O. placentus had the same copper sensitivity. The basidiospores were sensitive to copper concentrations between 20 and 50 times lower than their corresponding mycelium. These data confirm that spores of copper tolerant fungi are not very tolerant of copper.
C S Woo, P I Morris

The natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 bamboo species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10708
Tests on the natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 common bamboo species were conducted. The results showed that there was a linear relation between bamboo density and its preservative retention by mass, and the preservative retention of bamboo reduced while its density increased. The test also showed that there were significant differences in the natural durability of bamboos, but the natural durability of bamboo was not related closely to its density, and 11 bamboos were all belonged to non-durable grade, lasting less than 2 years in filed exposure.
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun

Observations on colony collapse in Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) in laboratory and field settings in Wisconsin
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10709
Parallel strategies were designed to eliminate Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) from a field site in Endeavor, Wisconsin and a simulated field test setup of approximately 20,000 workers in the laboratory. Indoor and outdoor colonies of R. flavipes were baited with commercial cellulose monitoring stations and rolled cardboard stations. If the commercial cellulose baits were attacked, they were replaced with termidicidal baits containing 0.25% diflubenzuron (a chitin synthase inhibitor). In active cardboard stations, termites were dusted with N’N-naphthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA) and released back into the colony. Overtime, diflubenzuron gradually suppressed worker activity and termite numbers both in the laboratory and the field. However, sharp reductions (>90%) in foraging workers were observed in both field and laboratory colonies with the addition of dusting with NHA. Termidicidal baits containing 0.5% hexaflumeron were secondarily evaluated in the field as a comparison to diflubenzuron. Observations indicated five notable characteristics or criteria of a colony on the verge collapse in one or both venues: i) increasing soldier to worker ratios >20% in the lab, ii) decreasing overall counts of workers collected, iii) increasing numbers of secondary reproductives captured in hexaflumeron bait cartridges outdoors, iv) increasing susceptibility to mites, and v) higher microbial load including bacteria, fungi and slime molds within the colony. Shortly after these events occur—foraging workers disappeared from both commercial and cardboard stations and the colony was essentially eliminated. Although laboratory results do not exactly mirror field results, observations regarding colony decline in both venues are significant when attempting termite control. We conclude that combinations of termite toxicants are more effective than either one alone, and that the above observations may be used as an indicator of sucessful termite treatment.
F Green III, R A Arango, G R Esenther

Modelling hyphal growth of the bio-incising fungus Physisporinus vitreus
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10710
The white-rot fungus Physisporinus vitreus preferentially degrades the pit membranes of bordered pits in tracheids and subsequently enhances wood permeability. Thus, P. vitreus can be used to improve the uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally-benign wood modification substances. This process can be used to enhance the use and sustainability of native conifer wood species by the wood industry. Mathematical modelling in combination with laboratory experiments is a powerful and efficient investigation method that enables a deeper insight into complex interactions between biological systems and their environment. The objective of mathematical modelling is not to develop an extremely complex system of equations in an attempt to mimic reality. Rather, it is applied to reduce a complex (biological) system into a simpler (mathematical) system that can be analyzed in more detail and from which key properties can be identified, isolated and investigated. In addition, a verified mathematical model enables to optimize hyphal growth and impact of the P. vitreus. Enhanced uptake of wood preservatives and environmentally-benign wood modification substances of Norway spruce wood and optimized quality control processes would be of importance for the usability, durability and sustainability of wooden structures in civil engineering. In this paper we present a mathematical model of hyphal growth and expansion of P. vitreus in heartwood of Norway spruce. The model enables to investigate the global penetration front of the fungus in wood as function of the control parameters as well as its shape and penetration depth. This model will serve to assist the choice of pellet concentration and reaction times that are required to induce a defined degree of wood permeability by the fungus.
M Fuhr, C Stührk, F W M R Schwarze, M Schubert, H J Herrmann

Assessment of the marine borer resistance and abrasion resistance of lesser known hardwood timber species for use in marine construction
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10711
Naturally durable species of timber are used as an alternative to preservative treated timber for marine structures, but many species have not been evaluated for their potential for use in this environment. EN 275 specifies a 5-year test period - too long a period for screening tests to be economically viable. In this study, candidate timber species were selected for testing both in the laboratory and in the sea to establish their resistance to marine borer and abrasion. Comparative resistance was assessed by comparing the rate of deterioration observed in candidate species of lesser known hardwoods against that for greenheart and ekki which were used as benchmark species. A number of lesser-known timber species originating from South America and West Africa performed comparatively well in laboratory tests and over an eighteen month exposure period in the sea. Resistance to marine borer attack did not necessarily correlate with resistance to abrasion.
J R Williams, G S Sawyer, G Malyon, S M Cragg, J D Icely, J Simm, M Meaden

The invasion channels of damage fungi in bamboo lumber
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10712
The micro-agents on bamboo lumber damage are mould, stain, and decay fungi. This research is about invasion channels of bamboo lumber damage fungi by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that the conidia of mould were only accumulated on the surface of bamboo and no hyphae detected in bamboo vascular bundle, and hyphae of stain penetrated into bamboo and grew in metaxylem vessel, then expanded from cell to cell through the pits. The brown-rot hyphae extended in cell to cell of bamboo via pits of cell wall, like stain fungi. But branches of brown-rot hyphae were gradually increased and thicker. Hyphae formed nicks (bore holes) on lumen wall contact and then rapidly penetrated. The bore holes later enlarged uniformly. Vertical section showed that bamboo decay firstly on metaxylem vessel wall, then parenchyma cells, finally fibre.
Xingxia Ma, Mingliang Jiang, Daochun Qin

Protection mechanisms of modified wood against decay by white and brown rot fungi
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10713
The resistance of beech and pine wood blocks treated with 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethylene urea (DMDHEU) against T. versicolor and C. puteana increased with increasing WPG. Full protection (mass loss below 3%) was reached at WPGs of approximately 15% (beech) and 10% (pine). Metabolic activity of the fungi in the wood blocks was assessed as heat or energy production determined by isothermal micro-calorimetry. Fungal activity in the wood decreased with increasing WPG. Still, activity was detected even in wood blocks of highest WPG and showed that the treatment was not toxic to the fungi. The infiltration of untreated and DMDHEU-treated wood blocks with nutrients and thiamine prior to fungal incubation did not result in an increased mass loss caused by the fungi. This shows that the destruction or removal of nutrients and vitamins during the modification process has no influence on fungal decay. In order to study the effect of cell wall bulking and increased surface area, the cell wall integrity was partly destroyed by milling and the decay of the fine wood flour was compared to that of wood mini-blocks. The mass losses caused by the fungi, however, also decreased with increasing WPG and showed comparable patterns like in the case of mini-blocks.To study the effect of the chemical change of cell wall polymers, cellulose was treated with DMDHEU and the product was subjected to hydrolysis by a cellulase preparation. The release of sugar during the incubation was clearly reduced as compared to untreated cellulose. Pre-treatment of modified cellulose with Fenton’s reagent increased the amount of released sugar due to the cellulase activity. Pine micro-veneers were subjected to Fenton’s reagents in acetate buffer over 48h. While untreated specimens and veneers treated with low DMDHEU concentration displayed strong and steady tensile strength loss, veneers treated to a higher WPG did hardly show tensile strength loss.
C Mai, P Verma, Yanjun Xie, J Dyckmans, H Militz

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