Your search resulted in 148 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Bordered Pit Imaging
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10773
New findings about bordered pits will be presented using the latest microscopy techniques. Three-dimensional imagery at the nanolevel is used, and short 3-D movies will shown as part of the discussion on this topic to reveal new features that have not previously been reported in pits. The implications for both microorganism penetration through lignified cells as well as preservative penetration in wood will be overviewed in light of the findings.
D Mascheck, B Goodell, H Militz, M Lessard, J Jellison
Bending Properties of FRT OSB
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40600
Fire retardant treated (FRT) oriented strandboard (OSB) and plywood of different widths were tested in static bending to determine width effects. Results were consistent with previous width effect studies and showed that increasing specimen width results in a decrease in sample MOR properties among all the sample groups tested in this study. Increasing sample width for OSB samples leads to more consistent MOR and MOE values. FRT plywood has a better width factor value than the two OSB sample groups tested in this study.
J M Hill, H M Barnes, S Q Shi
Introduction to keynote: Perspective in urban termite biology and management in Southeast Asia
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10786
This keynote lecture will provide a perspective on the pest status of termites in Southeast Asia, the damages they cause to the urban structures, important biological and behavioural characteristics, detection methods and the various management strategies available.
Annual Report 2011
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60319
Agenda 2012 Plenary meeting
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60320
The 43rd Annual Meeting of IRG. Abstracts of documents
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60321
The 43rd Annual Meeting of IRG. Programme
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60322
Budget for 2012 (forecast May 2012)
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60323
Budget for 2013
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60324
Reporting minutes of the Plenary Meeting 2012
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60333
IRGWP Strategy development 2011-2012
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60334
Section reports from IRG 43
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60335
IRG Documents 2012
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60336
Conditions for membership of IRGWP
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60338
Nomination procedure for the offices of President, Vice-President and members of the Executive Council and Scientific Programme Committee of IRG-WP
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60339
Guidelines for Giving an Oral Presentation at an IRG-WP Conference
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60340
International Directory of Members and Sponsors 2012
2012 - IRG/WP 12-60337
Assessment of decay risk of airborne wood-decay fungi
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10787
The decay risk of airborne wood-decay fungi was investigated by using an air sampler. Japanese cedar disks measuring about 8 cm in diameter and 3 mm in thickness with moisture content at about 100 % were placed in a “BIOSAMP” air sampler and exposed to 1000 liters of air. Air sampling was carried out from June to September at the same sampling site in Tsukuba, Japan. The exposed disks were then incubated for 16-week in a damp container kept at 26 ± 2°C. During the incubation period, wood mass loss ranged from -15 mg to 807 mg with a mean mass loss of 244 mg. Factors affecting mass loss were explored. Wood moisture content and ratio of heartwood area proved to be significant factors. In addition, five weather factors were found to influence mean mass loss. Disks that were sampled on a cloudy day showed significantly higher mean mass loss compared to those sampled on a shiny day. Filamentous fungi grown on the disks during 16-week incubation were subcultured to investigate the relationship between the taxa of airborne fungi and the decay risk. The subcultured fungi were isolated and DNA extracted from each isolate was amplified with the primers ITS4/ITS5. The DNA sequences of the amplified products were determined and compared to the sequence data of GenBank to determine the species or genus according to a BLAST search. This search revealed that the isolate consisted of 5 major taxa, namely Bjerkandera sp., Phanerochaete sp. (A), Phanerochaete sp. (B), Polyporales sp. Polyporus arcularius, and 6 minor ones. Statistical analysis revealed that the disks attached by Phanerochaete spp. or Polyporales sp. showed higher mean mass loss. It is concluded that, under these experimental conditions, related species of P. sordida play an important role in increasing the decay risk caused by airborne wood-decay fungi.
I Momohara, Y Ota, K Sotome, T Nishimura
Extractives in Norwegian-Grown and North American-Grown Western Redcedar and Their Relation to Durability
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10762
The extractives responsible for the natural durability of western redcedar (WRC) are not well understood. Recent work by the Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology and the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute has evaluated the natural durability of Norwegian wood species and reference species, including Norwegian-grown WRC and North American-grown WRC, in a series of decay tests. The availability of retained samples from these tests presented an excellent opportunity to compare the extractives contents of North American and Norwegian grown-WRC, and to correlate field test decay data and extractives content. The North American-grown WRC contained much greater concentrations of extractives than the Norwegian-grown WRC evaluated in this test. However, despite these differences, performance in the EN 252 stake test in Sørkedalen was only marginally better for North American-grown WRC. Both sets of samples were comparatively low in an as yet uncharacterized compound previously associated with decay resistance. However, there were not enough data to thoroughly examine the correlations between extractives and durability data in this material.
R Stirling, P O Flæte, G Alfredsen, P I Morris
Preference of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) for Southern Pine Blue-Stained Sapwood from Beetle-Killed Trees
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10763
Bark beetles and their associated Ophiostomatiod fungi are the major pests of pine forests in the southeastern USA, and termites are the major insect decomposers of dead trees and wood products in the southeastern USA. While both are the principal destructive insects of southern pine trees and southern pine lumber, respectively, no relationship between the two has apparently been reported in the literature. While recently inspecting bark beetle-killed southern pine trees, we noticed that subterranean termites were often present in the lower trunk of pines with incipient bark beetle infestations and always present in trees that had been dead for several months. This unusually rapid termite infestation suggested a possible attraction of termites to beetle-killed wood. AWPA E1 choice termite tests with three colonies of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) always showed a significant feeding preference for both air-dried and kiln-dried blue-stained southern pine sapwood compared to unstained southern pine sapwood. These initial results indicate that subterranean termites play a significant role in the ecosystem of southern pine forests and carbon recycling, and termite attack on southern pine lumber cut from beetle-killed trees may be associated with the death of the host tree. As the implications of these results may be of major importance to forest health, ecology, and utilization of wood products from the southern pines, we are conducting additional laboratory and field studies.
N S Little, J J Riggins, A J Londo, T P Schultz, D D Nicholas
Above Ground Field Evaluation and GC-MS Analysis of Naturally Durable Wood Species
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10764
Nine wood species are being evaluated in above ground field studies in Mississippi and Wisconsin. Candidate naturally durable wood (NDW) species are being rated at yearly intervals for resistance to decay, cupping, and checking. Field ratings after 12 months exposure are presented. To date, Paulownia tomentosa (PAW) and southern yellow pine (SYP) are least durable and cedars are the most durable in above ground exposure. Wood samples are being taken from the deck-boards and subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. Fatty acids from NDW species were extracted, derivatized, and analyzed along with commercial fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) standards. With few exceptions, results indicate that FAMEs are more abundant in NDW species. However, preliminary bioassays found no inhibition of select wood decay fungi by FAMEs at naturally occurring concentrations.
G T Kirker, A B Blodgett, S T Lebow, C A Clausen
Eastern redcedar included sapwood: Resistance to mold and termites under laboratory conditions
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10765
The heartwood of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) frequently contains areas of light-colored wood. This “included sapwood” is considered to be a defect by some manufacturers. In this study, sapwood, included sapwood and heartwood samples from five eastern redcedar trees were exposed to mold fungi or to subterranean termites in a no-choice feeding test. Extractives content was also measured. The extractive content of sapwood and included sapwood were equivalent. Included sapwood showed the same resistance to mold growth as heartwood, which was more mold resistant that the sapwood. Included sapwood, heartwood and sapwood of redcedar all exhibited resistance to termite attack compared with pine wood controls.
C Köse, A M Taylor
Preliminary laboratory and field evaluation on the performance of Rubbermite as a graded physical barrier against subterranean termite species in Australia
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10766
This paper describes the performance of Rubbermite as a potential graded particle barrier against two subterranean termite species of Coptotermes in laboratory and field test. The results of these bioassays suggest that Rubbermite is a viable control option against Coptotermes species in Australia, particularly against Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt). Rubbermite and its components do maintain their intended functions for their intended life-expectancy of more than 50 years with intended levels of maintenance in the intended conditions of use as a non-toxic termite graded particle barrier. The Rubbermite graded particle barrier complies with Australian Standards and the Building Code of Australia (BCA) as an Alternative Based Performance System.
B M Ahmed (Shiday), J R J French
In-situ experimental treatment and consolidation of degraded timber elements from a XIX century building
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10767
This paper presents the in situ experimental conservation work performed on three timber structural elements from a XIX century building: two floor beams and one roof beam. The palace was built in 1877 in the centre of Lisbon initially with residential purposes. It has four floors, with timber structural horizontal elements, stairs and roof beams (generally of Pinus sylvestris L.). The exterior walls are made of irregular stone masonry bedded on mortar, rendered and painted.
D F Henriques, J de Brito, L Nunes
Preliminary laboratory bioassay to evaluate engineered Fibre-boards against subterranean termites C. acinaciformis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10768
In Australia, laboratory bioassays with subterranean termites typically contain groups of workers and soldiers in a substrate of moist mound material. This termite substrate may affect termite consumption, and the test materials create a favorable termite condition for the test. The main purpose of this test is to examine the effect of a melamine formaldehyde treatment of wood panels to evaluate the resistance against subterranean termites compared to untreated wood panels in the test. The orphaned termite populations were exposed to treated and untreated wood panels for over eight weeks. All the different treatments of wood panels were placed into 1 lt glass jar containers half filled with moistened mound material and five grams of foraging C. acinaciformis (~ 8% soldiers). The results were very conclusive with significant mass loss of the treated and untreated wood panels. Untreated panels and water treated panels showed high mass losses (40 – 60 %), whereas MF treated panels were barely attacked (5-7 % mass loss).
B M Ahmed (Shiday), H Militz, B Ozarska, I Ali, L Kloeser