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2014 - IRG/WP 14-60374
IRG Secretariat

Reporting minutes of the Plenary Meeting 2014
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60372
IRG Secretariat

Budget for 2014 (forecast May 2014)
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60362
IRG Secretariat

Budget for 2015
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60363
IRG Secretariat

Creosote – Preservative of Choice by American Railroads
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30658
The combination of wood treated with creosote has for well over 100 years been the very foundation on which the American railroads have been established. This paper will describe the use of a renewable resource – wood – and its treatment with creosote, the undeniable performance of the product’s service life, including weather-ability of creosote treated wood railroad crossties.
D A Webb

Agenda 2014 Plenary meeting
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60359
IRG Secretariat

Annual Report 2013
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60357
IRG Secretariat

The 45th Annual Meeting of IRG. Poster abstracts
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60360
IRG Secretariat

Programme. The 45th Annual Meeting of The International Research Group in Wood Protection
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60361
IRG Secretariat

Comprehensive Environmental Glossary
2014 - IRG/WP 14-50306
Glossary of terms relating to the environment
A K Lahiry, T Lahiry

IRG Documents 2014
2014 - IRG/WP 14-60373
IRG Secretariat

Initial investigations into the spalting potential of Peruvian hardwoods
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10813
This study was performed to determine if several moderately-utilized Peruvian hardwoods had potential for spalting applications. We applied a modified decay jar methodology with six native Peruvian woods and three moulds, with a period of incubation of six weeks. Results showed that Nigrospora sphaerica and Marupa (Simarouba amara) resulted on the highest significant internal pigmentation (black), followed by Congona (Brosimum alicastrum) and Zapote (Matisia cordata) tested with Cladosporium herbarum. No spalting occurred on woods with darker sapwood – spalting occurred only on white woods.
S M Vega Gutiérrez, S C Robinson

Moisture dynamics of wood – An approach to implement wetting ability of wood into a resistance classification concept
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20557
Within the research programmes WoodBuild and PerformWOOD, wetting ability tests have been conducted with 25 wood-based materials. A first attempt has been made to establish factors for calculating the material resistance of wood materials to be implemented into a design guideline for timber structures. The approach looks promising, but further studies are needed to establish more reliable relationships between laboratory wetting ability test results and outdoor moisture performance. It is also necessary to come to an agreement on how to determine the wetting ability as well as to get reliable data on the decay resistance for preservative-treated wood, modified wood and wood polymer composites.
C Brischke, C Hesse, L Meyer, S Bardage, J Jermer, T Isaksson

An Overview of Western Red Cedar as a Wood Pole Species
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10815
This paper reviews the characteristics of western red cedar, with particular emphasis on its use in utility poles. Western red cedar naturally grows primarily in British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho and Montana. Compared to other commercial softwoods it has low density, increased corrosivity, weaker mechanical properties, high dimensional stability, and high natural durability. The natural decay and termite resistance of western red cedar’s heartwood is due to the presence of extractives. These include thujaplicins and a series of lignans, the most abundant of which is plicatic acid. The role of these extractives in the durability of wood in service is still not fully understood. The natural durability of western red cedar heartwood increases from the pith to the heartwood/sapwood boundary and from the top of the tree to the base. Although younger trees are being harvested today than in previous years, the wood produced today remains durable. Approximately 155,000 WRC utility poles are produced annually in the United States and Canada. Most of these are pressure-treated with preservatives to maximize service life. However, thermal treatments of the full-length of the pole, or of just the butt, may also be used.
M H Freeman, R Stirling

Performance of recent and old Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) wood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10816
Sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa) hardwood is one of the most durable European wood species. In the present research, various aspects that could potentially influence the durability were elucidated, namely: presence of extractives, ring width, and weathering. Simultaneously, properties of wood, which was in outdoor use for 35 years, were elucidated as well. The results indicate that ring width and weathering (35 years of outdoor use) did not influence the durability. None of the used fungi were able to degrade sweet chestnut heartwood in a modified EN 113 experiment. After extraction with methanol or water, specimens lost between 11% and 15% total mass by leaching of extractives. However, extraction only slightly decreased the durability of leached wood. This indicates that other components (besides water and methanol soluble extractives) could be responsible for durability. Furthermore, analysis of 35 years old wood showed that not all relevant properties of the old Sweet chestnut wood deteriorated in the mentioned time frame. This proves that old sweet chestnut hardwood could be potentially reused for variety applications, if necessary.
M Humar, M Žlahtič, N Thaler

Natural durability of plantation-grown coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) in New Zealand
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10817
There is wide variation in the wood properties of plantation-grown coast redwood in New Zealand. Contributing factors are the seed source, silviculture, growth and age of the trees in the plantation forests. Little is known about how these factors affect the variation of wood properties among and within the trees of New Zealand’s coast redwood forests. Heartwood of plantation-grown coast redwood from three forests in the North Island, New Zealand, was evaluated using butt log and breast height discs and cores, for natural durability using in vitro decay tests. The heartwood content of the trees showed a wide range of durability which was strongly influenced by the age and size of the trees rather than the site. Inner heartwood was more susceptible to fungal degrade than outer heartwood with trees from the older forest stands having a higher proportion of durable heartwood. Faster diameter growth is likely to increase the heartwood content, and longer rotations will increase the quantity of durable heartwood. The variation among trees suggests there is potential for genetic improvement.
D O’Callahan, T Jones, C Low, C Chittenden

Incidence of soft rot attack on preservative treated Douglas-fir poles: a preliminary survey
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10818
Occurrence of soft rot decay in Douglas-fir poles treated with ammoniacal copper zinc arsenate (ACZA) or pentachlorophenol in oil was studied. Soft rot was less prevalent in poles treated with penta, but some soft rot was found in approximately 20 % of poles examined. Soft rot was more common in poles treated with ACZA, and, when present, was found in almost 20% of the cells examined. The potential impacts of this damage are discussed in relation to future inspection procedures for these poles.
P Torres Andrade, J J Morrell

Changes in bacterial gut community of Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) and Reticulitermes tibialis banks after feeding on termiticidal bait material
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10819
In this study, 454-pyrosequencing was used to evaluate the effect of two termiticidal baits, hexaflumuron and diflubenzuron, on the bacterial gut community in two Reticulitermes flavipes colonies and one Reticulitermes tibialis colony. Results showed two bacterial groups to be most abundant in the gut, the Bacteroidetes and Spirochaetes, both of which do not appear to be adversely affected by bait treatment according to analysis conducted to date. Other major bacterial lineages present included Actinobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes, TM7, Verrucomicrobia and unclassified species, which matches closely with other studies examining termite gut bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis examining similarity among treated groups versus controls showed a treatment effect in both R. flavipes colonies, but no effect on R. tibialis samples. Overall community analysis also showed treatment groups were separated by their collection location indicating a distinct bacterial community within a colony. Future analysis will focus on the types of bacteria affected by bait treatment and the role of these changes in overall termite fitness.
R A Arango, F Green III, K F Raffa

Is there a role for termite alates in colony expansion in Wisconsin?
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10820
Termite colonies in Wisconsin tend to be large and widely spread out geographically, and separated by distances up to 1342km. We recently completed a study to determine the genetic diversity and population substructure of thirteen existing colonies of Reticulitermes flavipes using amplified fragment length polymorphism to determine patterns of termite dispersal in Wisconsin. Measures of inbreeding, heterozygosity, genetic variation, polymorphism and geographic distances showed that colonies had mixed characteristics of what was expected for colony expansion through budding versus multiple introductions at physically separate sites by means of alates or human movement of infested materials. Overall, these results did not provide evidence of colonies formed by alate breeding pairs. Instead, we hypothesize that R. flavipes is likely spread by anthropogenic means, including discarded rail ties, in Wisconsin. Nearly all known areas of termite activity in the state lie on or near major rail lines. A new generation of dual-treatment of crossties with water soluble borates overcoated with a second treatment of water insoluble (oil borne) copper napthanate or creosote may begin to limit transfer of insect colonies via Interstate commerce.
F Green III, R A Arango, G R Esenther, T G Shelton

Observation of Boring Process of Larvae of the Bamboo Powder-post Beetle (Dinoderus minutus)
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10821
The bamboo powder-post beetle Dinoderus minutus is a major pest of felled bamboo in Japan. X-ray computer tomography (CT) was applied to non-destructively trace the movement of the larvae of this beetle inside the infested bamboo samples. The bamboo samples were prepared from pieces of the Japanese timber bamboo Phyllostachys bambusoides culms that were enclosed with adult D. minutus beetles for approximately two months. The samples were then scanned using the microfocus X-ray CT system every 2 to 5 days. In the CT images, with the voxel size of 61.9 μm, the figures of the larvae and other stages of the beetles were clearly visible and they were distinguished from bamboo, insect tunnels, and frass. It was also possible to trace the movement of larvae, mostly along the fibers, by comparing CT images of different dates. The CT images then were used to evaluate the amount of bamboo bored by a larva. The larva was traced until pupation and the time courses of tunnel length and volume were obtained by measuring the changes in the length and volume of the tunnel in pixels.
H Watanabe, Y Yanase, Y Fujii

Using hyperspectral imaging to detect and quantify mould and blue stain on coated and uncoated wood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10822
Hyperspectral imaging has been applied on the surface of samples of coated and uncoated Norway spruce (Picea abies) as a new technique to detect and quantify growth of mould and blue stain fungi. Principal Component Analysis of the hyperspectral images resulted in a clear visualization of the fungi and the amount of mould coverage could be estimated. This indicates that NIR hyperspectral imaging can be used as a tool for assessing coverage of surface fungi and event spectral classification for each of the two test species: Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium cladosporioides. Additional studies in an outdoor environment are in progress and are briefly presented in the paper.
L Ross Gobakken, I Burud, A Flø, K Kvaal, T K Thiis

The effects of copper proximity on oxalate production in Fibroporia radiculosa
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10823
Copper remains a key component used in wood preservatives available today. However, the observed tolerance of several critical wood rotting organisms continues to be problematic. Tolerance to copper has been linked to the production and accumulation of oxalate, which precipitates copper into insoluble copper-oxalate crystals, thus inactivating copper ions. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in oxalate production and decay capacity of four wood decay fungi (three copper-tolerant and one copper-sensitive) exposed to various applications of copper. Three Fibroporia radiculosa isolates and one Gloeophyllum trabeum isolate were subjected to one formulation of copper citrate presented to the test fungi by four different treatments in Southern pine wood blocks for an eight week period. Samples were evaluated for oxalate production and weight loss every two weeks. Two of the copper-tolerant isolates evaded the inhibitory effects of all four copper treatments by week eight. The copper-sensitive organism exhibited some limitations to actively decay blocks in two of the four copper treatments. These findings suggest that proximity to copper citrate, available in any form (i.e. impregnation, direct contact, free liquid or close proximity) generally, had no negative effect on fungal growth, oxalate production, and decay capacity of the copper-tolerant organisms. Results also suggested that the copper-sensitive fungus was restricted in its ability to effectively decay wood when copper was pressure treated or directly added to the surface of wood blocks. This study also suggested that close proximity to copper alone (i.e. not pressure treated) did not completely inhibit decay of the copper-tolerant or copper-sensitive test fungi.
K M Jenkins, C A Clausen, F Green III

Emerging function for a glutathione transferase in response to wood extractives toxicity
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10824
The first steps of wood degradation by fungi lead to the release of toxic compounds known as extractives. To better understand how lignolytic fungi cope with these products, a transcriptomic analysis of Phanerochaete chrysosporium genes was performed in presence of oak acetonic extractives. The most up-regulated genes relate to nutrition, nucleic acid modification, gene regulation, signalling and stress responses. Focusing on the induced antioxidant and detoxification systems, a glutathione transferase of the GTT2 class has been selected for functional characterization. This enzyme does not possess any classical glutathione transferase activity but rather a peroxidase activity. The occurrence of the GTT2 gene within the genome is closely linked to the wood decay capabilities of the fungi. This example suggests that the intracellular detoxification system could have evolved concomitantly with the extracellular ligninolytic machinery in relation to the capacity to degrade wood.
A Thuillier, K Chibani, A Deroy, S Dumarçay, P Gérardin, A Kohler, J-P Jacquot, E Gelhaye, M Morel-Rouhier

Molecular characterization and biodiversity of wood-decaying fungi in French Guiana
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10825
Fungi from tropical regions are currently under-represented in the classification system. Indeed, difficult access to tropical forests and irregular occurrence carpophores make it complicated to study fungus species in such environments, unlike in European zones where fungal diversity and taxonomy are better known. The purpose of this work was to enhance classification by integrating new data that would bring out the importance of certain traits of these fungi, and provide a clearer understanding of how the biodiversity of fungi from the forest ecosystems of French Guiana is organized, particularly those causing wood decay through white rot, brown rot or soft rot. In our study, we chose to work in the zone comprising the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2, which are relatively variable, and the 5.8 S small ribosomal subunit, which is not highly variable. The primers ITS 1(5’-TCCGTAGGTGAACCTGCGC-3’) and ITS 4 (5’-TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC-3’), specific to fungi, were chosen for this taxonomic analysis of the studied species. This study was carried out on 101 fungus fruiting bodies at the Paracou forest site in French Guiana. Of those 101 fungi, 72 were identified by BLASTn. Four species were Ascomycetes of the genus Muscodor and Xylaria. The other 68 species, all in the class of the Basidiomycetes, were divided into the following orders: 31 Agaricales, 1 Atheliales, 2 Boletales, 1 Gomphales, 12 Polyporales, 1 Trechisporales and 1 Tremellales. There was also an indeterminate taxon very similar to the lichens. Within the order Polyporales, the main genera were found, such as Antrodiella, Coriolopsis, Fomitopsis, Ganoderma, Lentinus, Pycnoporus, Steccherinum, Trametes, Fomitoporia. All these fungi have the particularity of causing wood decay.
A Zaremski, L Gastonguay, C Zaremski, J Beauchene

Protein extraction from wood decay fungus Postia placenta
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10827
Wood decay fungi (often distinguished as white rot and brown rot) belonging to the basidiomycetes, are common inhabitants of forest litter, where they play an important role in carbon cycling. Brown rot fungi are perhaps the most important organism involved in the degradation of wood products, and of considerable economic importance. Brown rotted wood loses strength very early because of the rapid depolymerisation of cellulose. Identification of specific genes and enzymes involved in conversion of lignocellulose is of growing interest not only in the field of wood preservation but also to bioenergy process development. To determine which proteins are being uniquely expressed during the decay process, proteomic profiles can be used to compare fungi growing on different carbon sources, for example untreated wood and modified wood. With a better understanding of the fungal decay mechanisms, wood protection processes and product properties could be further improved and the underlying mechanisms of inhibition or delay of biological degradation in modified wood could be revealed. The aim of this paper was to develop a straight forward method for protein extraction suitable for the filamentous fungus Postia placenta - with low health hazards. We conclude that so far, the most promising method with regard to simplicity and health issues, is a sodium chloride based extraction procedure followed by a precipitation based concentration with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Another concentration protocol based on filtration is also looking very promising and will be further investigated.
A Pilgård, P Arnold, K Richter

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