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Performance if internal remedial treatments to arrest fungal attack in poles and large timbers
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40834
Internal remedial treatments have been used to arrest internal fungal attack in utility poles and other large timbers. Water diffusible systems and volatile fumigants have both been used for this purpose. While both work, it is important to understand the performance attributes of each system. This paper reviews the literature on both systems and makes recommendations for future research.
J J Morrell


International Directory of Members and Sponsors 2017
2018 - IRG/WP 18-60430
IRG Secretariat


Annual Report 2017
2018 - IRG/WP 18-60431
IRG Secretariat


Agenda 2018 Plenary meeting
2018 - IRG/WP 18-60432
IRG Secretariat


IRG Documents 2018
2018 - IRG/WP 18-60446
IRG Secretariat


The IRG49 Scientific Conference on Wood Protection. Poster abstracts
2018 - IRG/WP 18-60433
IRG Secretariat


Programme. The IRG49 Scientific Conference on Wood Protection
2018 - IRG/WP 18-60434
IRG Secretariat


Building with wood in the Arctic
2018 - IRG/WP 18-50335
During the last five years there has been a significant increase in interest in Canada in the Arctic, with research on the Franklin exploration of the mid19th century searching for the North West Passage, which coupled with the impact of Global warming on the loss of sea ice has rendered the North West Passage now navigable during the summer months. Building with wood in the Arctic has proved extremely effective even with untreated timbers. However, significant improvement in service life of structural components can be made with moderate preservative retentions. Evidence suggests that the Use Category System greatly overestimates the biological hazard faced by building timbers in the Arctic. Since the Arctic is a sensitive environment for the use of chemicals it is suggested that the UCS in Canada be modified for timbers to be used in the Arctic. Global warming has resulted in a lowering of the permafrost increasing the depth of the active layer. Since fundamental building strategies in delta areas of the Arctic have depended on fastening piles into the permafrost, data is needed in order to predict the depths needed for long term building life. Alternative strategies have been developed which seek to either permanently freeze the active layer, or replace the active layer with a thermally inert insulating material, and which can therefore form a base for building construction. The emergence of new building technologies and materials, requires assessment for their use under Arctic conditions. It is recommended that a data base on treated timber performance in the Arctic is developed, to support future treated wood use in the Arctic.
J N R Ruddick


Colour changes in unpainted wooden façades – Fifty Shades of Grey
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10903
In Norway the use of weathered unpainted, wooden façades has increased in popularity the last 20 years, both in single family houses as well as in multi-story and non-residential buildings. The benefit of using unpainted wood as façade material can be several: low maintenance costs, low environmental impact and low carbon footprint as well as contemporary and trendy aesthetic appearance. The variation in colour and pattern seen in an unpainted weathered wooden façade tells the story of the chosen design and construction and the loads of the environmental factors the building is exposed to. Usually unpainted façades do not get an even and homogeneously grey façade, but the weathering rather gives a variety of grey and brown tones in the wood. For building owners, architects, building contractors and others, the gradual colour change and patchiness of the wood can be rather surprising and sometimes unwanted. In some building projects, the character of the colour development did not reflect the consumer expectations, and entire façades were exchanged or given a surface treatment after some years even though an unpainted wooden façade can fulfil its function for more than 60 years if correctly executed. It is therefore important to disseminate the information on how an unpainted wooden façade changes its colour over time and how construction details and design options influence this process. The ‘visual guide’, Colour changes of unpainted wooden façades - examples and experiences, has been published as a report in Norwegian as collaboration between the Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research (NIBIO) and The Oslo School of Architecture and Design (AHO) in the course of the Wood Be Better project. The guide is based on building projects from different climatic regions in Norway and the target group of this publication are architects, house owners, building engineers and contractors and others who are interested in exploring the possibility of using unpainted wood in façades. Our main goal is to show through examples of building projects that colour changes on unpainted wooden façades are not random but follow predictable patterns and logic. We want to illustrate some of the requirements and mechanisms of weathering of wood to give a structured overview over features and constructive details in a façade that is followed by colour changes and describe how these details influences the colour of the wooden façades in existing buildings.
K Zimmer, L R Gobakken, O Flindall, M Nygaard


Imports of African logs, do they harbor wood-decaying alien fungi and bacteria that could become a potential threat at temperate latitudes? – First results
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10904
In this project we investigate the potential threat of alien wood-decaying fungal and bacterial species imported to Germany with logs from African countries. In a first approach we analysed fungal species on imported logs by identification of fruit bodies by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions ITS1 and ITS2. First results revealed the existence of at least one alien fungus on the logs. As only few fruit bodies were found on the logs we also extracted DNA from mycelium and from wood samples from the outer sapwood layer. For these samples no clear sequences could be derived from direct sequencing of the obtained PCR products suggesting the presence of multiple species in the samples. We will now extended our investigations and do currently analyse whole DNA from mixed samples from each log with a next generation sequencing approach to describe the biome of total fungal and bacterial communities and identify species composition.
J Trautner, M Höpken, E Melcher


Impact of temperature and relative humidity on spatio-temporal fungal growth dynamics of Basidiomycetes
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10905
Basidiomycetes can cause considerable damage to wood and other bio-based building materials. Knowing at which environmental conditions these decay fungi generally thrive, and how the environmental conditions affect fungal growth characteristics, is therefore of particular interest. In this paper, we use image analysis to assess the impact of the environmental conditions on the growth dynamics of Coniophora puteana. Fungal growth characteristics were tracked over time for sixteen different environmental conditions, obtained through a combination of four temperatures (15, 20, 25 and 30 °C) and four relative humidity (RH) conditions (65, 70, 75 and 80 % RH). Advanced time series analysis was applied to objectively compare the effect of the environmental conditions on these growth characteristics. In most cases, temperature and RH had a combined effect on fungal growth dynamics, yet an RH of 65% (independent of temperature) and a temperature of 30°C (independent of RH) resulted in a cease of growth after 10 hours. When defining optimal growth conditions for a fungus, it is therefore of primordial importance that the effect of temperature and RH is assessed simultaneously. The mycelial area and the number of tips were characterized by typical sigmoidal growth curves, whereas other characteristics such as the mean edge length remained constant over time. The method applied in this study allows for a quantitative and thus objective comparison of spatio-temporal fungal dynamics. Therefore, it can easily be employed for testing other factors influencing fungal growth, including different growth substrates.
L De Ligne, G Vidal-Diez de Ulzurrun, J Van den Bulcke, J M Baetens, B De Baets, J Van Acker


Interactions between wood polyphenols and detoxification enzymes of the white rot Trametes versicolor
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10906
Wood decay fungi have complex detoxification systems that enable them to cope with secondary metabolites produced by plants. Although the number of genes encoding for glutathione transferases (GSTs) is especially expanded in lignolytic fungi, little is known about their physiological target molecules. In this study, by combining thermal shift assay and affinity crystallography we highlighted interaction between polyphenols and GSTs Omega from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor (TvGSTOs). Two distinct ligand-binding sites were found, an open valley at the dimer interface and a deep closed hydrophobic site that corresponds to a peculiar H-site. This site appears to be optimized for aromatic ligand binding, and retains the flavonoid dihydrowogonin from a partially purified wild-cherry extract. Enzymatic inhibition assay and X-ray crystallography confirmed TvGSTOs affinity for polyphenols. The non-catalytic interaction observed suggests that TvGSTOs could be involved in the transport of polyphenols as reported for plant GSTs which have been associated with the transport of anthocyanins into the vacuole.
M Schwartz, T Perrot, E Aubert, S Dumarçay, F Favier, P Gérardin, M Morel-Rouhier, G Mulliert, F Saiag, C Didierjean, E Gelhaye


For the understanding of biological strategies to sustainable pest management: the case of Nasutitermes corniger
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10907
Termites have long been a serious pest of wooden constructions, timber products and are still causing an important problem in most of tropical regions. The genus Nasutitermes is among the most abundant wood-feeding Termitidae in South of America. The first aim of this review was to gain new insights into the management of N. corniger, considered to be the most economically detrimental pest of this genus in South America and a Nasutitermes model species, while filtering available information concerning its biology through the prism of termite control, as well as critically examine the existing methods. We indeed strongly believe that increasing our knowledge of this species’ biological strategies is the key to progress in the challenging question of their sustainable management.
I Boulogne, N Amusant, R Constantino, M Falkowski, A M S Rodrigues, E Hoël


Elimination of colonies belonging to higher termite group using insecticide bait: A short review
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10908
Controlling termite infestation by using baiting method is gaining popularity around the world. Lower group of termites particularly belonging to the genus Coptotermes have proven to be easy to control by this method due to their nature of feeding. However termites belonging to higher group, such as those under Termitidae were initially thought to be a challenge as they mostly fed on fungal gardens cultivated inside their mounds. This papers reviews a few studies now available which prove baits can be used to control and eliminate colonies of higher termites.
P Dhang


Enhancing Our Understanding of Brown Rot Mechanisms through Catalytic Pretreatment and Cellulase Cocktail
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10909
A catalytic mechanism, described as the “chelator-mediated Fenton” (CMF) mechanism, is proposed to mimic the non-enzymatic action of brown rot fungi. A CMF treatment was used together with an enzymatic cocktail to study how wood was deconstructed and solubilized. This was done in-part to determine if the treatment mimicked the action of brown rot fungi, but also to explore improved treatment processes for bioprocessing of woody biomass. Our data suggest that the CMF mechanism is highly efficient in overcoming the lignin recalcitrance barrier to solubilize wood. Multiple pulses (up to 4 pulses) of CMF treatment were able to solubilize a majority of both the lignin and cellulose of wood at room temperature, using a hydrogen peroxide concentration of only 1%. Using a single pulse of the CMF system as a pretreatment allowed more wood residue to be retained, and enzymatic action on this pretreated wood was enhanced compared to control wood. In separate experiments, significantly greater solubilization of both sugars and lignin occurred when a single-pulse CMF pretreatment was used prior to enzymatic action than by enzymatic action alone on unmodified wood. This work suggests a key reason why the brown rot fungi have abandoned many of their extracellular enzymes to produce only a select suite of cellulases, which the fungus employs after prior modification of the cell wall using a CMF mechanism. This research further suggests that the CMF mechanism may have potential to be adapted for bioprocessing of woody biomass to produce sustainable fuels and bioproducts in the future.
S Tabor, L Orjuela, D Contreras, G Alfredsen, J Jellison, S Renneckar, B Goodell


Response of the symbiotic flagellate protists community of subterranean termites to sublethal amounts of biocides
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10911
Subterranean termites are quite efficient at extracting nutrients from lignocellulose. Their ability relies not only on the digestive tract physiology but also on symbiotic relationships established with flagellate protists and bacteria. This work aimed to screen the response of the flagellate protists community of the subterranean termite Reticulitermes grassei Clément to the ingestion of different biocides. The substances chosen were applied at sublethal doses and included antibiotics (amoxicillin), an antiprotozoal (metronidazole), a termite intestine pH alteration agent and respiration inhibitor (boric acid), an essential oil (cloves) and its main constituent (eugenol), together with the solvent (water) and a positive control of pine wood. Termites were captured in three different zones of the same pine forest, sufficiently distant to be considered as different colonies; three replicate samples from each colony were selected for testing. Immediately after termite capture the initial flagellate protists community was evaluated for all samples (initial controls). Groups of termite workers were then fed on diet disks impregnated with the substances and, after the trials the diversity and abundance of the flagellate protist community was evaluated. Twelve morphotypes were present in the controls. The naturally less abundant morphotypes were positively associated with the termites screened before the trials and the ones fed on water treated diet disks or original wood. Metronidazole showed to affect negatively most morphotypes, however, two morphotypes’ abundance increased; these two morphotypes abundances decreased when termites fed on amoxicillin treated diet disks. For eugenol and boric acid significant negative impact was found for one morphotype with parallel increase in abundance of two others. Overall, the results suggest a possible maintenance of hindgut equilibrium or minimum functioning relying both on: changes on abundances of two or three morphotypes; and presence and abundance of the less common morphotypes. Three morphotypes exhibit differentiated response to changes in hindgut conditions, triggered by the addition of substances to the termite diet. This dynamic nutritional symbiosis equilibrium seems to provide a wide range of defences of the termite to exposure to substances potentially harmful and general dietary changes.
S Duarte, T Nobre, P Borges, L Nunes


Spanish termites standard UNE 56418:2016 “Protocol of action in urban areas affected by subterranean termite attacks”. Example of application of the standard in a real case in the old city of Vigo, Spain
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10912
Termites are wood destroying insects always present in the nature with an important wood decomposition function. In Europe are located in the Mediterranean area. In Spain is an important problem in urban areas. It is estimated about 80% of old historic cities in Spain are affected by subterranean termite attacks and it is the most important damage in wood structures and carpentries, in old buildings even in new constructions. The activity of termites can cause serious damages in structural elements (beams, slabs, roofs, etc.), carpentries (frame doors, doors, frame windows, windows, etc) and other wood elements (altarpieces, furniture, stairs, handrails, etc.) even with risk of collapse in some cases. In the buildings of urban areas (mainly old cities), subterranean termites have the best conditions (temperature and humidity) to attack structures and other wood elements in the buildings. It is necessary to find solutions about the problem of subterranean termites in urban areas in Spain, promoting laws and standards with the collaboration among: authorities, universities, research institutions, technicians and experts in termites. As a result of this situation, a new Spanish standard UNE 56418:2016 "Protocol of action in urban areas affected by the attack of subterranean termites” has been developed and published. In this paper shows a real case of application of this standard in the old city of Vigo, a historic urban area where there are several problems and attacks of subterranean termites in the buildings. As a result of this situation, local authorities have decided to apply the standard and the result after more than two years of application of this standard is very satisfactory.
D Lorenzo, A Lozano, M Touza, J Benito, M T de Troya, J Galván, L Robertson


Evaluation of the Virulence of the Termite Species Occurring in the French Tropical Overseas Territories
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10913
The French tropical overseas territories are strongly affected by termites’ activity, which is especially devastating because the species encountered there are among the most virulent in the world. That is why in these regions it is particularly important that producers and users of wood-based products are provided with materials and preservative products whose durability and efficacy has been thoroughly tested and can be relied on. Specifically, the biocide actives used in wood preservatives and manufactured termite barriers available on the construction market need to demonstrate efficacy against the termite species in question and adequate performance in real-life situations of long-term use. Past studies have demonstrated that differences exist between particular species – especially between European and tropical termites – in terms of their sensitivity to biocidal treatment. These studies highlight the importance of testing preservative products and construction materials against the termite species which occur in the areas for which the products are intended. European and French standards have been initially developed for performing efficacy assessments on the Reticulitermes subterranean termites and so they cannot be used as such for testing against tropical subterranean termites and other groups of termites (drywood and tree termites). In view of this, clearly there is a need to amend the existing protocols and develop new, more suitable ones which will make possible effective testing of the resistance of various wood or non-wood based building materials to the tropical termites species present in the French overseas territories. The Viterdom project has two aims. One is to identify, for each territory concerned, the reference termite species that should be used in testing the relevant efficacy of wood preservatives and termite barriers and the durability of native wood species and wood-based materials. The other is to develop new test protocols that will allow us to determine the performance of both treated and untreated material in use.
M Kutnik, I Paulmier, J Vuillemin


Biocontrol of wood decay insects and nematodes as an alternative to traditional chemical treatments
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10914
The protection of wood has been defined until relatively recently, as the application of a chemical to increase its durability. On the other hand, society is becoming more and more demanding in terms of the use of products which have the minimum ecological impact. This has led many countries to reduce the list of biocidal products that can be used (European Biocides Regulation), therefore it is necessary to seek sustainable alternatives. The use of biological control agents can constitute a good alternative to traditional biocides, due to their economic and ecological advantages.
L Robertson, J F Galván, F Llinares, R Viñambres, M T de Troya


Efficacy of Xotic Wood Preservative to control termites attack on Pinus patula wood
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10915
This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of Xotic Wood Preservative on treated wood. Solignum was the experimental standard. The experiment was laid out in a Randomised Block Design carried out as a graveyard trial with 15 samples, 3 treatments and 5 replicates. The results showed that there was significant difference (P<0.05) in weight of the wood after four months of the graveyard trial. Termite galleries were observed on the untreated wood. From the results of this trial it is apparent that Xotic Wood Preservative may control termite from attacking wood.
H Jenya, G Meke


Liquefied wood polyols: Ecofriendly bio-based preservative for sustainable protection of wood from Termite attack
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10916
The major problems encountered in both indoor and outdoor utilization of wood are biological decay due to termite. The modification of wood with liquefied wood polyols has been found to be effective against termite attack. The liquefaction of wood aims to utilize woody wastes which are being generated during primary and secondary processing of wood in wood based industry. One of promising approaches to utilizing these lignocellulosic wastes is its liquefaction for developing natural products having potential to use as bio based wood preservatives against biological enemies of timber like termite. In this study, woody waste recovered from wood based industry has been liquefied in different liquefying media in defined reaction condition to produce chemically active liquid which is being as wood preservatives for protection of wood from termite. The level of impregnation of preservative in wood was estimated by determining the weight percent gain and the modification was characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. The efficacy of bio-based preservatives on treated wood against termites was evaluated. The accelerated wood sample were impregnated with liquefied wood polyols and tested as per Indian Standard No.4873:1968 in graveyard for 24 months exposure in field conditions against termite. The periodical observation has been collected and after 24 months accelerated termite test shows promising results both in visual observation and percentage weight loss as compare to initial condition and control sample. Investigation shows that percentage weight loss of accelerated treated wood sample which is ranges from 5- 20% of its initial weight. The increased termite resistance of modified wood indicates liquefied wood polyols which bio- based wood preservatives has a promising potential reagent for modification of wood against natural wood decaying agents. The liquefaction of wood opens up new avenues for utilization of woody waste for development of organic preservative which is environmental friendly and also helps in reducing carbon foot print from the Earth to provides better greener and sustainable world for coming generation.
A Kumar, A John, T S Mehra, A K Pandey, S Singh Chauhan


Termite resistance of wood-plastic composites made with acetylated wood flour, coupling agent or zinc borate
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10917
There is little published scientific literature on the laboratory or field testing of wood-plastic composites (WPC) against termite attack. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate termite resistance (both laboratory and field) of 5 different extruded WPC blends of 50% western pine wood flour (WF) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and untreated pine solid wood. The study included two unmodified control WPC blends (one with cut surfaces and one with plastic rich surfaces); one blend with 3% coupling agent (maleated polyethylene, MAPE); one blend with acetylated WF; and one blend with 1% ZB. These 3 modifications/treatments were chosen because (1) coupling agents are known to promote bonding between the plastic and unmodified wood fibers when added to WPCs; (2) acetylating the wood esterifies the hydroxyl groups, making the wood more hydrophobic, dimensionally stable, and biologically durable; and (3) ZB is a known fungicide and insecticide used in some commercial WPC formulations. All WPC blends tested performed well (0.1% - 0.7% weight loss; 66% – 71% termite mortality) in the 10 week dry-wood laboratory termite test compared to the untreated solid wood (9.1% weight loss; 33.8% mortality.) Field exposure ratings are on a scale from 0 (complete failure) to 10 (sound, one to 2 small nibbles should be permitted.) After 30 months field exposure to Macrotermes gilvus Hagen in Bogor, Indonesia the acetylated WPCs performed the best with ratings of all 10s and only 0.8% weight loss, followed by the 1% ZB blend with ratings of all 9s and 3.9% weight loss. The coupling agent blend had ratings of all 8s and 13.6% weight loss, while the unmodified WPC controls had ratings of 7 and from 11.3-22.6% weight loss. The solid wood was completely destroyed with 100% weight loss and 0 rating.
R E Ibach, Y S Hadi, C M Clemons, S Yusuf


Response of Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier wood to beetles tunneling in Southern Nigeria
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10918
Terminalia mantaly (TM), is extremely susceptible to beetles attack, as evidenced by the many scars and/or tunnels on nearly all the trees in the Southern Nigeria. However, information on the responses of wood to insects tunnelling is poorly known for tropical species. To examine the response of TM stem wood to beetles tunnelling in the University of Port Harcourt, we scheduled field observational visitations and measurements daily once. The tunnelling beetles were identified as Apate terebrans. All the trees responded to tunnelling through sequential exudations of resin and gum for mean duration of 47.25±8.25 and 27.42±4.83 days, respectively. Resin significantly contained higher concentrations of compound phenol ˃ tannin ˃ terpenoids ˃ alkaloids ˃ saponin than gum while gum significantly contained elevated contents of element chloride ˃ calcium ˃ Iron ˃ lead ˃ zinc compared to resin, indicating their specificity roles in the healing scenario of TM wood to A. terebrans tunnelling. Healing period was largely positively correlated with tunnel depth (r = 0.990, p<0.000), reflecting the opportunity for greater biochemical responses during the healing process. The results suggest that the resilience of TM against insects attack is highly possible, but the possibility for further degradations by secondary agents is high.
G A Adedeji, U Zakka, A A Aiyeloja, A I Ochuba


Preliminary Investigation into the Natural Decay Resistance of Nigerian Grown Hevea brasiliensis and Mitragyna ciliata wood to Phanerochaete chrysosporium White-Rot Fungus
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10919
Wood is an important and versatile structural building material that finds applications in numerous uses. However, wood is also a biological material vulnerable to degradation by microbial activities; this is especially true in the tropics. Following the scarcity of highly durable species from our natural forests and the introduction of so many lesser used/durable wood species into the booming timber market, the natural durability of timber materials available in the market becomes of critical importance with respect to appropriate material selection, as well as the nature and extent of processing required to avoid deterioration of such wood in service by biodeteriorating agents. In this study, preliminary investigation into the natural decay resistance of Nigerian grown Mitragyna ciliata and Hevea brasiliensis wood to Phanerochaete chrysosporium white-rot fungus was carried out. Surfaces of Mitragyna ciliata and Hevea brasiliensis wood samples from the top, middle and base stem height positions of the two wood species were exposed to P. chrysosporium in an accelerated laboratory decay test according to ASTM D-2017 for sixteen weeks. Preliminary results indicate that both the M. ciliata and H. brasiliensis wood species wood species just after two weeks are susceptible to attack by the P. chrysosporium white-rot fungi, as the test blocks were visibly covered with fungus mycelium. However, the degree of mass loss as a result of the fungal attack and the classification of the wood samples of the two species based on their natural resistance are yet to be ascertained and will be made available in a full paper that will be sent not later than the last week of March, 2018.
J M Owoyemi, U O Emmanuel


Wood chemistry completes natural durability as criteria for shorting best provenances in the improvement of teakwood quality: case of five provenances from Ivorian Séguié’s trial
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10920
In order to determine the best provenance for continuing breeding program in Côte d’Ivoire, five provenances of teak planted in 1970 at Séguié’s trial (Agboville, in the south of Côte d’Ivoire), were compared. Fifteen trees (three trees per provenance) composed the sample. Decay resistance and the chemical content especially, non-structural carbohydrates, total phenolics and quinone compounds were employed as parameters. Decay resistance was assessed against Antrodia sp. using the AFNOR Standard EN 350-1. The content of non-structural carbohydrates was determined using an enzymatic method and that of total phenolics and individual quinone were quantified by HPLC. High inter-provenance variabilities were found. All studied provenances were at least durable and cannot allowed to short the best provenance. However, the use of the wood contents in phenolics, individual quinone, and non-structural carbohydrates, held to the selection of the most promising provenances. Indeed, the Indian Nellicutha provenance 16 was found to possess the best performance (the highest level of total phenolics, individual quinone and lowest content of non-structural carbohydrates) among the five studied provenances. It is followed by the Tanzanian Mtibwa provenance 17. Our results indicate that the chemical content is an important criterion which completes common phenotypical and technological parameters. Consequently, it must be taken into account for teak high genetic resources selection. In Côte d’Ivoire, breeding program could be continued by using high resources such as the Indian Nellicutha provenance 16 and the Tanzanian Mtibwa provenance 17.
F B Niamke, N Amusant, A A Adima, A A Kadio, G Chaix, C Jay-Allemand


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