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Programme Section 4
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40013
IRG Secretariat

Blue stain in service on wood surface coatings. Part 3: The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans compared to other fungi commonly isolated from wood surface coatings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10035
The nutritional capability of Aureobasidium pullulans was previously examined, using agar plate tests, with regard to nutrient sources that are potentially available in fresh and weathered wood (Sharpe and Dickinson, 1992). This study compared these findings with the nutritional capability of four other fungi (Alternaria sp., Cladosporium cladosporoides, Stemphylium sp. and Trichoderma sp.) commonly isolated from wood surfaee coatings. The liquid culture techniques were used to assess the relative abilities of the fungi to utilise a range of simple sugars, wood sugar alcohols, hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin degradation compounds. The observations were used to explain why Aureobasidium pullulans is able to occupy so successfully, often in monoculture, the wood-paint interface niche.
P R Sharpe, D J Dickinson

Abstracts of some papers and posters promised for IRG 24
1993 - IRG/WP 93-60016
IRG Secretariat

Influence of moisture content of rubber wood on the growth of Botryodiplodia theobromae
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10029
Botryodiplodia theobromae is the main fungus causing sapstain on rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis). The entry and establishment of the stain fungus is nighly influenced by the moisture content of the wood. To determine the optimum moisture content of wood required for maximum growth of Botryodiplodia theobromae wood blocks at different moisture contents were inoculated with the test fungus and incubated for a period of two weeks. The study showed if the moisture content of the wood was reduced to less than 24%, the wood can be protected from fungal sapstain.
E J M Florence, R Gnanaharan, J K Sharma

The status of Anobium punctatum and Hylotrupes bajulus in buildings in the United Kingdom
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10039
Anobium punctatum and Hylotrupes bajulus are the two most significant insect pests of structural timber in the UK. This paper describes the results to date from two separate surveys in the UK carried out by the BRE in collaboration with remedial treatment companies, local authorities and building societies to establish the incidence and status of these insects with respect to geographical location, age and type of building. The results update those from previous BRE surveys published in 1965 and 1973. Results for Anobium punctatum show a general trend of increasing infestation with age of property but also suggest a reducing trend in incidence in properties built since the last major survey in 1965. Incidence of Hylotrupes bajulus is concentrated in the areas currently designated in Building Regulations. Houses constructed in the period 1920-1930 show a high level of incidence of Hylotrupes bajulus. Possible reasons for changes in incidence of Anobium punctatum include drier timber conditions due to increased heating levels in buildings and reduced use of highly susceptible panel products. The cause of the apparently high incidence of Hylotrupes bajulus in properties built in the period 1920-1940 is unknown. Possible explanations include increased natural incidence due to a series of particularly favourable annual climatic conditions in that period.
R W Berry, R G Lea, D Higham

Modelling of PCP migration in the environment: Feeding the models with laboratory data
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-08
In 1989, Hydro-Québec began a study program on pentachlorophenol (PCP) to ensure safe use of the product at all stages. One of the aspects of the study is the creation of a predictive system for evaluating the behavior of PCP and oil migration from wood poles to the environment. This system comprises four mathematical models for predicting PCP and oil migration in and on the surface of the pole, in soil and in groundwater, and for predicting runoff. Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying and supplying the input for each model have been designed. A method of analyzing both PCP and oil in water. wood and soil has been developed. The radial and longitudinal distributions of PCP and oil concentrations have been established for several combinations of wood species and treatments. Laboratory setups and preliminary results are presented.
A Besner, P Tétreault, R Gilbert

Programme Section 5
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50015
IRG Secretariat

The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 2
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10001
J Bech-Andersen

Extending the useful life of creosoted electricity distribution poles in service
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-16
Creosoted transmission poles have provided good service over many decades in a whole range of environments. The use of save biocides for secondary treatments has the potential to extend the life of such poles. These techniques, together with a full understanding of the modes of failure, make it possible to establish new strategies to further improve the environmental benefits of treated wooden poles.
D J Dickinson, B Calver

Programme Section 3
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30029
IRG Secretariat

IRG Cannes 93 Introduction
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001 Intro
IRG Secretariat

Effects of various preservative treatments on the mechanical and physical properties of plywood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40007
The technical properties of plywood are related to both the intrinsic characteristics of its composing wood species and the quality and performance of the glue bond which acts as an interface between veneer sheets. Consequently mechanical and physical testing and glue bond strength analysis offer an appropriate means for studying the effect of preservative treatments on the overall quality of plywood. A range of boards was treated with waterborne and oilborne preservatives. Changes in modulus of elasticity, modulus of rupture and tensile strength were noted as well as variations in physical properties. Analysis of the glue bond strength was done by shear strength testing and determination of the amount of wood failure after different ageing procedures.
J Van Acker, M Stevens

Determination of the preventive efficacy against wood destroying basidiomycetes fungi, EN V 839 - CEN/TC 38 WG 9
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20015
The WG 9 of CEN TC/38 has presented to EC a mycological test to assess efficacy of preservatives applied by surface process. This method is now an experimental standard (EN V 839) which has to be approved by the different european delegations. The following paper is not the standard as it has been proposed but is a presentation of the principle of the method. The experimental standard specifies a laboratory method of test which gives a basis of the assessment of the preventive action of a wood preservative when applied as a surface treatment against Basidiomycetes fungi. This method is applicable to formulations of preservatives in a ready to use form (organic formulations, organic water-dispersible formulations, water-soluble materials). Series of susceptible wood species specimens are treated on longitudinal faces whith the preservative in test using brushing as surface procedure. Test specimens are then exposed by an intermediate mesh to feeder blocks infestedby pure culture of Basidiomycetes fungi in sterile conditions and penetration of fungi is assessed on cross section sawn in the samples at the end of the test.
D Dirol

Système informatisé d'aide à la décision pour la gestion de la migration du pentachlorophénol dans l'environnement
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-10
This paper describes a Decision Support System (DSS), concerning pentachlorophenol (PCP) migration in the environment. The principal objectives of the DSS are to assist managers in siting of PCP-treated poles in the Hydro-Québec system and the storage areas and in the treatment of customer complaints. Four mathematical models are incuded in the system: a model simulating migration inside and on the surface of the pole, a model simulating migration in soil, a model simulating runoff and a model simulating migration in groundwater. Factors influencing the migration of PCP in the environment are discussed.
G Lefebvre, J-C Tessier

Assessment of losses of wood preservatives from treated wood by leaching into the environment
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-13
Wood preservative chemicals may be lost from treated timber by leaching into water or soil. The degree to which this might occur and its effect on the environment is difficult to assess quantitatively due to the absence of appropriate test methods. This paper describes work to assess test methodology capable of allowing the rates of loss of wood preservative from treated timber to be quantified. The possibility of adapting simple laboratory equipment to monitor preservative losses from treated wood has been investigated. Losses due to leaching from selected faces of treated wood blocks when immersed in water have been monitored, using disodium octaborate as a model water-soluble preservative. The investigation has demonstrated the importance of distinguishing between transverse, radial and tangential surfaces when considering potential losses and the subsequent likely environmental impact of treated timber in service.
R J Orsler, G E Holland

Iron promotes decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10008
The influence of iron and iron compounds on the decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans was studied. Mass losses of pine wood caused by dry rot fungus were increased when FeSO4 was added into the culture medium or when there were iron nails or stone wool on the culture medium. This supports the hypothesis that iron in stone-based building materials is one reason for the increased decay capacity of Serpula lacrymans.
L Paajanen

Draft economic plan for the IRG for the period 1993-1997
1993 - IRG/WP 93-60004
P-E Dickèr

Budget for 1994
1993 - IRG/WP 93-60012
IRG Secretariat

Eco-tax - A new threat for wood preservation? The Belgian experience
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-32
At the end of January 1993, a bill was put for Belgian Parliament related to the introduction called "Eco-taxes" on a series of products, such as packaging for drinks (especially on PVC-bottles), non-returnable articles (shavers, small cameras), batteries, pesticides for non-agricultural use and paper.
G Van Steertegem, F De Jaeger

A simple leaching procedure for in-plant monitoring of CCA fixation
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30023
A simple leaching test is described to quantitatively estimate the extent of fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preservative treated wood products. It is based on the reaction between diphenylcarbazide and unreacted hexavalent chromium leached from borings taken from treated wood during the fixation process. The test requires about 20 minutes to complete and can be set up in a treating plant quality control laboratory for less than US $1000.00.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung

Above ground performance of CCA-treated fingerjointed lumbe
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40003
Studs made from short lengths by finger jointing are becoming more commonly used in North America. Recently Forintek has received enquiries about the performance of such material in a treated form. Treated and untreated nominal 2x4 inch² spruce-pine-fir (SPF) studs exposed above ground for 12 years in southwestern British Columbia were evaluated for evidence of decay. Despite shallow preservative penetration, which did not meet North American standards, the CCA-treated material showed no signs of decay. In contrast two of the 30 untreated samples had failed and the mean rating was 1.3 on a 0 to 4 scale. These results are encouraging for the use of CCA treated SPF as finger jointed or conventional lumber in above ground exposure.
P I Morris, G E Troughton

Fungal defacement of water-stored softwoods
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10009
Sapstain, mould and basidiomycete defacement of untreated sawn boards of Scots and Corsican pine was recorded during a 14 week field trial. Boards were cut from freshly felled logs and from logs previously maintained under water sprinklers for 6 months and ca. 4 years. The incidence of sapstain defacement or the freshly felled wood was very servere aftcr 2 weeks and remained so throughout the board trial. Fungal defacement of wood previously stored under sprinklers for 6 months was progressive and was severe by 14 weeks. In contrast, the level of defacement of boards from long lerm water-stored logs remained very low after 14 weeks exposure. The marked differences in susceptibility to fungal infestation of boards from freshly felled and water-stored logs are discussed in terms of wood sugar levels and the bacterial populations present in the wood.
M A Powell, R A Eaton

Sequential exposure of borate treated Douglas-fir to multiple Formosan subterranean termite colonies in a 40-week field test
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10006
Douglas-fir boards (ca. 74.5 g) pressure-treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) retentions of 0 (controls), 0.88, 1.23, 1.60, or 2.10% (weight/weight) DOT were sequentially exposed to four active field colonies of Formosan subterranean termites, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), in an above-ground field test. Samples were placed in contact with each colony for 10 weeks, with oven-dry weight losses determined between exposures, for a total termi exposure period of 40 weeks. Feeding activity differed among termite colonies, with the control wood samples having mean weight losses of 1.3-15.1% of their initial weight during each individual 10-week termite exposure. The two lower borate retentions (0.88 and 1.23% DOT) were virtually equal efficacy, with mean wood weight losses during each individual 10-week exposure ranging from 1.2-4.6%. Feeding was negligible at the two higher borate retentions, with mean wood weight losses from termite feeding during each 10-week period ranging from 0.7-1.3% with 1.60% DOT, and 0.3-0.9% with 2.10% DOT. Total cumulative wood weight losses over the 40 week exposure were: 10.2% (0.88% DOT), 8.7% (1.23% DOT), 3.6% (1.60% DOT), and 2.4% (2.10% DOT).
J K Grace, R T Yamamoto

Microscopic characteristics of Pinus radiata wood veneers weathered outdoors for one yea
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10018
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) wood veneers glued to solid wood hacking strips were exposed outdoors at 45° north-facing for one year and then examined by light microscopy (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As expected, the exposed wood surfaces were colonised by a variety of microorganisms; however, wood decay was not observed. Ultlaviolet (UV light) radiation and water were the main factors responsible for changes such as discolouration and the altered microstructure of wood cell walls which led to their disintegration. Cell wall discolouration observed under LM is due to UV light-induced breakdown in lignin, which may eventually disappear completely from some areas of the wood cell wall. The resulting increase in cell wall porosity was observable in the TEM. TEM was also used to identify the cause of failure of an oil-baised stain which was applied to one set of veneers before exposing them outdoors. The observations underscore the potential udefulness of a combined light and electron microscopy approach to study wood weathering.
A P Singh, R A B Sweeney, E A Dunningham, D V Plackett

Abstracts of some papers promised for IRG 24
1993 - IRG/WP 93-60002
IRG Secretariat

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