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Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed.
J Wazny, L J Cookson


Biological control of Serpula lacrymans using Trichoderma spp
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10069
The effectiveness, or otherwise, in killing Serpula lacrymans, of a range of Trichoderma spp. in a variety of media and using two different incubation systems has been tested. In agar based systems with normal nutrients or minimal nutrients with high or low nitrogen contents and high or low iron content Trichoderma harzianum 25 proved to be the most efficient and killing Serpula lacrymans. Other species, such as Trichoderma hamatum 150, were effective in some media but not in others. Initial observation on partially decayed small wood blocks suggested that actively growing Serpula lacrymans could not be killed by Trichoderma spp.. Experiments undertaken on a specially designed system, however, indicated that certain Trichoderma spp. can act as effective antagonists even in wood based systems.
A J Score, J W Palfreyman


Effect of sterilization method on germination of spores of wood decay fungi observed by contact agar block method
1978 - IRG/WP 2117
Previous studies of germination of spores of wood decay fungi on wood have generally concluded that method of wood sterilization has little significant effect on germination response. This study expands the numbers of test fungi as well as number of sterilization methods employed to determine the influence of sterilization method on spore germination response of decay fungi. Germination was assessed on agar discs fused by aqueous diffusion path to 1 cm³ samples of aspen and white spruce sapwood.
E L Schmidt, D W French


New conception for shortering the duration of fungitoxic test on wood preservatives. Part 1: State-of-art
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20044
The review of agar-block and soil-block methods published during 90 years focused of shortening the duration of fungitoxic test of wood preservatives is presented. Special attention was given to miniaturisation of wood specimens.
J Wazny, P Witomski


The use of plastic meshes in soft rot monoculture testing
1990 - IRG/WP 2353
Plastic meshes were introduced between the wood blocks and agar medium in a miniaturised soft rot monoculture test in order to minimise transfer of the preservative from the wood and mineral salts from the agar. Although several different sizes and types of mesh were used and the blocks were wetted up to an appropriate moisture content for soft rot attack the amount of decay was substantially reduced compared with the controls. Addition of mineral salts to the wood blocks in similar quantities to those in the agar aided decay but did not provide suitable conditions for maximum loss in weight.
S M Gray


The proposal for optimalization of the agar-block method for wood preservatives fungitoxic evaluation
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20065
On the base of own research and other scientists results the proposal for optimalization of agar-block method was presented by: - selection of test fungal species and strains and central distribution of their pure cultures, - change of the treatment and control samples exposure procedure, - application of mathematical estimation of toxic value results, - shortening the duration of fungitoxic test by miniaturization of wood samples.
J Wazny


Comparison between agar-block and soil-block methods for wood-destroying Basidiomycetes
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2401
The object of this work is to compare these methods in order to provide some information to help in the choice between them. The comparison was made by a statistical analysis (factorial completely randomized design) and by a discussion about other aspects of each method. An evaluation of some fungi on attacking wood and a comparison between Picnoporus sanguineus isolated from carpophore and decayed wood were made. The results indicated that the loss of mass was greater in soil-block. Besides, the activity of the fungi in this method was more homogeneous than in agar-block. However the soil-block method presents some difficulties not found in the agar-block method. As related to the performance of Picnoporus sanguineus strains, the greater loss of mass occured when it was isolated from carpophore, no matter what method was used. These results give important indications about the biological characteristics and the source of the strains.
M B B Monteiro, S Brazolin, G Catanozi


Toxic value estimation of wood preservatives by using the probit analysis
1990 - IRG/WP 2348
As it was assumed from previous experiments, the probit analysis appears to be the most suitable method of all used to estimate the toxic value of wood preservatives. With the help of the classical agar-block method the probit analysis was tested for its suitability in: 1) fungitoxic value estimation of the WR-3 preservative (quaternary ammonium compound + borate), as compared to different test fungi (Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Lentinus lepideus, Poria placenta, Serpula lacrymans), and 2) in leaching value estimation by the mycological method (Coniophora puteana)
J Wazny, K J Krajewski


New conception for shortering the duration of fungitoxic test of wood preservatives. Part 2: Computer-assisted miniaturisation of wood specimens
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20052
The mass loss of wood used as a criterion in the standarised agar-block method of evaluation of toxic value of preservatives depends upon the relationship between volume of specimens, their outspread planes and ratio of areas of particular anatomic sections. Upon the computer-assisted mathematical basis the dimensions of miniaturized specimens which make 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 part of standarized ones were calculated. With correspondingly shortened times of exposition on the activity of Coniophora puteana the determination of the fungitoxic values of the CCB type preservative was performed.
J Wazny, K J Krajewski


Determination of fungitoxic value of preservatives in laboratory wood-block tests. Part 2: Statistical estimation
1989 - IRG/WP 2327
Laboratory modified agar-block tests were made to determine the fungitoxic value of the wood preservative CCA against the test fungus Serpula lacrymans using statistical methods. With the aid of statistical computer programmes based on the least square method. the regression equation was found for the dependence between sample mass loss and preservative retention both in terms of percentage and following probit, decimal and natural logarithmic transformations. The fungitoxic value was found to be lying in the point of intersection between the lines calculated and that of a 3 per cent mass loss. The application of mathematical statistics seems to have increased the objectivity and repeatability of measurements of fungitoxic value in the case of this wood preservative.
J Wazny, J D Thornton, K J Krajewski


Determination of fungitoxic value of preservatives in laboratory wood-block tests. Part 1: Standard procedures
1989 - IRG/WP 2326
By applying a modified agar-block method, a comparative analysis was made on the toxic value of the wood preservative CCA against the test fungus Serpula lacrymans. The procedure applied to determine the results accounted for different standards: EN (Toxic limit), ASTM (threshold retention), GOST (threshold retention and protection probability), PN (toxic doses) and JIS (value of efficiency). Despite some procedural differences the results obtained were to a large extent similar.
J Wazny, J D Thornton


Animal blood protein as a component of new, non-toxic wood preservatives fixing organic active compounds in wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30312
Application of natural organic compounds and simple physico-chemical treatments in wood conservation has, as its objective, not only its protection against biological agents but, equally importantly, protection of natural environment by gradual abandonment of toxic constituents still applied commonly on a wide scale. The introduction into wood of new, non-toxic impregnation agents manufactured on the basis of animal proteins aims to create an effective protection against biological factors, primarily the reduction of the degree of leaching out of the impregnation agent from wood. Experiments were carried out on the effectiveness of mixtures of carboxyl acids with animal blood protein against Coniophora puteana fungus. The object of the performed investigations was sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) impregnated with mixtures of carboxyl acids and animal blood plasma. Directly after impregnation, wood was subjected to thermal treatment with the aim to denaturate proteins. Mycological investigations were carried out using an accelerated agar-block method according to procedures described in EN 113 and EN 84 standards. The objective of the performed studies was to assess the effectiveness of blood protein as a constituent reducing the process of washing out of preservatives from wood. A low weight loss of samples saturated with the formulation containing propionic and ethyl buthyl acids and animal protein applied in the form of SOLUTEINTM preparation was demonstrated. The degree of leaching of carboxyl acids as active constituents from wood saturated with tested mixtures was estimated applying a mycological test as well as on the basis of chemical analysis of aqueous extracts from the leaching process. The performed experiments showed good protection properties of protein, which reduced effectively the extent of leaching of the active substance from wood.
B Mazela, I Polus


Essais mycologiques sur poteaux traités à la Wolmanit C B
1974 - IRG/WP 339
D Ollier, C Jacquiot


Contribution to the testing of wood based board material
1982 - IRG/WP 2176
R G Lea


Study of the natural durability and impregnability of a metropolitan species of tree
1986 - IRG/WP 2261
The current and predictable evolution of construction timber supply conditions is motivating research for a more efficient utilization of native woods. It is now important to determine statistically reliable impregnability values on a national scale, and to evaluate the natural durability of woods recently introduced in France, or economically important native woods.
M E Mathieu


Sub-group on Basidiomycete tests: Proposals for Sub-group programme of work
1979 - IRG/WP 2127
During the IRG 10 Meetings in Peebles, Scotland in September 1978, it was resolved to establish within Working Group II a sub-group on testing wood preservatives against basidiomycete fungi. The terms of reference and scope of the sub-group's activities were to be determined by consensus among members who registered an interest. Dr A F Bravery (PRL, UK) was asked to act as co-ordinator. During the course of the Peebles Meeting the following members registered their intention to participate: Dr D Aston (UK), Dr C Coggins (UK), Mr G Fahlstrom (USA), Professor D French (USA), Professor C Jacquiot (France), Mr B Jensen (Denmark), Dr A Ofusu-Asiedu (Ghana), Miss J Taylor (UK). Since there was insufficient time to convene an inaugural meeting in Peebles the present paper has been prepared as a basis for discussions and to facilitate initiation of active collaboration. It is hoped that members will offer individual comment in order to define the desirable scope of the sub-group's work and to refine ideas for collaborative or co-ordinated experimental work.
A F Bravery


Determination of toxic limits of wood preservatives towards wood-destroying Basidiomycetes. Investigation on the effect of the use of two impregnated wood blocks and of one impregnated and an untreated block respectively in Kolle jars on the toxic limits of wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 225
O Wälchli


A laboratory evaluation of the susceptibility to biological attack of glued laminated pine timber
1991 - IRG/WP 2387
In the scope of a research programme concerning the use of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) to produce glued laminated timber structures in Portugal, the natural durability of this material was checked by using laboratory test methods. An European standard, EN 113, was used to test durability against basidiomycetes and a test method developed at LNEC for termites was adapted for this purpose. From the results obtained, it seems that the existence of glue layers does not influence the natural durability of the material under basidiomycetes attack. As for termites the method used indicates that they are unable to cross the glue layers though this effect would hardly be of importance for practical uses.
L Nunes, H Cruz


Development of a method for testing wood preservatives with soft rot fungi
1975 - IRG/WP 250
Although the first publications on experimental soft rot attack date back 20 years ago, so far no test method for evaluating the efficacy of wood preservatives against soft rot attack (Ascomycetes and Fungi Imperfecti) has been generally accepted. The reasons are diverse and the shortcomings and the disadvantages of the methods described are well known and have repeatedly been discussed. The soil burial method developed by G. THEDEN (1961) using non-sterilised soils with their natural flora of micro-organisms is said to be poorly reproducible. One possibility to work with clearly defined test fungi and easily reproducible test conditions was developed and described by P. KAUNE in the BAM as the vermiculite burial method. For the further development of this method, in the past years numerous investigations have been made in the BAM to select test fungi and define a test arrangement. Their results will be summarised below.
M Gersonde, W Kerner-Gang


Some experiments with hexabutylditin against fungi
1977 - IRG/WP 388
The investigation was carried out in 1972 and 1973 to collect experimental data about the poisonousness of hexabutylditin (HBDT) against the woodrotting fungi Coniophora puteana (Coniophora cerebella), strain 15, and Chaetomium globosum, strain hexabutylditin was being manufactured by the Organisch Chemisch Instituut (O.C.I.) TNO, at Utrecht.
J W P T Van der Drift


The variability of preservative distribution in test blocks
1973 - IRG/WP 220
The techniques for the assessment of likely effectiveness of preservative systems have long been the subject of much discussion. The whole field has recently been reviewed by Hilditch and Hamblyn (1971) who described in detail many of the laboratory test procedures used, but who also indicated the deficiencies in many of these techniques. It has long been the view of many associated with the wood preservation industry that laboratory tests can only serve as a preliminary method of screening and that final approval by both the company marketing the development and independent authorities, on whom the burden of approval rests, can only be given after detailed testing in the field. The aim of the simple piece of work described in this paper, is to lok at the variability which one might expect in the distribution of preservative in test blocks destined for laboratory fungal evaluation.
F W Brooks, M R Gayles, R W Watson


New conception for shortering the duration of fungitoxic test of wood preservatives. Part 3: Proposal for interlaboratory test on miniaturisation of wood specimens
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20053
In connection with documents IRG/WP 94-20044 and IRG/WP 94-20052 the proposal for interlaboratory test on miniaturization of wood specimens is given.
J Wazny, J J Krajewski


Assessment of the toxicity of some copper-, zinc- and boron-based wood preservatives to the cellar fungus Coniophora cerebella Schröet
1974 - IRG/WP 242
This article reports the use of a method based on the determination of the probability of the protection of timber against destruction by fungi. By converting the probability values to probit values and plotting them as a function of the amount of preservative retained in the timber, curves of the toxic effect are obtained, enabling any timber protection probability to be assessed.
V N Sozonova, D A Belenkov


Fungi used in standard tests on the toxicity value of wood preservatives in various European countries
1975 - IRG/WP 255
The aim of the present paper is to make the comparative analysis of test fungi used in various European countries in order to define the toxicity value of wood preservatives against fungi of the Basidiomycetes class. Only the methods with national standard rank, present on the currently binding standards list are taken for consideration. The analysis of similarities and differences in the choice of test fungi used in these methods should be a further step in the investigation on the unification of the test methods
J Wazny


Some data on the activity of alternative fungicides for wood preservation
1985 - IRG/WP 3333
Data from laboratory tests against basidiomycete fungi are presented for 9 alternative fungicides in organic solvent formulations and also in water for one product. Results are compared with data for reference preservatives, tributyltin oxide, copper and zinc naphthenates and pentachlorophenol. Of special interest is the apparently better than additive effect of mixing tributyltin naphthenate and Xyligen B, and the promising performance of Armoblen 480, a novel organic solvent formulation of n-alkyl coco-derived quaternary ammonium compounds.
A F Bravery, J K Carey


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