Your search resulted in 47 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Influence of water soluble extractives on CCA fixation and leaching performance of red maple and red oak
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30133
We have observed several peculiarities in relation to CCA fixation in red maple and red oak woods such as high variability in fixation rates and leaching performance in maple and precipitate formation in solutions expressed from CCA treated red oak wood blocks at different stages of fixation. We have postulated that the extractives could be the factor of influence, as this has already been reporte...
T Stevanovic-Janezic, P A Cooper, Y T Ung
Effects of pre-harvest girdling on selected properties of red pine, red maple and Eastern larch
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40137
Trees of three species - tamarack (Larix laricina), soft maple (Acer rubrum) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) - were girdled immediately below the crown,one to two years before felling. The wood from these trees was compared with wood taken from un-girdled control trees felled at the same. Sapwood and heartwood, from the controls, and from above and below the girdle of treated trees, were examined fo...
A Taylor, P A Cooper
Efficacies of an insecticide and a fungicide for preventing blue-stain of Japanese red pine logs
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20329
We examined blue-stain fungi on Japanese red pine at 3 forests and 2 saw mills in Iwate Prefecture, Japan. The isolated ophiostomatoid fungi were Leptographium sp and Ophiostoma sp. There were 3 routes of the blue-stain; fungal growth from the spore or hypha stuck on the cross cut surfaces, fungal spread through the inner bark by bark beetles and fungal invasion around whorled knot. The larger ext...
H Taniuchi, T Koiwa, H Masuya, S Doi
Efficacies of physical barriers for preventing blue-stain of Japanese red pine logs
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20359
This paper deals with field trials on physical barriers to prevent blue stain on Japanese red pine logs using a fly screen, bark and leaves of Japanese cedar as covering materials. These barriers arrested blue stain and bark beetle attacks to low levels than control for 1 month except covering with a small amount of bark. Covering with the fly screen and a large amount of bark permissibly suppress...
H Taniuchi, T Koiwa, H Masuya, S Doi
Corrosion of metal fasteners in contact with copper preservative treated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20370
The corrosion rates of metal fasteners in contact with alkaline copper quat (ACQ) treated wood with or without commercially available water repellent was compared to that of cedar. In this experiment, fasteners were sandwiched between two pieces of treated wood and exposed to a humid environment at a slightly elevated temperature. The use of a “sandwich” design allowed periodic examination of ...
BaekYong Choi, J N R Ruddick
Development of a Weatherometer to Accelerate the Surface Checking of Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20388
There is significant interest in developing preservatives that are better at preventing wood from checking. Currently, however, there is no accepted test methodology for accelerating the development of checks in wood samples so information on the effectiveness of treatments at restricting checking can be obtained more quickly. This paper describes the development of a new type of weatherometer (Ac...
R Ratu, P D Evans
Surface Characteristics of Southern pine treated with Eastern red cedar oil
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40393
Treatment of wood with various chemicals play an important role on their surface characteristics including as roughness and hardness for further processing such as finishing and machining. The objective of this study is to evaluate surface roughness of Southern pine (Pinus taeda L.) treated with oil extracted from eastern redcedar (Juniperus viginiana L.). Both tangential and radial surfaces of...
Effect of Preservative Treatment on Fungal Colonization of Teak, Redwood, and Western Red Cedar
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20404
Fungal flora present in preservative treated samples or non-treated samples from sapwood and heartwood of teak, western red cedar, redwood, and southern yellow pine was assessed after 6 to 18 months of exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. The objectives were to compare fungal composition and diversity between treated and non-treated samples, and to examine the use of molecular techniques for assessing fung...
Y Cabrera, C Freitag, J J Morrell
Building with termites: The challenge of biomimetic design for carbon neutral buildings.
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20405
The main aim of this paper is to present humanity and termites as design partners in the creation of a new dimension of ecosystem understanding. “Beyond biomimicry: What termites can tell us about realizing the living building”, Turner and Soar (2008) opens up a new era in how we think of human habitations, not only on earth, but maybe on other planets, and using the termite model as the corne...
J R J French, B M Ahmed (Shiday)
Copper to quat ratio in alkaline copper quat (ACQ) wood preservative - Effects on fixation and leaching of preservative components in red pine
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30496
This study investigates the effect of the relative proportion of copper oxide (CuO) to didecy dimethyl ammonium carbonate (DDACb) in an alkaline copper quat (ACQ) formulation on the rate of copper fixation or stabilization and the resistance of treated wood to leaching of copper and quat (DDACb). Red pine samples were treated with ACQ, having CuO to DDACb ratios of 2:1 (the normal ratio for ACQ-D...
S Pankras, P A Cooper, T Ung, L Awoyemi
A comparison of the corrosion of alkaline copper and micronized copper treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40515
With the replacement of chromate copper arsenate (CCA) by alkaline copper wood preservatives, there have been reports of increasing corrosion of metal fasteners and connectors in contact with treated wood. This may be explained by the presence of more mobile copper in the treated wood. One novel industrial response has been to develop a wood preservative based on an aqueous solution containing sus...
M Kofoed, J N R Ruddick
Effects of intumescent formulation of vinyl acetate-based coating on flame-retardancy of thin painted red lauan (Parashorea spp.) plywood
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40537
Using intumescent coatings on wood-based materials is an effective method for fire safety. The intumescent coatings consist of four major components: (1) binder resin (BR), (2) carbonizing substance (CS), (3) foam producing substance (FPS) and (4) dehydrating agent (DA). Previous studies have demonstrated that the formulation of the four components strongly influences the performance of coatings. ...
Chih-Shen Chuang, Kuang-Chung Tsai, Te-Hsin Yang, Ming-Kuang Wang, Chun-Han Ko
Extractives in Norwegian-Grown and North American-Grown Western Redcedar and Their Relation to Durability
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10762
The extractives responsible for the natural durability of western redcedar (WRC) are not well understood. Recent work by the Norwegian Institute of Wood Technology and the Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute has evaluated the natural durability of Norwegian wood species and reference species, including Norwegian-grown WRC and North American-grown WRC, in a series of decay tests. The availabil...
R Stirling, P O Flæte, G Alfredsen, P I Morris
Mobilized copper(II) concentrations in earlywood and latewood of micronized copper treated red pine
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30596
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) was used in conjunction with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) to quantify total copper and mobilized copper retentions in MCQ and MCA treated red pine. The MCQ treated red pine was found to have higher copper retention than that of the MCA treated one. Earlywood in general had higher total copper content than latewood. The mobilized and complexed cop...
Wei Xue, P Kennepohl, J N R Ruddick
An Overview of Western Red Cedar as a Wood Pole Species
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10815
This paper reviews the characteristics of western red cedar, with particular emphasis on its use in utility poles. Western red cedar naturally grows primarily in British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho and Montana. Compared to other commercial softwoods it has low density, increased corrosivity, weaker mechanical properties, high dimensional stability, and high natural dura...
M H Freeman, R Stirling
Reducing Extractives Stain in Western Red Cedar Sidewall Shingles
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30654
One of the aesthetic challenges that western red cedar shingles face is extractives redistribution stain, particularly in unpainted sidewall applications. Dip and pressure treatments with a mixture of quaternary ammonium compounds and alkyl amine oxides were investigated for their ability to prevent this stain. After nine months of exposure in Vancouver, extractives stain was present on nearly all...
Field Performance of Old-Growth and Second-Growth Western Red Cedar Fence Posts with and without Barrier Wraps
2015 - IRG/WP 15-10838
Many authors have suggested natural durability may be lower in second-growth western redcedar than in old-growth. One potential means of offsetting a decline in durability is use of physical barriers to separate the wood from soil. In the present work we compared the durability of old-growth and second-growth western red cedar posts, with and without barrier wraps, in a field test. After ten year...
P I Morris, J K Ingram, R Stirling
Effect of a wood stabilizer on checking of red oak log sections
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30664
Abstract: Reduced check development and dimensional stability can be important attributes in wood products used for decorative applications. The potential for using a silane-based stabilizer product to reduce checking was assessed on red oak stem and log sections. Pressure treatment produced the largest uptakes, although the levels suggested that the solution had failed to completely penetrate th...
C S Love, J J Morrell
Colorant Treatments to Enhance the Weathering Resistance of Western Red cedar
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40737
Western redcedar is renowned for its decay resistance, but, like most wood products, it requires frequent maintenance in many exterior applications to maintain its appearance. To provide adequate long-term performance in exterior applications, it must be protected against light, water, and disfiguring fungal growth. Colorant treatments, with and without preservatives, were investigated for their a...
R Stirling, V Landry
Monitoring Diversity and Colonization Patterns of Wood-Inhabiting Fungi Using Field Stake Tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20614
Advances in molecular identification of microbial communities enabling rapid microorganism determination have allowed ecological data to be increasingly incorporated into standardized wood performance tests. Combining standard field tests with molecular methods to study wood-associated microflora can help to better understand fungal colonization and decay processes of wood in service. The potentia...
P Torres-Andrade, J Cappellazzi, J J Morrell
On the natural durability of RED MERANTI for window frames as a function of gross density wood
2018 - IRG/WP 18-10927
MERANTI is a wood species belonging to the family Dipterocarpaceae, in the genus SHOREA (Shorea spp.). The genus has approximately 196 species with four subgenera. The subgenus RUBROSHOREA is commonly named RED MERANTI (RM) and is found on the Malayan Island of Sarawak, Indonesia, with approximately 65 varieties (Symington 1943). According to Brazier (1956), the distribution of gross densities wi...
K Hasse, W Unger, T L Woods
Comparative performance of wood/wood-based claddings predicted by four hygrothermal simulation tools
2019 - IRG/WP 19-20646
A number of hygrothermal numerical simulation packages are available, either wholly or partially dedicated to heat, air and moisture transfer simulations of building materials and wall assemblies. The objective of this work was to compare the hygrothermal responses and the moisture performance of western red cedar and composite wood claddings of a wood frame wall as predicted by four hygrothermal ...
M Defo, M Lacasse, A Laouadi