Your search resulted in 30 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Characterisation and evaluation of various chitosan oligomers, and decay resistance
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30562
Chitosan, a polymer of D-glucosamine, is known for its antimicrobial activity. However, the physicochemical properties of chitosan depend upon three principal factors, i.e. source of raw material, molecular weight and degree of deacetylation. Here, we report synthesis and characterization of chitosan oligomers prepared by deaminative depolymerization of chitosan (s) obtained from Sigma Aldrich and...
I Hussain, C Chittenden, T Singh
Current techniques for screening initial formulations against Basidiomycetes and soft rot
1978 - IRG/WP 2103
J D Thornton, H Greaves
Termiticidal chemicals derived from tropical tree resins
1991 - IRG/WP 1477
To test the hypothesis that defensive chemicals protect tropical primary forest trees against biological attack, a bioassay and fractionation program was conducted in Indonesia. Fresh dipterocarp resins were fed in no-choice tests to Neotermes dalbergiae termites on 4.5 cm filter papers, or tested for inhibition of fungal growth. Fractionation of biologically active resins via flash column chromat...
A Messer, K McCormick, D Richardson, Sunjaya, H Hagedorn, J Meinwald
A critical review of the AWPA standard method (M12-72) for laboratory evaluation to determine resistance to subterranean termites
1986 - IRG/WP 1298
The American Wood Preservers' Association standard (M12-72) for evaluation of candidate wood preservatives against subterranean termites is reviewed and suggestions for revision are made. The most serious flaws in the current test procedure involve a failure to recognize inter- and intraspecific variation and a lack of quantification of test results....
J P La Fage, M Jones
Baiting techniques for subterranean termite control
1983 - IRG/WP 1205
The use of artificial baits, with and without toxins, have proved effective in attracting large numbers of non-mound and mound building subterranean termites in both urban and rural areas. An outline is presented of a termite baiting program which emphasises concurrent laboratory and field investigations on termite ecology, behaviour and physiology...
J R J French, J P Robinson
Screening potential termiticides: Some thoughts and suggestions on methodology
1988 - IRG/WP 1363
While laboratory bioassays on the efficacy of potential termiticides against subterranean termites continues both to dominate and influence research efforts, suggestions are presented for the need to develop laboratory bioassays that more closely simulate "natural conditions". Not only is this considered desirable, but it will offer more confidence in laboratory and field evaluations and their ana...
J R J French
A case for adopting a standardised protocol of field and laboratory bioassays to evaluate a potential soil termiticide
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20275
The rationale for adopting a new approach to the field testing of potential soil termiticides is advocated on the grounds that current testing methods are limited to termite bioassays and do not address quantitatively the persistence and bioavailability of soil termiticides to foraging subterranean termites over time and in different soil types. Furthermore, the present testing regimes assume fiel...
J R J French, B M Ahmed
Bioassays for rapid assessment of heavy metal toxicity in seawater
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50112
In evaluating the effect of CCA leachate on the establishment of fouling communities on wood exposed in the sea, three organisms were assessed as biological indicators of heavy metal toxicity. These were two macroalgae, Fucus serratus and Undaria pinnatifida. and the motile protist thraustochytrid, Schizochytrium aggregatum. The choice of these organisms for the tests carried out was based on the ...
C J Brown, R L Fletcher, R A Eaton
Practicability of bioassays in the evaluation of environmental risks in wood protection
1996 - IRG/WP 96-50071
As an example for the proofing of the practicability of bioassays in the evaluation of environmental risks in wood protection the ecotoxicological behaviour of CCF-impregnated timber was examined. After vacuum pressure impregnation specimen from shaped pine poles were tested on ecotoxicological effects of leachable compounds using sensitive aquatic organisms like fish, Daphnia and algae as bioindi...
Determination of fixation properties by bioassays - A proposal for the assessment of safety indexes in wood protection
1990 - IRG/WP 3566
In the determination of environmental effects of chemicals tests with fishes, daphnia and algae have proved to be practicable. With respect to wood protection such bioassays are suitable to control effects of treated timber against aquatic organisms. By using the fish-acute-toxicity-test the development of a laboratory test method is described for the checking of the fixation rate of a copper-chro...
Bioassays of extracts from scaly ash (Ganophyllum falcatum B1) against the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt)
1983 - IRG/WP 1206
Scaly ash, Ganophyllum falcatum B1. wood shavings were extracted by methanol, and fractionated with ethyl acetate, diethyl ether and water, and the anti-termitic properties of these materials bioassayed against the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Laboratory techniques were developed to overcome the problem of limited extractive materials. The results of the various bioas...
J R J French, J P Robinson, J W Creffield
Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 2: Laboratory fungal bioassays
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20204
Extracts from sawmill residues of the naturally durable white cypress, Callitris glaucophylla were tested for fungicidal activity in a series of laboratory bioassays. The effects of different extraction solvents, techniques and sources of material on the biocidal efficacy of the resultant extracts were evaluated. Soil jar decay tests were used initially however, contractual time constraints necess...
M A Powell, L M Stephens, L Francis, M J Kennedy
Further thoughts on standard principles of testing termiticides and/or wood preservatives
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1530
At the last annual meeting in Kyoto, Japan, there was a special session devoted to the standard principles of testing termiticides. There was definitely a perceived need by researchers and industry for some guidelines that spell out basic procedures required for any methodology in testing termiticidal formulations anywhere in the world. In the testing of new potential active ingredients, considera...
J R J French
Biocidal screening method of wood extractives by a direct use of cellulose TLC plate
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20226
Most of the methods to evaluate the biological durability of woods have focused on decay fungi and termite as deteriorating organisms and it is well known that one of the most important factors affecting the biological characteristics of wood is extractives. Bioassays for evaluating the biological activities of wood extractives have been mainly conducted with treated filter papers for termites or ...
R Yusiasih, T Yoshimura, T Umezawa, Y Imamura
Establishing standard principles for laboratory bioassays of termiticides with subterranean termites - progress, problems and prospects
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10013
Laboratory bioassays of termiticides, including wood preservatives, aim to give an indication of the likely concentrations effective in preventing damage to timber products and other materials in the field. In laboratory bioassays field conditions should be simulated as closely as possible. With a wide range of procedures in use around the world it may often be difficult to compare results between...
M Lenz, J W Creffield, Zhong Yun-hong, L R Miller
Laboratory bioassays with termites – The importance of termite biology
2005 - IRG/WP 05-10550
Subterranean termites are frequently used in bioassays to asses the effectiveness of insecticides or the resistance of materials. Termites which appear to be vigorous with high inherent levels of activity are often relied upon, yet at the end of the experiments survival may be very unsatisfactory, even in the favourable environment of controls. Consequently, results from such bioassays may be mean...
Intraspecific variability in feeding capacity of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1983 - IRG/WP 1175
This paper describes laboratory studies to evaluate the comparative feeding capacity within and between five mound colonies of Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Matched specimens of mountain ash, pine and coachwood were exposed to five replicate 10 g groups of termites from each colony source. After an initial 8-week exposure period, all groups were assessed for vitality and continued feeding ...
C D Howick, J W Creffield
Screening of the efficacy of tall oils against wood decaying fungi
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30354
Tall oil is a by-product in pulping of resinous wood by the sulphate process. Tall oil contains a complex mixture of wood extractives. Some of these extractives act as natural protection against wood decaying fungi while other serve as nutrition for the fungi. This report describes a screening of the efficacy of four refined tall oils with different chemical composition on wood decaying fungi. ...
G Alfredsen, P O Flæte, A Temiz, M Eikenes, H Militz
Standard principles of testing termiticides: A discussion paper
1991 - IRG/WP 1502
Recent restrictions and banning of termiticides such as organochlorines in some countries has focussed attention on the need for new and novel compounds as termiticides. However, this poses problems for both wood preservative manufacturers and termitologists. Test procedures have to be devised to evaluate the new termiticides so that the tests are practical, encourage vigorous termite activity, an...
J R J French
The loss of insecticidal action from synthetic pyrethroid-treated wood samples: The effect of high temperatures and relative humidities
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1569
This paper describes the results from bioassays using Hylotrupes bajulus, and chemical analyses, of pyrethroid-treated wood samples following storage for up to 3 years. A range of four storage environments was used consisting of combinations of two temperatures (20°C and 40°C) and two relative humidities (60% and 90%). It is concluded from the chemical analyses that, although losses at room temp...
R W Berry, S J Read
Comparison of various types of bait containers designed to aggregate large numbers of foraging subterranean termites from natural populations in below-ground mound colonies
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10116
At Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee country of north-west Victoria (350 km from Melbourne), there are several indigenous subterranean termite species, none of which build above-ground mound colonies but build their colonies below-ground and/or in trees. This paper describes a baiting experiment in which three types of bait containers were compared in their ability to aggregate large numbers of fora...
J R J French, B M Ahmed
A case for ecosystem-level experimentation - A discussion paper
1986 - IRG/WP 1296
Although laboratory bioassays provide a first step in testing for potential termiticides and assist in formulating recommendations of these chemicals for regulatory agencies and users, they are not designed for predicting effects on natural populations (including humans) and on ecosystem-level features. To overcome this we need microcosm studies, carefully controlled experimental manipulations of ...
J R J French
The density factor in termite bioassays
1985 - IRG/WP 1252
The initial and final floor surface and food block surface actually used by termites in a small container were converted to estimates of "Living Space" and "Feeding Space" densities for 1/32 to 1½ g groups of termites. The termites were provided with blocks of blotter paper as a food supply. Except where 1½ g groups exhausted the food, the survival of termites was uniformly high (averaging >9...
G R Esenther
Method to determine the depth of penetration of the biologically active components of wood preservatives
1978 - IRG/WP 2108
A time-saving method for determining the depth of penetration of the biologically active components of wood preservatives is described. The test specimens were obtained by cutting thin slices from the wood either parallel or perpendicular to the treated surface. The slices were then exposed to fungal attack. A good correlation was found between the test results obtained by the modified German Stan...
Efficacy of Avermectin B1 dust and bait formulations in new simulated and accelerated field tests
1985 - IRG/WP 1257
Avermectin B1 on a silica carrier dust was used in dust and bait formulations whose efficacy against Reticulitermes flavipes was assessed in new simulated and accelerated field tests. A 0.5 mg avermectin/mg dust and a bait with 50 ppm avermectin in paper pulp sandwiched between pieces of corrugated boxboard caused nearly complete mortality in bioassays and suppression of foraging in field tests. T...
G R Esenther