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Ensure Durable Wood-Frame Construction under the Climate and Biological Hazards in Shanghai
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20413
This paper provides technical background for developing durability-related provisions for the Shanghai wood-frame construction code. It summarizes the related climate, decay and termite hazards in this area as well as traditional durability solutions used for wood and wood hybrid constructions in China. The overall durability principles or philosophy used throughout this durability chapter are to ...
Jieying Wang, Chun Ni, Jiahua Zhang


Synthesis of a rosin amide and its resistance to wood decay fungi
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30517
Rosin was reacted with diethyltriamine (DETA) after being modified by acryl acid with the weight ratio of 4.5:1 and a rosin amide (RA) derivative was produced at the conditions as follows: modified rosin and DETA mole ratio of 1:3.5, dimethylbenzene as water carrying agent, reaction temperature of 160-180°C, and reaction time of 8h. The chemical structure of the product as RA was identified by F...
Shuangyue Li, Shujun Li, Jing Wang


Progress in Fire-Retardant Research on Wood and Wood-Based Composites: a China Perspective
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40476
The fire retardant research on wood and wood-based composites, which was carried out in China in the past two decades, was reviewed with 55 references. While many kinds of fire retardants for wood and wood-based composites have been studied, the mainstream is still the compound or the mixture containing phosphorus, nitrogen and boron elements, which can be used in the form of water solution in th...
Wang Qingwen, Wang Fengqiang, Hu Yunchu, Li Jian


The natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 bamboo species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10708
Tests on the natural durability and preservative treatability of 11 common bamboo species were conducted. The results showed that there was a linear relation between bamboo density and its preservative retention by mass, and the preservative retention of bamboo reduced while its density increased. The test also showed that there were significant differences in the natural durability of bamboos, bu...
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


Grading the Performance of 18 Common Bamboo Species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10723
A grading method for assessing the performance of 18 common bamboo species was introduced in this article. The method was based on 4 grade levels with corresponding scores of 4 reference indexes of bamboos including culm diameter, culm-wall thickness, natural durabiliy and preservative treatability. In comparison with the traditional utlilization of bamboo, the grading results showed that this gra...
Chen Lifang, Su Haitao, Zhang Yanjun, Wang Yuxia, He Xuexiang, Ma Hongxia, Xie Guijun


A Review on Conditions for Decay Initiation and Progression
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20444
This paper reviews the key publications available on service life prediction of exterior wood applications, critical conditions for decay initiation and progression, and the impact of decay on wood strength. While it is helpful to use climatic data to predict general trend of decay potential, more precise decay initiation and progression information is required by hygrothermal modeling for its dam...
Jieying Wang, P I Morris


Improved analysis of field test data related to service life prediction of tropical wood species
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20458
Long field trials of wood in ground contact give valuable data on the natural durability of the material. The European Standard EN 350 gives guidance on how to perform these durability classification, but is limited to the use of averages of in-service life of a set of specimens compared to a reference set. Starting from a database of visual assessment of field stake testing, it is possible to obt...
J Van den Bulcke, A Wong, Ling Wang Choon, Yoon Soo Kim, J Van Acker


Effects of Cunninghamia Lanceolata Heartwood Extracts on the Growth of Wood Decay Fungi
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30527
China-fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) wood is well known for its good durability. This species is native to China and has been extensive planted there. Mainly, extractives are responsible for the wood resistance to decay fungi. In this paper, the extractives of China-fir heartwood were studied for their effects on various wood decay fungi. Sequential extraction of heartwood in hexane, ethyl acet...
Shujun Li, Jing Wang, Jian Li


Effects of intumescent formulation of vinyl acetate-based coating on flame-retardancy of thin painted red lauan (Parashorea spp.) plywood
2011 - IRG/WP 10-40537
Using intumescent coatings on wood-based materials is an effective method for fire safety. The intumescent coatings consist of four major components: (1) binder resin (BR), (2) carbonizing substance (CS), (3) foam producing substance (FPS) and (4) dehydrating agent (DA). Previous studies have demonstrated that the formulation of the four components strongly influences the performance of coatings. ...
Chih-Shen Chuang, Kuang-Chung Tsai, Te-Hsin Yang, Ming-Kuang Wang, Chun-Han Ko


Improving our understanding of moisture and other durability-related properties of wood in building envelope performance prediction
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20468
Building science has become an increasingly important field in recent years with rapid changes in construction methods, building materials and consumer expectations. The field has also been brought to prominence by a few large-scale premature building envelope failures in a few regions across the world. Considerable effort has been put into developing hygrothermal models to simulate heat, air, vap...
Jieying Wang, P Morris


Decay initiation in plywood, OSB and solid wood under marginal moisture conditions
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20469
Hygrothermal models are increasingly used as research tools by building scientists and and design tools by designers to simulate heat, air, vapour, and water movements within and through building envelope and even to predict the consequences in terms of mould/decay growth and metal corrosion. This work was designed to generate data on decay initiation under marginal moisture conditions to support...
Jieying Wang, P Morris


Copper Migration from Micronized Copper Preservatives Treated Wood in soil contact:
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50280
Emerging formulations of preservatives made with micronized basic copper carbonates with azoles and/or quat to control copper tolerant fungi have been used to replace formulations containing soluble copper to reduce the leaching of copper and the corrosion of metal in contact with wood. This study proposes to use laboratory soil leaching test AWPA standard (E20-08) to estimate the amount of copper...
Lei Wang, D P Kamdem


Preparation of Copper Rosinate Emulsion and Its Resistance against Wood Decay Fungi
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30619
A leaching-resistant water-borne copper preservative was prepared by means of the following three steps: (1) Gum rosin was saponified with potassium hydroxide. (2) The soap reacted with copper sulfate to form copper rosinate. (3) The copper rosinate was emulsified with a mixture of Tween 20 and Span 80. Poplar (Populus ussuriensis) wood was impregnated with 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, or 2.0% of the copper ...
Mingxin Zhang, Shujun Li, Qian Wang, Bo Li, Qiong Wu


Combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D impregnation on properties of southern yellow pine wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40637
In this study, samples of southern yellow pine sapwood were first thermally modified and then treated by the alkaline copper quat-type D (ACQ-D) wood preservative. Two heating temperature (180℃ and 220℃) and two concentrations of ACQ-D solution (0.9% and 1.35%) were used in the experiments. The combined effects of thermal modification and ACQ-D on leaching performance, mechanical prope...
Wang Wang, Yuan Zhu, Jinzhen Cao


Three-year field test of preservative-treated Canadian species in Korea
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30646
The purpose of this study was to generate field performance data in Korea on Canadian softwood species preservative-treated to Canadian standards. Two field tests of preservative-treated Canadian softwood species, one in ground contact and one above ground, were installed in Jinju, Korea in November 2010. Western hemlock and white spruce were incised and pressure-treated with alkaline copper quate...
Jieying Wang, Jong Bum Ra, P I Morris


Modifying wood with paraffin wax emulsion impregnation and thermal modification: hydrophobization effect and mechanism of the combined treatment
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40726
The aim of this study was to enhance the water repellency of wood by a combined treatment of paraffin wax emulsion (PWE) impregnation and thermal modification. Two different treating procedures were used to modify the southern pine (pinus spp.). One is first PWE impregnation and then thermal modification, another is first thermal modification and then PWE impregnation. The treated samples were imm...
Wang Wang, Jinzhen Cao, Cong Chen


Effect of Particle Size on Wax Distribution in Paraffin Wax Emulsion Impregnated Wood
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40779
Paraffin wax emulsion impregnation has been a common eco-friendly approach for improving water repellency of wood. In this study, southern pine (Pinus spp.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvesteris L.) samples were impregnated with paraffin wax emulsions of different solid contents and particle sizes, and then the time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) was used to elucidate the influence of part...
Wang Wang, Jinzhen Cao, Yiheng Huang


Controlled deposition of copper nanoparticles using wood inherent architecture as natural template
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40783
As one of the most abundant renewable biomass resources, wood can be used as templates for synthesizing functional nanoparticles with controlled shapes and sizes. In this study, copper nanoparticles were synthesized with controlled shapes and sizes using poplar wood as the natural inexpensive and renewable templates. The crystal structure and morphologies of the copper nanoparticles were character...
Youming Dong, Kaili Wang, Yutao Yan, Jianzhang Li, M Hughes, Shifeng Zhang


Thermodynamic properties of furfurylated wood during moisture adsorption process
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40828
Furfurylation of wood seems a promising wood modification method considering the wide raw material source of furfuryl alcohol (FA) and overall performance of FA modified wood. However, the modification mechanism of furfurylation is still not clear and needs further investigation. In this study, poplar (Populus cathayana Rehd.) samples with the size of 1(R) mm × Ф4 mm, were impregnated with ...
J Wang, J Cao, T Yang, E Ma, W Wang


Wood Hydrophobic Modification by Mixed Wax Emulsions
2018 - IRG/WP 18-40839
An environmental-friendly, economical and facile method to construct hydrophobic system for improving wood repellency was applied in this study. Using paraffin wax and carnauba mixed wax O/W emulsions can simultaneously fabricate continuous wax films and rough structures in wood internal and external surface under appropriate heat treatment. In the study, single and mixed wax emulsions of 4% solid...
C Chen, W Wang


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