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Estimating the heat treatment intensity through various properties of thermally modified timber (TMT)
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40459
The suitability of different measures for prediction of the heat treatment intensity was investigated. Therefore, the resistance to impact milling (RIM), the lightness L*, the equilibrium moisture content (EMC), the anti swelling efficiency (ASE) and the total amount of soluble carbohydrates (TSC) of heat treated specimens were correlated with corresponding fungal resistance achieved by heat treat...
C R Welzbacher, C Brischke, A O Rapp

TMT–Interlab–Test to establish suitable quality control techniques - Structure and first results
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40503
As a result of growing quality demands from manufacturers and end-consumers of thermally modified timber (TMT) recent scientific research activities are increasingly focussed on modification mechanisms and by this on the development of suitable quality control methods. To deepen the knowledge in modification mechanisms and to obtain a larger variety of scientific data for TMT depending on the trea...
C R Welzbacher

Weather testing of timber - discoloration
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20221
The brightness and color saturation of the timber were reduced over time. The perception of an increasingly dark color in the timber over time is due to the gradual reduction in brightness. The period from May to September was characterized by the greatest discoloration of all three periods of the year. Because this period has the largest number of sunlight hours, and the timber is subjected to a ...
T Toyoda, M Azuma, Y Hikita

Mobility and bioavailability of wood preservation chemicals in soil - actual field measurements
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-11
Wood material intended for outdoor use is often impregnated with chemicals to withstand attack from fungi and bacteria. Both inorganic and organic substances are used to protect the wood, and they are used in a toxic and bioavailable form. At wood preservation facilities severe soil contamination can be encountered due to spills and deposition of sludge, especially at old sites. Two sites, one whe...
S Andersen, G Rasmussen

Permeability measurements on surface layers for detecting wood with abnormally high permeability
1988 - IRG/WP 2298
Wet storage of timber during the warm period of the year may lead to an increased permeability of the wood, an undesirable phenomenon for several wood industries and also for many end-uses. Neither before nor after drying, such wood with "wet storage damage" can be visually distinguished from wood with a normal permeability. A non-destructive method for inspecting the permeability of surface layer...
J B Boutelje, G Hägglund

Moisture correction for ultrasonic MOE measurements above fibre saturation point in Scots pine sapwood
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20333
There is a high correlation between methods for dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOEdyn) and static modulus of elasticity (MOEstat). MOEdyn methods have been found sensitive to detect early stages of decay and may be seen as an option for non-destructive wood durability testing. As the MOEstat measurements do not change after reaching the fibre saturation point, the uncorrected MOEdyn data from ultr...
E Larnøy, G Alfredsen, H Militz

Theory of Aesthetics – Charm in Furniture and an Aesthetic Evaluation of Bleaching of the Natural Color of Wood through the Application of Experimental Bleaching Process
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30424
This paper consists of mainly three sections: In the first section, brief information is given on the theory of aesthetics as a branch of philosophy, historical progress of the aesthetics theory is summarized within the context of the term “beautiful”, and aesthetic values as well as the color and aesthetic effects of color in preparing the designs are explained. In the second section, relatio...
I Usta

Anatomical, physical and chemical changes of Bamboo (Phyllostachys puberscence ) during weathering processes
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10650
Bamboo (Phyllostachys puberscence) culms with 1, 2, 3 year old were exposed to natural weathering condition in Gwangju, Korea for 12 months. Changes in color, surface topography, strength and chemical properties were investigated using various microscopic and instrumental techniques. After one year’s weathering, the color of bamboo became lighter but strengths of bamboo did not change significan...
Jong Sik Kim, Kwang Ho Lee, Mi Young Cha, Yoon Soo Kim

Surface color and roughness characteristics of medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels treated with fire retardants
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40420
The objective of this study was to determine surface characteristics and color change properties of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) treated by fire retardants (FR) with 10% concentration. Experimental panels were made using by melamine ureaformaldehyde (MUF) adhesive having 10%, 15%, 20% of melamine. The surface properties of the samples were determined using a fine stylus technique. Three roughn...
D Ustaömer, M Usta, S Hiziroglu

The Effects of Solar Radiation on the Fungal Colonization and Color of Weathered Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10676
Solar radiation rapidly depolymerizes lignin at wood surfaces exposed outdoors producing a suite of low molecular weight aromatic compounds within weathered wood. Fungi colonizing weathered wood are able to metabolize these aromatic compounds, and many of them also contain high levels of melanin to protect themselves from the harmful effects of UV radiation. Both of these adaptations suggest that ...
V Hernandez, C Breuil, P D Evans

High Temperature Treated Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40429
High temperature can modify internal structure and physic-chemical properties of wood by a controlled pyrolysis process. Such treatment, among other changes in properties, modifies the wood color in a way that resembles exotic species, increasing its market value. The main objective of this work is to determine the changes in wood properties caused by the effect of temperature and time, in order t...
C C Borges, A L Barbosa, R Faber de Campos, S T Targas

Vacuum drying of European oakwood: Color, chemistry and anti-oxidant potency of wood. Improving appearance in forest value added products
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40432
In hardwoods used for decorative and appearance purposes, wood colour is one of the most important factors of wood quality; in addition colour is related with durability and biological decay of wood. Wood discolouration during drying is mainly affected by heat, light, physiological reactions, combinations of reactions, biochemical and chemical reactions, and micro-organisms attack. In freshly fell...
S Sandoval, W Jomaa, F Marc, J-R Puiggali

Accelerated weathering of nine tropical wood species from Cameroon
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10705
The natural durability of tropical species for building components has been a subject of recent concern and questioning, mainly the resistance to weathering. Weathering resistance of nine tropical species from Cameroon, namely Azobe, Bilinga, Bubinga, Teak, Dousie, Moabi, Musanga, Sipo and Padauk were evaluated using an accelerated weatherometer for 2016 hours. Measurement of moisture fluctuation,...
S Pankras, Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem

Colour change monitoring of photodegradation in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) – a short term focus
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40442
Colour change monitoring of photodegradation is a quick and easy method for monitoring rates of photodegradation in timber. A study was undertaken to compare this technique to other monitoring methods, including microtensile strength changes and weight loss. Colour changes due to accelerated sunlight exposure were monitored using a Datacolor check spectrophotometer and compared with a set of contr...
V Sharratt, C A S Hill, D P R Kint

Measurements of rot fungal activity as a function of moisture content by isothermal calorimetry
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20428
Measurements of heat production rate have been made on wood samples with the brown rot fungus Postia placenta at different moisture contents. The results clearly indicate that the heat production rate (a measure of respiration rate and activity) is moisture dependent. When the moisture content is decreased, less heat is produced, and when the moisture content is increased, more heat is produced. I...
L Wadsö, A Pilgård, G Alfredsen

Diagnosis of failures in wood beams from historical house in Banská Štiavnica – Relations between ultrasonic measurements and bending properties
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20437
Various degrees of rot and other damages in ceiling beams with dimensions of 6500-8800 x 160-200 x 240-310 mm (length x height x width) situated in one historical bourgeois house in the UNESCO town Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia were determined visually and by the PUNDIT-plus ultrasonic device. Subsequently, for seventeen of the most bio-damaged fir (Abies alba Mill.) beams chosen for exchange were ...
L Reinprecht, M Pánek

Improvement of the biological performance and dimensional stability of two tropical woods by thermal modification
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40605
Pink cedar wood and rubberwood were thermally modified at 230°C in air for 4 h or for 8 h, and then subjected to bending, compression and hardness tests to evaluate the effect of the treatment on these mechanical properties. The biological performance of the modified wood was also determined, according to EN113, and the dimensional stability measured by means of the anti-swelling efficiency. The ...
M M González-Peña

The effect on moisture content of water trapped in wood joints
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40613
To predict the service life of a structure, a model where the exposure of a structure is compared to its resistance can be used. Which exposure and resistance parameters that are relevant depend on which materials the structure consist of. This approach, with an exposure and a resistance parameter, is similar to the one used in structural engineering where a load (exposure) is compared to the bear...
M Fredriksson, L Wadsö, P Johansson

The assessment by visual grading, change of color and ergosterol content ratings, the resistance to mould fungi of treated with wood preservative Scots pine sapwood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20514
The filamentous (mould) fungi belonging to Ascomycetes, Deuteromycetes group are an cosmopolitan organisms which attacks wooden elements disfiguring them, dropping their value and causing environmental and health hazard. The fungi in a short time cause mainly disfigurement of wood does not effect on strength properties of wood, but with strong prolongation of duration of conditions favourable for ...
A Fojutowski, A Koziróg, A Kropacz

Moisture performance testing of wood – Practical experiences
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20546
Different methods are used to characterize the moisture performance of wood and to quantify the effect of moisture loads on the resulting service life. These methods can be divided into direct and indirect methods. Furthermore they can be distinguished by characteristics like continuous or periodical measurements and measuring local or global moisture content (MC). Furthermore each measuring metho...
L Meyer, C Brischke, M Kasselmann, C Rösmann

Effectiveness of Copper Indicators in Treated Wood Exposed to Copper Tolerant Fungi
2014 - IRG/WP 14-20554
Wood treated with a copper based wood preservative will typically turn a green color. While the depth of copper penetration can be readily discerned from the green color of the copper it is standard practice in research and commercial treating plants to make use of a color reagent such as Chrome Azurol S, Rubeanic acid or PAN indicator to reveal the penetration more clearly. When copper treat...
L Jin, K Brown, A Zahora, K Archer

The effect of UV irradiation on some technological properties of different polyurethane varnishes coated plywood panels from veneers dried at different temperatures
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40661
In this study, the effect of UV irradiation on some technological properties of three different polyurethane varnishes coated plywood panels produced from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster L.) veneers manuactured and dried at different temperatures was studied. Accordingly, 32°C log peeling temperature and three different veneer drying temperatures (110, 140 and ...
Ö Özgenç, C Demirkir, Ü C Yildiz, G Çolakoğlu

Evaluation of color and gloss in decorative applied to cases of Pinus radiata wood impregnated (D. Don) copper type C azole micronized
2015 - IRG/WP 15-20571
Six treatments (one control and five decoration coatings) were applied to radiata pine wood treated with micronized copper azole (uCA-C), for outdoor use (R3) at a rate of 3.08 kg/m3 retention (T2). One decoration coating was applied before impregnation treatment: Prestain P (T3), and two, were applied in mixture with the uCA-C preservative Black Cylinder (T5) and Red Cylinder (T4). Two varnish we...
R Garay, M Inostroza

Characterization of biofilm formation on wood treated with vegetable oils by color-based image interpretation method
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40697
The protection of wood in order to extend its service life is an important issue nowadays. As an alternative to traditional wood coatings biofilms can be used. It is a living protective coating for the wood surface against UV and bio-degradation that has the ability to recover from local damage, such as cracks. This paper presents preliminary results of biofilm formation from an 8-month’s fie...
K Filippovych, H Huinink, L van der Ven, O C G Adan

Experimental Measurements of Fire Retardants on Plywood at Fire Test
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40709
The use and development of wood composite materials increased in the past few years. However, in Brazil there are some restrictions on these products regarding their use, since it could be considered a potential risk at a fire situation. Thus, becomes evident the need for researches aiming to fit these in safety standards. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of two new fire retardant produc...
G C A Martins, L A Marcolin, J M Vidal, C Calil Jr

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