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Weathering of copper-amine treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40155
Copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated southern pine (SP) were artificially weathered with a QUV Weathering Tester. The weathering regime was composed of a continuous UV-light irradiation for 2 hours followed by a water spray for 18 minutes for a total time of 1200 hours. The changes on the surface of the weathered samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis,...
J Zhang, D P Kamdem

Microwave treatment to Accelerated fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40271
This study evaluated the use of microwave post-treatment to accelerate fixation of copper-ethanolamine (Cu-EA) treated 19 mm southern yellow pine sapwood cubes. Cubes were pressure treated at 3.2 and 6.4 kg/m3 Cu retention target, after which they were microwave post treated during different duration periods. An accelerated AWPA leaching test was conducted during 300 hours to determine the amount...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem

Microdistribution of Copper in Copper-Ethanolamine (Cu-EA) Treated Southern Yellow Pine (Pinus spp.) related to density distribution
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40270
The relationship between copper absorption and density distribution in wood cell walls was investigated in this study. The density distribution on layer level was obtained from two approaches: (1) calculation by using data obtained from literature; (2) microdistribution of carbon and oxygen atoms in the wood cell. The microdistribution of carbon and oxygen in untreated southern yellow pine (Pinus ...
Jinzhen Cao, D P Kamdem, E Pasek

FTIR characterization of copper ethanolamine - wood interaction
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20154
The interaction of copper ethanolamine (Cu-EA) and wood components was studied by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In Cu-EA treated wood, significant reduction was noticed on the band attributed to carbonyl vibration from carboxylic groups at 1735±5 cm-1 and an increase in band intensity was obtained from carbonyl in carboxylate at 1595±5 cm-1. The same observation was made ...
Jun Zhang, D P Kamdem

Copper leaching from copper-ethanolamine treated wood during exposure to terrestrial microorganisms
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30621
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives are still the most important solutions for protection of wood in ground applications in Europe. Wood in ground is exposed to variety of organisms, which can act synergistically. In order to simulate these conditions in laboratory, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) specimens impregnated with copper-ethanolamine preservative of three different concentrations ...
M Humar, N Thaler, B Lesar

Improved PEC preservatives with added biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 3322
Biocidal chemicals have been incorporated into formulations within the broad framework of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) to provide novel potential multi-purpose preservatives. Preparations of PEC plus TCMTB, Boracol 40, copper ethanolamine nonanoate, Quatramine 80, arsenic trioxide, Troysan Polyphase, and CCA have been formulated and assessed for preserving ability in soil-jar and Accelerated ...
H Greaves, C-W Chin, J B Watkins

Evaluation of wood treated with copper-based preservatives for Cu loss during exposure to heat and copper-tolerant Bacillus licheniformis
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20155
Copper-based wood preservatives need to be effective against exposure to all types of microorganisms. Wood treated with six copper-based preservatives was exposed to 121°C and 20 psi pressure for 15 minutes under standard autoclave conditions and the copper-tolerant bacterium, Bacillus licheniformis CC01, for 10 d at 28°C and 150 rpm. Sixteen to 37 percent of the copper was released from the woo...
D M Crawford, C A Clausen

EPR investigations of interactions between ammoniacal Cu(II) octanoate and wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30110
Ammoniacal solutions of copper(II) octanoate [ C u . h l f . 2 . r h l f.(O2CC7H15)4], interactions of these solutions with wood and wood components, and leaching of copper(II) octanoate from impregnated wood samples, have been studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) method. It is still not clear if in the Cu(II) octanoate - water - ammonia system, Cu(II) remains in a (copper(II) octanoat...
F Dagarin, M Petric, F Pohleven, M Sentjurc

The course of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives
1972 - IRG/WP 307
Copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) preservatives in contact with wood result in an instant extensive increase of pH, because of ion-exchange and adsorption reactions with the wood. During precipitation of the active elements the pH continuously increases but reaches a maximum, when all chrome is consumed. Some of the early reaction products are unstable and slowly convert via dissolution into stable comp...
S-E Dahlgren

Determination of ethanolamine in impregnated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20198
Leaching of copper based preservatives from wood is usually prevented by adding chromium compounds to copper containing formulations. It seems that suitable substitutes for chromium fixation agents may be amines. In this paper, we report our results on interactions between copper(II) octanoate and ethanolamine (C2H7NO, 2-aminoethanole) with wood or its components. A part of ethanolamine from a woo...
M Humar, M Petric

Influence of carboxylic acids on LEACHING of copper amine based preservatives
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30365
The importance of chromium free preservatives is increasing. Leaching of copper from wood preserved with such solutions is still higher compared to leaching from wood impregnated with copper chromium ones. In order to decrease leaching, different carboxylic acids (octanoic, 2-etilheksanoic, decanoic) were added to copper/amine/boron aqueous solutions. Experiment of leaching of copper from Norway s...
M Humar, P Kalan, F Pohleven

Environmental fate of copper-based wood preservatives in different soil substrates - Part 1: Screening of the metal adsorption potential
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-21 a
In treatment plants, spillage of wood preservatives onto soil may be of environmental concern. This potential soil contamination served as an objective for a screening study. Three different mineral soils, a mineral substrate and two horticultural substrates are examined for their sorptive potential of copper through mixing with wood preservative solutions. Depending on the soil/substrate charact...
G M F Van Eetvelde, J M Mwangi, F Tack, R Hartmann, M Stevens

Microwave digestion of preserved wood for the determination of Cu, Cr, As, B and P in quality control
1991 - IRG/WP 2364
A microwave digestion method for the determination of copper, chromium, arsenic, boron and phosphorus in preserved woods is described. Samples were digested with nitric acid in pressure-relief type teflon PFA vessels by microwave heating in a commercial laboratory microwave oven. Fast, efficient and complete digestion was achieved within 29 min for 12 samples. The digestion time compared favourabl...
N Bernth, L B Sheard

Studies of the mechanism of chromated-copper preservative. Fixation using electron spin resonance
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3701
Two softwoods and one hardwood species were treated with chromium trioxide, copper sulphate, chromated-copper wood preservative (CCA). The treated wood samples were analyzed during fixation by electron spin resonance (ESR). ESR spectra indicated that more than one Cr(V) species was generated from Cr(VI) soon after CCA treatment. The Cr(V) signal became strong within increased several hours followe...
K Yamamoto, J N R Ruddick

The content and mobility of copper, chromium and arsenic in the soil of a wood preserving plant using CCA
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50122
Analyses were carried out on soil and water samples obtained from a wood preserving plant using CCA-type preservatives. The plant has been in operation since 1969. The soil samples were obtained on 8 points from 4 different depths. The estimation of the type of soil was followed by investigations of copper, chromium and arsenic contents, and the mobility of these elements. The soil samples were al...
N Erdin, S N Kartal, A Dilek Dogu, M O Engür

Determination of bis-(N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxy)-copper in different matrices by photometer, thermal energy analyzer and HPLC
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20179
For the quantitative analysis of bis (N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxy)-copper (Cu-HDO) three analytical methods are used. The employment of the different methods depends on the matrices involved. For several years now, the colorimetric determination of Cu-HDO by photometer has been applied to solutions and concentrates of wood preservatives. In principle, the technique consists of a quantitative conve...
J Wittenzellner, W Hettler, M Maier

A comparison of the leaching resistance of copper 2-ethanolamine and copper ethylenediamine treated Scots pine
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30233
The depletion of copper from copper 2-ethanolamine and copper ethylenediamine treated Scots pine blocks was investigated. A greater leaching resistance was found for copper 2-ethanolamine, which retained ca. 86% and ca. 50% copper after water and buffer leaching, respectively. Leached amine treated blocks also contained significant residual amine. This was consistent with other observations linked...
Xiao Jiang, J N R Ruddick

Addition of boron compounds and octanoic acid for improvement of biocidal properties and copper fixation at copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30408
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives became important active substance (formulation) for wood protection, novelty. As copper itself can not ensure sufficient protection against wood destroying organisms and fixation in wood we combine it with other biocides like ethanolamine, boron and octanoic acid. This investigates were performance on spruce wood impregnated with different combination o...
F Pohleven, M Humar

Influence of ethanolamine on lignin depolymerization and copper leaching from treated Norway spruce and beech wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30423
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives are replacing several classical copper-chromium based solutions, due to foreseen ban of chromium. Fixation of copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives is not as good as fixation of copper-chromium ones. The main object of this manuscript was to prove, that ethanolamine is the prime reason for insufficient fixation of copper-ethanolamine formulations...
M Humar, B Bucar, M Zupancic, D Žlindra, F Pohleven

Toward an assessment of copper bioavailability in treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20445
Many modern wood preservative systems rely on copper (Cu). Some oxalate-producing fungi detoxify Cu by immobilizing it in crystals, and this may decrease its physiological availability (bioavailability). Cu bioavailability may also decrease during wood treatment. Cu retention in wood, however, is typically measured as a weight-to-volume concentration without an estimate of its bioavailability and ...
J S Schilling, J J Inda

Adsorption of ACQ components in wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30522
To investigate the chemical adsorption capacity of copper-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) components on wood, the Na+ cation exchange capacity (CEC) of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined and compared to the adsorption capacity of free Mea and Cu-Mea complexes. The CEC increased with increasing pH. Free Mea adsorption as a function of pH followed the sodium adsorption curve except at pH over 9...
Myung Jae Lee, P Cooper

Influence of wood swelling agents on penetration and copper leaching of copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30556
Copper ethanolamine based preservatives are currently the most important solutions for impregnation of wood in ground contact in Europe. One of the issues related to those and similar water based solutions is insufficient penetration to refractory wood species like Norway spruce. In order to elucidate this issue, commercial copper ethanolamine based solution was supplemented with five different wo...
M Humar, N Thaler, B Lesar

A case study of investigating fungi that affect traditional Japanese shake roof with/without copper plates
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10810
A Japanese traditional shake roof is made from split logs. To keep the roof long, copper (Cu) plates are often inserted between the shakes. It has been thought that Cu elements from copper plates would flow out when a shake roof is exposed to rain and inhibit growth of wood rotting fungi. Actually there are some examples where the Cu plates seem to be effective in preventing fungal damage, but on ...
T Wada, Y Fujiwara, Y Fujii, R Kigawa

Performance of untreated wood and wood impregnated with copper-ethanolamine based preservative solutions in Northern Adriatic Sea
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30623
Sea water applications of wood are among the most challenging ones. Impregnated wood is exposed to leaching and to variety of marine borers, Limnoria sp. and Teredo sp. being the most important. In the present research, durability of pine wood impregnated with copper-amine based preservative solution (Silvanolin) of different concentrations, exposed to the sea water, was investigated according to ...
M Humar, M Petrič, J Adamek, B Lesar

Removal of nano- and micronized-copper from treated wood by chelating agents
2013 - IRG/WP 13-50294
Micronized and nano-copper (Cu)-based and arsenic and chromium-free systems have received much attention for wood protection in recent years. Because they have different fixation, and micro-distribution properties, such copper systems may be more or less subject to release using known remediation methods than soluble forms of Cu. This study evaluated Cu recovery from wood treated with micronized- ...
S N Kartal, E Terzi, B Woodward, C A Clausen, S T Lebow

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