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Wood protection processes in the Asean countries
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40034
This paper presents the wood processing practices in the Asean countries composing Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand except Brunei. The development of wood preservation industry in these countries started as early as 1922 to 1960. As in other industrial countries, treatment pressure with creosote of utility poles, railway sleepers, and marine pilings are the prime commodities that require long term protection. The introduction of water-borne preservatives covered the treatment of sawn timber and other lignocellulosic materials. It covers the historical background and development of the industry in each country, treatment processes both pressure and non-pressure of commodities e.g. power poles, railway sleepers, marine pilings, housing components, furniture, and other lignocellulosic materials requiring protection against biological deterioration. Technical problems are common and varied due to different treatment standard specifications and preservatives specially water-borne types. The pollution aspect of preservating plants and the prohibition and control of some wood preservatives is a growing concern of the environmentalists. Wood preservation in the Asean countries will stay on and geared towards the treatment of industrial tree plantations, rubberwood, palms and bamboos.
F R Siriban

Effect of treating process on efficacy of CCA in a laboratory decay test
1990 - IRG/WP 3628
Test samples of Pinus radiata sapwood measuring 40x40x500 mm³ were treated with a range of concentrations of the copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) formulation "Tanalith C" using Rueping (empty cell), Lowry (empty cell) and Bethell (full cell) treatment processes. Samples were then reduced to 40x40x7 mm³ test blocks and exposed to the decay fungus Coniophora puteana using an agar/block technique. Replicate blocks were analysed for preservative components. Regression analyses of percentage weight losses of test blocks against total Cu+Cr+As retentions (TAE) showed differences in efficacy of the preservative when applied by the three different processes, the order of effectiveness being Bethell > Lowry > Rueping. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain the results: (1) Disproportionation within the wood of preservative salts when applied by empty cell processes, (2) Differences in distribution of preservative elements following treatment by the three processes.
M E Hedley, K Nasheri, J G Van der Waals

Preservative treatment of rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) to increase its service life
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40320
Rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis) possess excellent properties for interior designing, wood working and furniture making. But it is very much susceptible to sap stain and mould fungi which decreases the service life. For profitable uses , it is necessary to increase the service life of rubber wood. To protect the rubber wood from wood degrading agents, the sawn timber were treated with Borax – boric acid solution and Copper-chrome -boron solution by soaking process and Lowry empty cell pressure process following moderate treatment schedule. It was found that rubber wood can be treated satisfactorily by both the processes with acceptable penetration and retention.
K Akhter

TBTO absorption and penetration in pine joinery treated by various processes
1989 - IRG/WP 3523
Matched sections of several White pine (Pinus strobus) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) mouldings were treated with TBTO by Double vacuum, modified empty-cell, 15 second dip and several preheating treatments followed by a 15 s dip treatments. As expected the double vacuum and empty-cell (batch) treatments resulted in much greater retentions and penetrations than the dip treatments. The absorptions by the 15 s dip treatments could be improved significantly by preheating the wood to 60-90C° by microwave, radio-frequency or infra-red techniques. Since this approach is amenable to a continuous treatment process, it is being evaluated for potential commercial application.
P A Cooper, Y T Ung

The multi-phase pressure (MPP) process. One stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process - Concepts proved by repetitive pilot plant treatments
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40079
Twenty-four charges of radiate pine roundwood or sawn timber were treated using the MPP Process and hot CCA solution. Treated timber met the CCA retention and penetration requirements of the NZ Timber Preservation Council for Hazard Classes H3 to H5. The objectives of the trials were: (1) To "stress" CCA solution by repetitive heating, treating and cooling to determine its stability in the process; (2) to determine any effects of pre-drying regimes on the standard of treatment; (3) to determine the extent of fixation influenced by various treatment variables. At the finish of the trials, the working solution was clear with no propensity to sludging. Preservative element ratios remained constant throughout the trials. Wood moisture content at the time of treatment had, not unexpectedly, most effect on degree of fixation achieved. Kickback liquid contamination with residual CCA and organic carbon was greater when wood moisture contents were high.
A J Pendlebury, J A Drysdale, K Nasheri, H Pearson, M E Hedley

Variation in biological performance of CCA caised by preservative application method
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40072
A series of laboratory studies to investigate the influence of treatment application method on CCA performance in Cosican pine has been completed. Biological decay tests, such as serial exposures, were used to induce decay in wood at preservative retentions of up to 10 kg/m³ CCA salts. Significant differences in performance of the preservative against either brown, white or soft rot decay fungi were found depending upon the preservative application method used. The full-cell process gave the greatest level of CCA performance against Coniophora puteana whereas the Lowry empty-cell process gave the best performance against Coriolus versicolor and soft rot fungi. Pre-treatment steaming caused a general reduction in preservative efficacy. Analysis of the treated wood using FT-IR spectroscopy and electron microscopy with EDS for preservative micro-distribution indicated modification of the wood cell wall by steaming and differential distribution of copper depending on preservative application method. A hypothesis is proposed to account for the observed differences in preservative performance with treatment method.
P R Newman, R J Murphy

Preliminary pole treatment trials with chlorothalonil in hydrocarbon solvent
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40027
A series of 460-mm long, end-sealed southern pine pole stubs were treated with chlorothalonil in hydrocarbon solvent. Over sixty sections were treated using various combinations of initial seasoning (kiln-drying, steam-conditioning), treating temperature (ambient, 200°F), initial air pressure, and final conditioning (steam flash + vacuum, expansion bath + vacuum, steam distillation + vacuum). Disks removed from the treated sections were analyzed for preservative gradient. Results are discussed in terms of treatability and the impact of treating variables on preservative retention, penetration, and gradient shape.
H M Barnes

Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process: One-stage CCA treatment and accelerated fixation process. 3. Effect of process variables on sapwood treatment and CCA fixation.
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40114
The Multiple-Phase Pressure (MPP) Process achieves treatment and fixation as combined process using hot CCA, within a 2-3 hour time-frame. Timber is treated to saturation with hot CCA using an empty cell process. During the pneumatic pressure phase, hot solution is held in the wood in an otherwise liquid-free treatment vessel until fixation is >95% complete. This report details a factorial design series of treatments undertaken to determine the effect of key process variables, particularly CCA solution temperature and time held at pneumatic pressure, on the degree of fixation achieved during treatment and the resultant Cu, Cr, As and Total Carbon concentration in kickback solutions. Increasing the CCA solution temperature resulted in greater fixation. At a solution temperature of 75°C, extending the time at pneumatic pressure beyond 60 minutes did not result in any significant increase in preservative fixation.
H Pearson, K Nasheri, J A Drysdale, G Durbin, M E Hedley

Effects of nano-wollastonite impregnation on fire resistance and dimensional stability of Poplar wood
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40595
The fire-retardant properties of Nano-Wollastonite (NW) in poplar wood (Populus nigra) were determined in this study. Some physical properties such as water absorption, volumetric swelling and Anti-Swelling Efficiency (ASE) were also measured. Specimens were prepared according to the ISO 11925 standard for the fire-retarding properties, and ASTM D4446-2002 standard for the physical properties. Impregnation of wood specimens with nano-wollastonite was carried out using the Ruping Method (empty-cell process) with a concentration of 10%. Three fire-retarding properties were measured; weight loss, ignition point and fire endurance. The results showed that fire-retarding properties increased in the NW-treated specimens. In addition, the NW-impregnated specimens gained higher dimensional stability. However, the water absorption also increased.
A Karimi, A Haghighi Poshtir, H Reza Taghiyari, Y Hamzeh, A Akbar Enayati

Comparison of cubic and plug samples for preparation and data assembly in permeability study
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20197
In order to determine if plug experimental samples (PES: 30 x 15 mm2 diameter) could be used for inspection of wood permeability characteristics, radial and longitudinal flow directions were prepared according to either PES or cubic experimental samples (CES: 100 x 20 x 20 mm3) from the sapwood zone of Sitka spruce and treated by tanalith-C according to full-cell process. Results from the two preparation techniques agreed in the test to determine the mean percentage of void volume filled by liquid both radially and longitudinally, while the preparation process (i.e. machining, sealing, etc.) of the experimental samples and the period of the data collection was quite longer in CES than that for PES in either flow direction.
I Usta

Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observed followed after 40 days exposure by extensive separation of individual fibres at the interface of the middle lamella and secondary wall. Degradation of the S2 layer of the cell wall revealed corrugations orientated parallel to the fibre axis suggesting preferential removal of cell wall components. Further degradation proceeded by progressive delamination and checking of the S2 and erosion of the S3 cell wall layer. In addition to the above changes preferential degradation of the rays was observed in radial (R.L.S.) and tangential (T.L.S.) longitudinal surfaces.
P D Evans, S Thein

Resistance of Alstonia scholaris vestures to degradation by tunnelling bacteria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1547
Electron microscopic examination of vessels and fibre-tracheids in the wood of Alstonia scholaris exposed to tunnelling bacteria (TB) in a liquid culture showed degradation of all areas of the secondary wall. The highly lignified middle lamella was also degraded in advanced stages of TB attack. However, vestured pit membranes and vestures appeared to be resistant to degradation by TB even when other wall areas in Alstonia scholaris wood cells were severely degraded. The size comparison indicated vestures to be considerably smaller than TB, and we suspect that this may primarily be the reason why vestures in Alstonia scholaris wood were found to be resistant to degradation by TB.
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel

The effect of treatment method on CCA efficacy in Corsican pine
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3723
As part of a study into the influence of application method on preservative efficacy Corsican pine (Pinus nigra) samples (50 x 50 x 400 mm³) were treated with a CCA formulation using Bethel, Steam/Bethel or Lowry processes. Full penetration of the preservative at a gross level was confirmed using a copper disclosing reagent. The preservative was allowed to fix and then samples were converted into mini-blocks (30 x 10 x 5 mm³) to produce decay test samples from various locations within the larger samples. After leaching, sets of replicate mini-blocks were exposed to the decay fungi Coniophora puteana FPRL 11E, Coriolus versicolor FPRL 28A, and Chaetomium globosum FPRL S70K. Equivalent sets of leached blocks, were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry to determine preservative concentration and balance. The results of this study have been used to assess the effect of preservative application method on CCA efficacy. They also indicate how treatment method affects the distribution of the active elements of the preservative throughout the treated wood.
P R Newman, R J Murphy

Light organic solvent preservative treatment schedules for New Zealand-grown radiata pine
1986 - IRG/WP 3379
The influence of pressure differential and treatment time on preservative uptake and distribution in radiata pine heartwood and sapwood is investigated. Treatment schedules are defined which minimise solvent usage but ensure complete sapwood penetration and optimise heartwood penetration.
P Vinden

An effective preservative treatment of borak bamboo (Bambusa balcoona Roxb.)
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40070
Adequate penetration and retention of CCA and CCB has been obtained in predried Borak Bamboo (Bambusa balcooa Roxb.), aboundantly grown in Bangladesh, with Full Cell Pressure Process. The treated bamboo can be used as building materials, the sufficient treatability ensured its long term best utilization at ground contact and indoors. Which will keep the environmental & socio economical conditions of Bangladesh more viable and normal.
A K Lahiry, S Begum, G N M Ilias, M A Matin Sheikh, M A B Fakir, M I Hossain

Ultrastructural observations on wood-degrading erosion bacteria
1986 - IRG/WP 1283
G F Daniel, T Nilsson

A behaviour of CCA penetration of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40346
A behaviour of CCA penetration of Bornmulleriana fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp times and constant vacuum/pressure applications was illustrated for the main flow directions by the experimental pictures.
I Usta, R Despot, M Hasan

Analysing the characteristic role of moisture content for drying and fluid flow in Sitka spruce. - Part 1: The drying process of sapwood and heartwood of two different thickness of Sitka spruce using a kiln. - Part 2: Effects of moisture content on longitudinal permeability of Sitka spruce in vertical variation of the tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40173
The characteristic role of the moisture content in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) that grown in the United Kingdom was examined by this study on the basis of (1) the reduction of moisture content in two different thickness of sapwood and heartwood by kiln drying process, and (2) the effects of moisture content to the longitudinal void volume filled of tanalith-C by the full-cell process from base (1 m) to apex (3 m) of the tree in sapwood zone. Accordingly, conclusions on indication of the drying process of sapwood and heartwood, and vertical variation of longitudinal flow with effects of moisture were listed separately: (1) Comparison of Drying Characteristic of Sapwood and Heartwood: The two different thickness (300x30x30 mm3 and 300x20x20 mm3) of sapwood and heartwood of Sitka spruce was dried using the suggested drying schedule in kiln. The reduction of moisture was schematically diagrammed according to sapwood and heartwood stakes. The reduction of moisture followed the same downward trend that sapwood (S) loses more moisture than heartwood (H) although the small stakes of S and H lost moisture rapidly compared with the large ones. (2) Vertical Variation of Moisture Content and Longitudinal Permeability: The 90 kiln dried defect free sapwood stakes (150x25x25 mm3) of Sitka spruce was taken from base to apex of the trees at 1, 2 and 3 m above ground level. After having the determination of moisture content in each experimental stake, the treatment was carried out by the full-cell process with CCA preservative (Tanalith-C) using a model pressure treatment plant. Significant differences observed among the tree heights from 1 to 3 m showing that slightly increases of moisture content from base to apex and conversely decreases of longitudinal void volume filled by preservative fluid.
I Usta

Water-based water repellents for treatment of wood
1987 - IRG/WP 3446
The water uptake by wood can be reduced by treatment with a water repellent. The water repellents most commonly used are solvent based. In the present work a new type of water repellent that is water-based has been investigated. Two different treatments have shown an effect of the same order as a commercial solvent based product. The cellular distribution of the water repellents has been investigated and for one of the formulations a more uniform distribution can be seen at the impregnated surface. Use of water as a solvent would be advantageous due to lower cost and non-toxicity.
I G Svensson, G Hägglund, I Johansson, W B Banks

The effects of density on vertical variation of permeability of Sitka spruce within tree
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40156
Tree improvement of Sitka spruce is a combination of silviculture and tree breeding aimed at producing higher quality products including increased growth rate and timber yield, and wood density. It is useful to know annual ring structure and density distribution when studying the quality of wood, grading it, or determining how the wood structure affects residual flow in softwoods. Since density is a factor under genetic control, the study in this article details the effects of density on longitudinal and radial permeability of Sitka spruce from base to apex. Comparison of overall means of both longitudinal and radial void volume filled (%) suggest that longitudinal permeabilities were almost the mirror image of those for the radial permeability along the tree trunk.
I Usta.

Degradation of the normal fibre walls of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) by the tropical blue-stain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10286
Rubberwood was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after exposure to the common tropical sapstain fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae for four weeks to study hyphal colonisation of wood cells and to determine if this fungus also degraded lignified normal fibre cell walls in addition to the walls of non-lignified elements. Light microscopy revealed relatively large diameter hyphae to be abundantly present in parenchyma cells. The hyphae were also present in other types of wood cells, including fibres. TEM provided evidence of fibre wall degradation in the normal rubberwood in the form of lumen wall erosion (type-2 soft rot decay). These observations suggest that the ability of B. theobromae to degrade lignified wood cells walls should be viewed with concern when utilising rubberwood which has been severely sapstained, particularly after prolonged exposure to this fungus.
A A H Wong, A P Singh

Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of the wall. The observations on the breakdown of the waterlogged archaeological wood are discussed in context with the available information on bacterial degradation of wood under near-anaerobic conditions.
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh

Resin bleed after light organic solvent preservative treatment - the effect of drying method and process type
1986 - IRG/WP 3378
The effects of drying method and treatment process type on resin bleed were investigated. High-temperature drying of resinous radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) heartwood resulted in improved wood permeability, higher preservative uptake, and greater resin bleed when treated by the Rueping process. Resin bleed was reduced substantially when timber was treated by the Lowry process, and totally eliminated when Bethell-treated. The incorporation of 2% wax into the preservative formulation may control resin bleed after Rueping treatment.
P Vinden

The Relationship of Fiber Cell Wall Ultrastructure to Soft Rot Decay in Kempas (Koompassia malaccensis) Heartwoo
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10541
The ultrastructure of fiber walls in kempas (koompassia malaccensis) heartwood was examined in relation to soft rot cavity formation. The fibers consisted of middle lamella and thick secondary wall. The secondary wall was differentiated in to a S1 layer, and a unique multi-lamellar S2 layer. Two distinct forms of lamellae were recognisable, one type being considerably thicker than the other. They also differed in their electron density, the thin lamellae being much denser than the thick lamellae. It was not possible to determine whether a S3 layer also existed, because of the presence of a dense material coating the lumen wall, which obscured the definition of this region of the fiber wall. The resistance to soft rot varied with different regions of the fiber wall, middle lamella being completely resistant and the thick S2 lamellae least resistant. The observed relationship between the ultrastructure of these fiber wall regions and the degree of their resistance/susceptibility to soft rot cavity formation is discussed.
A P Singh, A H H Wong, Yoon Soo Kim, Seung-Gon Wi

Leaching of copper, chromium and arsenic from CCA-treated slash pine heartwood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50020
Drying green slash pine with any of three high temperature drying schedules produced a product in which both the sapwood and the heartwood could be penetrated with CCA using a modified Bethell treatment schedule. Required H3 retentions were achieved in both sapwood and heartwood, from 200 litres per m³ charge uptake. Post-treatment fixation/drying was accomplished by three different regimes, including an accelerated fixation. Although acceptable preservative penetration and retention was achieved in the heartwood, arsenic fixation (as determined by both AWPA procedure E11-87 and U.S. EPA TCLP procedure) was inferior to that attained in the sapwood. TCLP leachates from 1 cm³ heartwood blocks contained up to 4.5 mg/l arsenic, very close to the maximum value (5.0 mg/l) currently permitted in Australia for arsenic waste disposal. Though there are clear advantages in achieving heartwood penetration, caution must be exercised to ensure that this step does not compromise the accepability of the product. No process modification could be accepted if it introduced possibilities of exceeding safe disposal limits for sawdust and offcuts, or building site contamination.
M J Kennedy, G Palmer

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