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Bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in rainbow trout and zebra fish muscles
1986 - IRG/WP 3372
The bioaccumulation of pentachlorophenol in Rainbow Trout and Zebra fish has been evaluated by partition coefficient n-octanol/water determination at ph 7 and measured in vivo according to the OECD guidelines and the European directive 79/831/EEC. The obtained results confirm the low bioaccumulation potential of this product in aquatic organims.
J C Palla, M Dion


European Biocides Directive (98/8/EC): Programme for systematic examination of all active substances of biocidal products on the market on May 13, 2000 Article 16(2)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-03
PPT-Presentation
K Rasmussen, A B Payá Pérez


The biocides directive
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-25
G Wilson


International standards and the biocide debate - Potential contribution
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20196
Downstream the European 98/8/EEC directive on biocides, a working party of O.E.C.D. has been developing a tremendous work to put together the background information necessary to assess wood preservative efficacy, environmental and human exposure. Standardization may contribute to those efforts, using traditional experience and methodology. Among them, the hazard classification system may be extended to human beings and their environment, in all situations of uses. While primary exposure to biocides seems to be a matter related to classes of processes, the situation differs with secondary exposure to treated wood, related to use categories: in principle, the doses are already restricted to targets in a given class. Additionally, those uses have been , until now, practically limited to construction products. The first need is to extend the hazard class system to all kinds of biocidal wood preservation and their related uses. A methodology is proposed to get access to biocide concentrations and flows in priority compartments, assessment of intake by non-targets and their ratio to no-effect values in order to quantify safety factors. This route could allow to select further priorities for risk reduction at the pre-marketing stage.
G Ozanne


The role of chromium in wood preservatives under BPD - a review and the current situation in Europe
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30468
Already during the IRG-meeting in Trømso a paper was presented to give an overview regarding the situation on chromium (JÜNGEL et al. 2006). Already in that year there was an increased attempt to achieve a science-based correct and harmonised solution in Europe regarding the chromium-question by the European Commission. Nevertheless the competent authorities (CAs) and the industry were similarly occupied with the principle question: “Is chromium an active?” and this led to a heterogeneous situation in the meantime. However a harmonisation should be of equal importance for authorities, wood preservative manufacturer, users of the salts and users of impregnated wood. It is time to give a new review regarding the background of this discussion, whereas scientific explanations clarify the complexity of the instinctively simple problem. The current situation in Europe shall be described as well.
P Jüngel, S Hellkamp


Proposed method for out-of-ground contact trials of exterior joinery protection systems
1981 - IRG/WP 2157
Methods for testing the efficacy of preservative treatments for exterior joinery are described using the format of a European Standard. Commercially used treatments applied to jointed test units (L-joints) which are then protected by conventional finishes are exposed to normal outdoor hazards out of ground contact. Assessment is made a) by determining eventual failure through decay and b) by destructive examination of replicate treated and untreated units, after increasing time intervals, rating comparative performance in terms of wood permeability increase and the progress of microbial colonisation.
J K Carey, D F Purslow, J G Savory


How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market and fulfil the formal requirements. In the European Union countries, the EN 599-1 is the standard that needs to be complied when approving a new product for the market, but it only focuses on the toxic limit against representative decay fungi according to EN 113. However, decay test, above ground and other forms of field tests are optional, this is not in line with the traditional test philosophy in the Scandinavian countries. The open question is to which extent treatment to the level of the toxic threshold value also ensures a long service life and expected performance of the treated commodity. Superwood™ is evaluated using a strategy, in which basic laboratory tests are done to get the toxic value (according to EN 599-1) and in addition a number of field tests are done including accelerated testing in the tropics. These tests are focussed on the evaluation of the performance criteria such as durability and service life and maintenance requirements. These questions must be answered by the producer without having a full record of performance test for their new products. A short status on the test performed on super-critical treated wood (Superwood™) is presented. Based on a comparison between field test in Scandinavia and in the tropical Malaysia a service life of more than 25 years for a specific supercritical treated product is estimated. It is stated that the existing European standardisation system is insufficient when it comes to service life prediction. A number of important questions need to be addressed by the European standardisation system as soon as possible because the market and the public opinion change quickly due to environmental concern.
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


Wood preservation in Lithuania
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30363
This article is intended to give basic information on wood preservation activities in Lithuania and the main actors in wood preservations practice and research. Currently the main actors in practical Lithuanian wood preservation activity are enterprises of wood preservation industry united by the Lithuanian Wood Preservation Association. The most intensive activity in wood preservation practice and research started after 2001. The only active institution in wood preservation research currently is Lithuanian Forest Research Institute with 2 running projects. Lithuanian University of Agriculture and Kaunas University of Technology are active in standardization and have potential to start research. Main obstacles for future development of wood preservation research are: insufficient interest of industry in research and lack of skilled scientists.
J Saladis


Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
G Castan


Thermal treatment of wood: European Processes and their background
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40241
Recent efforts on thermal treatment of wood lead to the development of several processes introduced to the European market during the last few years. The total production capacity of heat treated wood in 2001 is estimated as approx. 165.000 m3. In the paper the different heat processes are presented. The general technology as well as scientific data on the chemical transformation of the cell wall polymers, on the biological performance, on the physical and mechanical properties of the treated wood are presented and discussed
H Militz


European standardization for wood preservation
1988 - IRG/WP 2321
G Castan


European standardization for wood preservation
1989 - IRG/WP 2335
G Castan


Interspecific variability of European oak durability against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor): Comparison between sessile oak and peduncle oak (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10393
The knowledge of wood natural durability against biologic predators enable its external use. The resistance of European oak wood was reported like durable according to the EN 350-2. However, some individuals may contain high durable wood. Our research was focused to understand this variability in oak population that represent the first french species (4.1 millions of ha). Natural durability of European oak heartwood (Quercus petraea and Quercus robur) against white rot fungi (Coriolus versicolor) was tested according to european standard EN 113. The experimental material consists in 23 oaks robur and 26 petraea oaks sampled from 9 French regions. For each tree, 3 twin samples were taken off from heartwood situated at 1.30 m from the bottom of the tree. Different effects were tested by hierarchic variance analysis: "species", "forest within species" and "tree within forest". The tree effect is very significant for biologic natural resistance. Variability between species was also demonstrated. Although the species effect is significant, it's relatively weak compared with tree differences (it was declared significant 5%). Durability classification was determined according European standard EN 350-1. 69.2% of petraea oak trees are classified as high durable, 19.2% durable, 7.7% moderately durable and 3.8% slightly durable. In the case of robur oak 91.3% of trees are classified as high durable and 8.7% durable.
N Ayadi, B Charrier, M Irmouli, J P Charpentier, C J Allemand, F Feuillat, R Keller


CEN Draft (38 N 460E) Standard: Test method for determining the protective effectiveness of a preservative in the marine environment
1986 - IRG/WP 4132
This European Standard describes a marine test method which provides a basis for asseasing the effectiveness of a wood preservative used to prevent attack of timber in sea-water by marine borers. The method is only suitable for testing preservatives which are intended to prevent attack by marine wood boring organisms of treated timber for use in more or less permanent contact with sea-water. It is not suitable for assessing the effectiveness of preservatives against micro-organisms. The main objective of the method described is to evaluate the relative effectiveness of a wood preservative applied by vacuum/pressure impregnation. For this reason permeable timbers are used throughout so that the protective efficacy of various retentions of the preservative can be determined. However, it is recognized that modifications of the method may be used for other purposes, e.g. to determine the relative efficacy of a preservative treatment or to determine the natural durability of the heartwood and sapwood of a selected timber species. The method is primarily intended for testing in temperate waters where Teredine and Limnoria borers dominate. However, it is also capable of being used in tropics where attack by Pholads and specific Crustacean borers may be very destructive. It has to be considered that the test has to be run for a minimum period (usually for 5 years or until the point of failure) before any interpretation of the results can be made. Variations in the test conditions can be expected from one test site to another depending on temperature, salinity, population density of the various borer species etc. This will inevitably influence the general rate of attack. However, by comparing the results obtained for samples treated with the test product with those obtained with a reference preservative and those obtained with untreated control samples, the relative protective effectiveness of the product tested can be evaluated.
G Castan


Conforming to european standards for preservative-treated timber: Specifying with confidence
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20194
A four-year collaborative study between four industrial partners and BRE has assessed timber treated by current UK industrial practices in the light of current European Standards. Data were collected for CCA and creosote treated timber components, and compared with the requirements laid out in EN351-1 and -2. A number of difficulties were encountered that have been described in previous IRG papers (98-20150, 99-20156), such as the poor reproducibility of chemical analyses and variable timber density. This paper describes the conclusions of our collaboration, focusing on the application of the findings and how to overcome any difficulties encountered. The data collected allowed the calculation of figures that have been submitted for inclusion into the UK's proposed national code for preservative-treated timber (DD239). An example is the recommendation of new minimum retention figures for creosote-treated commodities. This paper describes the factors that will enable UK specifiers to use the European Standards with confidence and greater understanding of how they map onto traditional methods of specification. In addition valuable lessons have been learnt applicable to the industry world wide.
E D Suttie, R J Orsler


Point sur la réglementation et contraintes administratives
1990 - IRG/WP 3575
J H Moneger


European standardization for wood preservation
1990 - IRG/WP 2359
G Castan


CEN Draft Standard (38 N 460F): Méthode d'essai pour determiner l'efficacité d'un produit de préservation du bois en milieu marin
1986 - IRG/WP 4132 F
G Castan


Draft Business Plan of CEN/TC 38 - Durability of wood and wood-based products - Introduction
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20207
CEN Technical Committees and Business Planning. The extension of formal business planning to CEN Technical Committees (CEN/TCs) is an important measure which forms part of a major review of business processes (known as 'Optimization'). The aim is to align the CEN work programme with expressed market needs and to ensure the adequate resourcing of projects through their development stages in the CEN/TCs. Your role in the implementation of the Business Planning concept will contribute significantly to the overall effectiveness of European standardization. We express our sincere appreciation and thanks for your time in reviewing this Business Plan.
R Hüe


Statistically stable models for determination of PEC
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50135
In June 1998 the European Wood Preservative Manufacturer's Group prepared a document to support the Technical Guidance concerning the placing of products on the market with respect to the Directive 98/08/EC (BPD). The essentials of this document were presented at the COST E2 meeting in Cannes last year and at the following IRG conference (Baines and Davis, 1998; IRG/WP/98-50101/20). The document presented a protocol in which a "tiered" approach is followed. The key-factors in this approach are the PNEC (predicted no effect concentration) and the PEC (predicted environmental concentration). The PNEC is calculated from eco-toxicity test results and a safety factor is introduced. In the case of metals which may also be essential trace elements, the background level is suggested as the PNEC, if this level is above the level derived f rom eco-toxicity tests. The calculation of the PEC uses different models. The focus of this paper is the reliability of the models used to determine the PEC, while pointing out that only data and models relevant to the field situation may be used. In the EWPM protocol, initially the environment has to be defined by going through flowcharts and providing an answer of "YES or NO" to each of the questions. In the first tier of the questions there are two options for the treated wood, which is likely to be treated with the candidate wood preservative. It can be assessed as presenting either: a) No risk to the environment, or b) Additional information is required and the next "tier" of questions or tests is involved. In this paper the model for a fresh water environment is presented as an example. However, the models and the systern, can also be applied to other environments. In the above mentioned flowcharts the following assumptions are made: 1.Yes, the substance is toxic and harmful, 2. Yes, if all of the substance in the treated wood entered the water, its concentration would probably be > the PNEC, 3. Yes, the treated wood is in a situation where some of the substance is likely to get into the water. For this reason a simulated exposure test would be carried out and: 4. Yes, the chemical analysis of the wash-off water would be possible and relevant. Therefore PECwater values would need to be calculated to solve the question whether PECwater> PNECwater. By definition, the PEC must be based on the same principle as the PNEC. This implies that the PEC must be relevant for long term exposition, as the PNEC is a long term value, derived from chronic studies.
W J Homan, A L Van Oosten Van


Current models used by the European Health Authorities to evaluate the volatilization of active ingredients from treated wood used inside dwellings. A case study: Volatilization of azaconazole and propiconazole from treated wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3565
The use of wood preservatives inside houses may result in measurable aerial concentrations of active ingredients. These airborne contaminants may be inhaled by the inhabitants over periods lasting from a couple of days to several months. To assess the potential health hazard of preservative residues in the air, various risk-assessment models have been worked out. Three schemes, currently used by the European health authorities, are discussed in this paper. They are based on the saturated air vapour concentration, the volatilization rate measured in laboratory experiments and the aerial concentrations determined in practice. For each model various safety margins can be calculated. These are based on e.g. the subchronic inhalation toxicity, the acceptable daily intake and the acceptable aerial concentration of the insecticides and fungicides used in wood preservatives. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of these health- assessments, a case study has been carried out with the fungicides azaconazole and propiconazole, developed by Janssen Pharmaceutica - Belgium.
A R Valcke, L Van Leemput


Wood preservation in East European countries
1989 - IRG/WP 3527
The paper discusses the main problems of wood preservation in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German DR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and the USSR. The main types of wood preservatives produced have been presented, as well as the state of standarization to test their properties. There have been considered methods of wood treatment in use and application range of treated wood.
J Wazny


Questionnaire on university instruction in the subject of wood preservation
1977 - IRG/WP 79
J Wazny


Exemptions from harmonization measures under Article 100a(4): The second authorization of the German ban on PCP
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-28
R D Sloan


Evaluation and approval of wood preservatives. Unification of European requirements
1988 - IRG/WP 2310
This paper reviews the current activities within the European Homologation Committee for Wood Preservatives (EHC) towards unification of the requirements on evaluation and approval of wood preservatives in Western European countries.
J Jermer


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