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Fouling assemblage development on copper-chromium-arsenic-treated timber submerged in European waters
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50181
The effect of the anti-marine-borer timber preservative CCA on community development of non-target marine fouling animals was investigated. Panels of Scots pine treated to target retentions of 12, 24 and 48 kg CCA per m3 of wood, plus untreated controls were submerged at seven coastal sites (Portsmouth, UK; La Tremblade (2 sites), France; Ria Formosa, Portugal; Sagres, Portugal; Kristineberg, Swed...
C Brown, R J Eaton, S M Cragg, P Goulletquer, A Nicolaidou, M J Bebianno, J Icely, G F Daniel, T Nilsson, A J Pitman, G Sawyer

Ingestion of wood-degrading micro-organisms
1991 - IRG/WP 4169
An ultrastructural study was carried out on the digestive tract contents of Limnoria lignorum, frass, gallery walls and surface structures of the animals. The purpose of the study was to determine whether wood-degrading bacteria, fungi and other microbes and/or wood degraded by these microbes were present in gut regions and therefore could provide indirectly a nutritional source for Limnoria. Both...
G F Daniel, S M Cragg, T Nilsson

Immunolocalization of extracellular metabolites from Poria placenta
1988 - IRG/WP 1361
Polyclonal antisera produced to Poria placenta extracellular metabolites was used in immuno-fluoresence microscopy and immuno-gold TEM studies. In the fluorescence work, labelling of Poria placenta hyphae in wet fixed wood material was observed but not in infected wood which was oven dried prior to sectioning and immunolabelling. TEM studies provided better resolution, with gold labelling detected...
B Goodell, G F Daniel, J Jellison, T Nilsson

Preservation of basidiomycete hyphae in ancient waterlogged wood materials
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1536
Studies on waterlogged archaeological wood show that basidiomycete hyphae may persist as long as 800 years. In two pine wood samples with Phellinus pini heartrot, one from the foremast of the ship Vasa and the other from a bulwark constructed in the first part of the 12th century, numerous resin covered hyphae were observed. Hyphae with clamp connections that were associated with brown and white r...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel

Interactions between soft rot fungi and CCA preservatives in Betula verrucosa
1988 - IRG/WP 1367
Ultrastructural investigations were carried out to obtain information on the cell wall distribution of CCA elements during soft rot decay of 4% K33 CCA preservative treated birch (Betula verrucosa) wood. TEM observations on fibres at various stages of S2 cavity formation by mutabilis showed a distinct pattern of electron dense materials to occur within the S2 cell wall region. These materials (gra...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson

Immunolabelling studies on the detection of enzymes during the degradation of wood by Phanerochaete chrysosporium
1988 - IRG/WP 1364
The degradation of lignin in native lignocellulosic substrates by white rot fungi is poorly understood. Biochemical studies have shown the involvement of a number extracellular ligninolytic enzymes released by white rot fungi which are capable of the oxidative conversion of DHP's (lignin model compounds) in vitro, but to date conclusive evidence for occurrence of these enzymes in wood und...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson, B Pettersson

Use of the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and immunocytochemistry to detect soft rot in preservative treated and untreated wood
1990 - IRG/WP 2347
A polyclonal antibody was raised against mycelial extracts from the soft rot fungus Phialophora mutabilis. In ELISA assays, the antibody showed strong reactions with its own antigen and strong to moderate cross reactions with 6 other Phialophora soft rot species. With the exception of Ceratocystis albida, the antibody gave only weak or negative reactions with 11 other mold, blue stain and rot fung...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson

Effect of chitosan on the morphology and ultrastructure of two wood inhabiting fungi
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10606
An investigation was undertaken to compare the antifungal effects caused by chitosan against two selected wood degrading fungi Sphaeropsis sapinea and Trichoderma harzianum on their growth, morphological and ultra-structural characteristics, using differential interference microscopy, epifluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The effect of chitosan on fungal morphology was ...
T Singh, A P Singh, G Daniel

Chelator-Mediated Fenton Chemistry in Wood Degraded by Fungi
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10618
Wood specimens were colonized by individual isolates of brown rot, white rot, soft rot and blue (sap) stain fungi. Ethyl acetate extracts of the ground wood were analyzed for their iron-reducing capabilities using a ferrozine-based assay. Extracts from wood colonized by brown rot fungi showed a significantly greater iron-reducing capability than extracts from wood colonized by white rot fungi or n...
B Goodell, G Daniel, J Jellison, Yuhui Qian

Heat treatment, thermal treatment, thermal degradation of wood, carbon nanotubes and Damascus steel swords. What do they all have in common?
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40399
Thermal degradation of wood is a well known phenomenon. Yet heat-treatment of wood can also provide protection for wood against certain environmental hazards. This paper explores some of the aspects of thermal degradation of wood fiber at relatively low temperatures with a surprising result. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were produced when a specific heating regime was used to carbonize the wood fiber. ...
Xinfeng Xie, B Goodell, Yuhui Qian, G Daniel

Natural durability and anatomical features of teak (Tectona grandis) from plantations in Costa Rica
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10671
Teak (Tectona grandis) possesses superior mechanical properties and durability and is thus frequently used as an alternative to impregnated timber in Europe. Demand on teak has resulted in severe exploitation of the tropical teak forests in recent decades, but today the imported timber originates mainly from plantations and is certificated according to the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) policy. ...
U J Wolfsmayr, N Terziev, G Daniel

Laboratory and above ground exposure efficacy of silicon-boron treatments
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30510
The study deals with silicon compounds, namely tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTES) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES) at concentrations of 23, 16 and 10% in combination with 1.2-1.5% boric acid. The aim with the study was to combine the chemical approach with the necessary biological tests of the impregnated wood. The tested silicon-boron combinations ensured mass loss less than ...
N Terziev, D Panov, A Temiz, S Palanti, E Feci, G Daniel

Using plant oils as hydrophobic substances for wood protection
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30550
The increased interest to use oils as hydrophobic agents and the current debate about the further use of creosote emphasises the urgent need of better understanding of plant and other oils as wood protectors. The present study sheds light on the hydrophobic properties and distribution of various plant oils in the anatomical structure of Scots pine sapwood. Oil retentions from approximately 70 to 5...
D Panov, N Terziev, G Daniel

Characterization of test fields
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20508
Test field characteristics and impact of test fields on wood degradation is important when testing wood protection. The current EN 252 standard has no requirement for knowledge of decay hazards, but most commonly a test field is known as a “brown”,- “white”,- or “soft rot” field. To understand which decay hazard wood preservatives are tested against, each test field should be character...
U Råberg, N Terziev, G Daniel

What molecular biology can tell us about the biodegradation of lignocellulose: the utilization of molecular techniques for the detection, identification and enhanced understanding of wood degrading organisms
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20528
Molecular techniques are now routinely used in the identification, detection and analysis of wood degrading organisms. An overview of some of the early work on nucleic acid isolation and characterization will be followed by a discussion of the power of sequencing and other procedures for better understanding: the mechanisms involved in the biological degradation of wood, the metabolic basis of pre...
J Jellison, B Goodell, G Alfredsen, D Eastwood, G Daniel, S M Cragg, J K Grace

Can CCA be substituted as reference preservative?
2018 - IRG/WP 18-20641
While field testing of wood protective formulations remains probably the best method to find out the effective preservative concentration, the use of chrome-copper arsenate (CCA) as reference becomes debatable due to environmental and legislative reasons. This emerges from the European standardization bodies who have discussed reference alternatives that can omit the use of CCA. The present debate...
N Terziev, M Jebrane, P Larsson Brelid, N Morsing, P-O Flaete, P Torniainen, J S Kim, G Daniel

Decay capacity and degradation patterns of Xylaria hypoxylon on different wood species
2022 - IRG/WP 22-10985
A host of physical and environmental factors may influence fungal decay including the wood substrate, temperature, moisture, oxygen, light, pH, and nitrogen. Understanding the effects of these factors on fungal decay is important for the effective utilization of wood decay fungi in biotechnological processes and for understanding the role of these organisms in global carbon cycling. The ascomycete...
E Bari, G Daniel, A Singh, J J Morrell

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