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New method to find out the volatile organic compounds (VOC) of wooden material
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20189
Volatile organic compounds (VOC) of pine, spruce and larch wood were studied using a new technique developed at VTT Chemical Technology. 50 mg of crushed wood material was placed into glass tubes. The tubes were closed with a glass wool, which is pressed with a tube cap. Wood samples were analysed with a gas chromatograph after thermal desorption using four different temperatures (50°C, 100°C, 150°C and 200°C). The gas chromatograph is equipped with a flame ionisation detector (FID) and a mass selective detector (MSD). Green sapwood and heartwood of pine and spruce was studied. For larch wood, fresh and dried heartwood material was analysed. The quality and quantity of volatile organic compounds were quite different in pine sap and heartwood. The amount of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) was at least five times higher in pine heartwood than TVOC in pine sapwood. The dominating compounds in pine sapwood were carbonyl compounds and in pine heartwood mainly terpenes. Within spruce material, the wide difference between sap and heartwood was not found. In larch wood, the volatile organic compounds was quite different compared with pine and spruce. In larch heartwood, the amount of terpenes was much lower than in pine heartwood but in pine and spruce, no acetic acid was found. The technique can be used for rapid analyse of the quality of wood. The result can be used for reference of decay tests and other properties of wood species.
H Viitanen, K Villberg, K Saarela

Exposure monitoring of creosote vapors
1989 - IRG/WP 3511
Creosote oils contain hundreds of compounds. During impregnation and handling of treated wood the main component in the vapors released in air is naphthalene. Other main components are alkyl naphthalenes, indene, phenol and its methyl derivatives, benzothiophene, diphenyl, acenaphthalene and fluorene. In the measurement of creosote vapors, naphthalene can be used as an indicator agent. One of the major urinary metabolites of naphthalene is 1-naphthol. To explore the relation between naphthalene concentration in the air and 1-naphthol in the urine of exposed workers we monitored air concentrations and collected urine samples from six men over a working week. 1-Naphthol concentrations in urine samples were analyzed by GC as a pentafluorobenzylbromide derivative. The average concentration of 1-naphthol in the Monday morning samples was 0.1 mg/l, in the Monday afternoon 3.1 mg/l, in the Friday morning 0.4 mg/l and in the Friday afternoon 2.9 mg/l.
P Heikkilä, M Loutamo, V Riihimäki, M Romo

Soft rot fungi as possible sources of odor in impregnated wood in buildings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20013
Wood preservatives are frequently used inside houses. In several cases impregnated wood, particularly when used in crawlspaces or other near-ground constructions, has been found to be a source of odor. Mold fungi, soft rot fungi actinomycetes or bacteria growing on impregnated wood are possible producers of the odor. Analyses of volatile emissions from impregnated wood with odor and pure cultures of the soft rot fungus Phialophora fastigiata were made with diffusive sampling on Tenax TA, thermal desorption and capillary GC-MS. 2-methylbutanol was found among compounds emitted from impregnated wood with odor taken from a house with odor. Among compounds produced by Phialophora fastigiata octanoic acid and 2-methylbutanol were found.
J Bjurman, J Kristensson

Checking of sodium pentachlorophenate fixation in wood
1990 - IRG/WP 3620
In order to estimate the volatilization of sodium pentachlorophenate from treated wood, wood samples treated with pentachlorophenate were analysed after various durations of an EN 73 weathering The results giving no clear evidence of volatilization, treated wood samples were put in a test chamber with precise climatic conditions, the air used in the experiment being analysed. The pentachlorophenate content in air was quantified: 1.8 µg/m³
M Lamour, H Sageot

Preservative effectiveness of medium temperature creosote oil
1990 - IRG/WP 3597
Medium temperature creosote oil (MTC) was prepared by removing light naphthalene oil and heavy anthracene oil from the coal tar by means of fractional distillation. We conducted the effectiveness test of MTC in accordance with the JWPA method for testing effectiveness of surface coatings with preservatives against decay fungi. The soil treatment test against Serpula lacrymans was also carried out with Kanuma-soil. Preservative effectiveness of MTC was sufficient for wood against Tyromyces palustris and Serpula lacrymans. The hyphal growth of Serpula lacrymans to the treated layer with MTC from the nutrient one is suppressed in the soil treatment test.
S Doi, A Yamada, Y Suda

Identification of terminal structures in cellulose degraded by the brown-rot fungus Postia placenta
1989 - IRG/WP 1389
To gain insight into the biochemical mechanism employed by brown-rot fungi to depolymerize cellulose, we identified the end-groups of chemically pure cellulose that had been depolymerized by the brown-rot fungus, Postia placenta. The depolymerized cellulose was acid hydrolyzed and the anion fractions isolated by ion chromatography. Sugar acids were identified by gas chromatographic and mass spectrocopic analysis. Cellulose degraded by Fenton's reagent (H2O2/Fe2+) was also analyzed. The two systems generated the same sugar acids but not in the same quantities. The acids identified include glyceric and erythronic, indicating oxidative cleavage of the vicinal diol carbon-carbon bonds within glucosyl residues in the cellulose polymer. Gluconic and arabonic acids were also identified as major products. No uronic acids were produced in either systems.
T K Kirk, T L Highley, R E Ibach, M D Mozuch

Analysis of volatile emissions as an aid in the diagnosis of dry rot
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2393
The dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans was grown in pure culture on malt extract and on sapwood of pine. The volatile compounds emitted from the cultures were determined by diffusion sampling on tubes filled with Tenax TA, thermal desorption and gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry in order to find markers for attack of the fungus.
J Bjurman, J Kristensson

Pyrolysis GC-MS as a tool for lignin analysis
1987 - IRG/WP 2201
Pyrolysis-GC-MS is a rapid process for analysis of rather complex organic compounds. The method has great application to petroleum shale oil and wood lignin. Small powdered samples (several mg) are placed in silica capillary tubes and rapidly heated in an inert atmosphere such as He or N2. Breakdown products of the pyrolysis are then trapped and held for an allocated time in an injector attached to a gas chromatograph (GC) before being introduced. Once introduced, the sample stream is chromatographed on a capillary column with programmable temperature control before being split into two streams. The first stream containing most of the sample travels directly to the GC detector and the second stream is electronically ionized and the fragmentation patterns read on a mass spectrometer (MS). All information is collected and stored for later retrieval and analysis by a large computer. The computer has software that can compare the fragmentation patterns of the compounds on the GC with known compounds stored in its library. Apart from uses already mentioned, there is great potential for use in lignin analysis of woods and wood products. Results to date indicate pyrolysis-GC-MS is extremely useful for characterisation of lignin from phenolic monomers in the pyrograms. Quantitation of these monomers is being studied.
L Doimo

Natural durability transfer from sawmill residues of white cypress (Callitris glaucophylla). - Part 4: Analysis of extracts and treated wood for active components
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20215
In order to facilitate the commercial implementation of a large project aimed at recovering 'waste' durability components from sawmill residues of Callitris glaucophylla, it has been essential to develop analytical methodology for the important bioactive components of the heartwood extract. This methodology will be used 1) to standardise the activity of successive production batches, ensuring that batch-to-batch variation is controlled, and 2) to monitor the penetration and retention of active components in extract-treated wood, ensuring that treatment quality is controlled. Analytical techniques used through the project have included both LC/MS and GC/MS, but as most of the extract activity against termites and fungi has now been demonstrated to reside in the lighter fractions, we have concentrated on GC/MS for the routine methodology for both extract activity and wood retention. Penetration is monitored by the application of a chromazurol S spot-test to a freshly cut transverse section. Both cypress heartwood and penetrated sapwood turn red-purple under the conditions of the test, which is not necessarily specific for cypress extractives, but nevertheless useful for routine monitoring of penetration of cypress extracts.
Hui Jiang, M J Kennedy, L M Stephens

A preliminary comparison of GC, HPLC and ELISA analysis of resin acids in pulp mill effluents
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20120
Resin acids are naturally occurring diterpenoid carboxylic acids present in most Canadian softwoods. There are eight common resin acids that are classified into two groups; the abietanes and the pimaranes. During processing of wood products they can be released into the environment where they are of concern because of their acute toxicity toward fish and other aquatic life. Traditionally resin acids are analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) which requires extraction of analytes from a sample matrix, derivatization to increase analyte volatility and separation by solid phase extraction. This process is difficult, tedious and expensive but provides quantification of the individual resin acids with low detection limits. Recently a fast and simple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to analyze dehydroabietic acid (DHA) directly from pulp mill effluents. Our laboratory has developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on polyclonal antibodies that was successfully used to directly quantify the abietanes in CTMP effluent.. We compared the three techniques by analysing effluent samples from the Quesnel River Pulp Mill at various stages of the pulping process. Preliminary results showed good agreement for DHA analysis between the HPLC and GC methods. Since it analyzed for all the abietanes, ELISA measured a greater proportion of the resin acids in the samples than the HPLC. The merits and disadvantages of each method will be further discussed.
A N Serreqi, K Stark, Xiumei Feng, J N Saddler, C Breuil

Determination of N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxide (HDO) containing compounds in treated wood using GC-MS
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20201
Beside the biological effectiveness the approval of a chemical wood preservative requires also techniques for the analytical determination of active ingredients in different matrices. Fulfilling of the last requirement is particularly difficult in the case of impregnated timber treated with wood preservatives containing organic compounds. This paper describes a procedure for the determination of the organic ingredient N-cyclohexyl- diazeniumdioxide (HDO) in solid phases using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in connection with a previous thermal desorption step. For this powdered samples are placed in a glass tube. Then the tube is reinserted into the thermal desorption unit which is placed in the GC-oven and directly connected with the capillary column. Afterwards the sample was quickly heated up to 200°C. The resulting gas mixture is pushed onto the column and the separation of the gas components took place. The single components could be identified by means of the retention time and the mass spectrum. A quantitative determination seems to be possible by means of the intensity of the signals. The suitability and reproducibility of this method of the determination of HDO were tested successfully by analysing a number of impregnated wood specimens treated with different formulations containing HDO.
P Jüngel, J Wittenzellner, E Melcher

Incidence of soft rot in creosoted poles
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1554
A further population of creosote-treated poles has been assessed for the occurrence of soft rot, as a continuation of work reported in IRG Document No. IRG/WP/1368. The outer 1 cm of each core was assessed microscopically and graded for the presence of soft rot cavities in the wood cell walls; with further assessments taken at a consecutive 1cm interval for cores showing positive findings. Following this assessment each core was cultured on microbiological media in an attempt to isolate potential causative organisms and correlate their presence with the occurrence of soft rot cavities in the wood cell walls. The results indicate that a number of fungi may be important, either in causing soft rot decay or in creating the conditions necessary for such decay to occur. Of these, Hormoconis resinae seems to be particularly important. This fungus was found populating poles at a rate of 68% overall. Further work has also been undertaken, using gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy, to establish the amount of creosote present, its chemical composition in poles and to correlate this data with that for soft rot cavitation and microbiological assay.
D J Dickinson, P W McCormack, B Calver

The identification of organic compounds in wood using thermal desorption GC-MS - possibilities and limitations
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20224
There is a clear need for the analytical characterisation and identification of organic compounds and their derivatives in different phases especially in timber. In this context the paper describes a rapid and powerful gas chromatographic method for the determination of insecticides, biocides and "other" organic substances in treated and/or modified wood. The main advantage of this procedure is that wooden material can be analysed directly without any further sample preparation. In principle the technical equipment using a mass selective detector is suitable for identifying as well as quantifying thermal desorbable compounds in only one analytical run. The main emphasis of this contribution, however, is to show the possibilities and limitations of this technique.
P Jüngel, E Melcher

Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) during the combustion of impregnated wood
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-19
Wood waste and industrial wood residues often contain various preservatives. The waste management for these residuals can be recycling, deposition or combustion. Among the three possibilities, combustion seems to be the most efficient way of disposal. To obtain detailed information about emissions of organic compounds with environmental impact, especially polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and furans (PCDF), different impregnated wood materials were incinerated in two furnaces after mixing with non-treated wood in a ratio of 1:4. The combustion process of residues containing organic or inorganic preservatives is influenced by the elementary composition of the preservative and the thermal and oxidative reaction paths in the flame. It was found that the concentrations of PCDD and PCDF in the exhaust gas can be kept low under good combustion conditions. However, a non-regular incineration process strongly supports increased emissions of PCDD and PCDF.
T Salthammer, H Klipp, R-D Peek

Detection of dry rot by air analysis
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2399
Detection of dry rot (Serpula lacrymans) at an early stage appears to be very difficult in practice. Also control inspections in buildings, after remedial treatment of dry rot, have a limited accuracy. The use of trained dogs in Denmark initiated the idea for this research on the possible use of air analysis as a detection method. The Centre for Timber Research-TNO (TNO-CHT) and the Institute for Biotechnology and Chemistry therefore started a research programme sponsored by the Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environmental Management in the Netherlands. The Centre for Timber Research has cultured under controlled laboratory conditions Serpula lacrymans and seven other fungi, which frequently occur in building structures. From these cultures air samples were taken and analysed by IBC-TNO, using GC-MS. Results indicate, that each fungus has it's own specific "blueprint" of volatile metabolic compounds. Though this is a promising start, further research is necessary to see, how growth conditions and environment may influence the consistency of the air analysis. This air analysis, could have application as another non-destructive detection method for decay caused by fungi. Other potential applications also need exploring.
P Esser, A C Tas

The quantitative determination of N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxide (HDO) containing compounds in treated wood using TD-GC-MS
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20223
Last year we presented the paper (IRG/WP/00-20201) "Determination of N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxide (HDO) containing compounds in treated wood using GC-MS". Based on the intensive discussion at the meeting, the first experiences made with the calibration of the system for this application will be reported. For the quantitative determination of N-cyclohexyl-diazeniumdioxide in treated wood, milled material containing a known concentration of the active ingredient were placed in special liners which were sealed with magnetic caps. The liners were then stored in a sample rack. Depending on the analytical program a certain liner was transported automatically into the thermal desorption unit. Afterwards the sample was quickly heated to 200°C. Only a part of the resulting gas mixture was pushed onto the column where the separation of the components took place. The component of interest could be identified by means of the retention time and the mass spectrum. The calibration of the system and the quantification are based on 5 different values (TIC, peak height/area with and without background subtraction, peak height/area of a selected mass fragment with and without background subtraction) received from the spectrum. For the quantification it is necessary to analyse at least 5 samples of identical concentration.
P Jüngel, J Wittenzellner, E Melcher

The potential application of rapid gas-chromatographic assay of microbial respiration to the monitoring of wood decay in field trial situations
1983 - IRG/WP 2196
Gas chromatographic detection of microbial activity (C02 production) within stakes in a field trial situation would appear to provide a sensitive, non-destructive and relatively rapid method for the quantitative assessment of preservative treatments. Most consistent results were obtained when stakes were removed from the soil, washed, saturated with water and incubated in sealed PVC tubes at 25°C for 24 h prior to assay of gas samples from the tubes. Each assay took 1.6 min to perform and stakes were returned to the field within 48 h. Microbial activity was readily detected in untreated Eucalyptus regnans stakes after 18 days field exposure. Stakes pressure impregnated with CCA, busan-30 or creosote displayed consistently low levels of activity to the present time (3 months after insertion).
M A Line

Anti-fungal properties of pyrolytic oils derived from softwood bark
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30218
Thermal decomposition of balsam fir and white spruce mixed bark residues at 450°C and under vacuum (< 20 kPa abs.) results in high yields of pyroligneous liquors rich in phenolic content. This vacuum pyrolysis process has been scaled-up to a pyrolysis plant with a feed capacity of 3.5 t/h of softwood bark, which is the largest plant of this type in the world. The pyrolytic aqueous condensates have been tested for their anti-fungal properties. One of the major objectives of this study was to identify which groups of chemical compounds were the most active to inhibit the growth of wood decay fungi. The fractionation of the pyrolytic aqueous phase in four distinct parts was accomplished by a liquid-liquid extraction method. The four fractions were named F1 (ether extractibles), F2 (ethyl acetate extractibles), F3 (neutral compounds) and F4 (phenolic compounds). Petri tests were conducted using two brown rot fungi (P. placenta and G. trabeum) and two white rot fungi (I. lacteus and T. versicolor). The composition of these fractions was analysed by GC/MS. Fraction F1, with concentrations of organic acids, phenols and derivatives (3.0% by weight), benzenediols (3.9% by weight), and a variety of other products (quinones, furans, etc.), was the most promising to inhibit the growth of decay fungi, while fraction F3 showed no inhibitive effect in the Petri dish agar test. C. versicolor was most sensitive to these fractions, while I. lacteus was the least. The addition of CuSO4 to the water soluble organics improved their ability against decay.
D Mourant, Dian-Qing Yang, Xiao Lu, C Roy

The action of siderophores isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum on the structure and crystallinity of cellulose compounds
1991 - IRG/WP 1479
Low molecular weight, high affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) were isolated from the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. The compounds were shown to be inducible by iron starvation and could be purified by ultra-filtration, ethyl acetate extraction, column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated compounds were shown by analytical and immunological techniques to be produced in both culture and in degraded wood. GC-mass spectroscopy and NMR allowed characterization showing their phenolate nature and molecular mass. The chelators are capable of cleaving selected cellulose model compounds and preliminary results suggest siderophores may be able to effect the percent crystallinity of milled poplar wood. Siderophores, together with other non-enzymatic factors, may function as readily diffusible agents catalyzing the initial degradation of wood cell walls.
J Jellison, V Chandhoke, B Goodell, F Fekete, N Hayashi, M Ishihara, K Yamamoto

Evaluation and identification of extractives from Iranian walnut (Juglans regia L.) by GC/MS technique for protection of non-decay resistant species
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10670
The use of walnut extractives is interest as environment friendly wood preservatives in the wood preservation industry. In this study, organic solvents were used to remove extractives from Iranian walnut heartwood samples. The solvent was removed by rotoevaporation, and Identification of chemical compounds in the Walnut extractives was done by using GC/MS technique. The toxicity of various extracts concentrations against white rot was tested on agar media and the relative toxicity threshold determined at 0.15mg/ml of agar for Coriolus versicolor. Extracts were used to treat poplar blocks at three concentrations percent (1.5%, 2.5% and 3.5%). Treated blocks were exposed to white rot fungi to determine the biological performance of such treatment. Results showed that treated blocks weight loss to extracts retention of 1.99% in contrast with untreated poplar blocks against white rot, meanly decreased amounting to 15.65 percent, but for purposes of statistically have had not significant difference in 5 and 1 percent level. Also, resistant to tangential and radial hardness and resistant to compression parallel to grain of poplar blocks treated, for purposes of statistically have had not significant difference in 5 and 1 percent level. The most abundant identified compound in heartwood of walnut species was benzoic acid, 3,4,5-tris(hydroxy)/Gallic acid amounting to (44.57%) and the most toxic identified compounds, that caused decrease treated blocks weight loss, was Juglone (5.15%) and 2,7- dimethyle phenanthrene (5.81%).
S K H Hashemi, D Parsapajouh, H Khademi Eslam

Utilization of thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS to study kinetics of thermodegradation of different wood species
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40559
Thermdesorption coupled to Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectroscopy (TD-GC-MS) has been investigated to identify volatile degradation products generated during wood heat treatment by mild pyrolysis. For this purpose, wood samples of different softwood and hardwood species have been heat treated under nitrogen for different temperatures comprised between 180 and 230°C during 15 min. in the glass thermal desorption tube of the thermodesorber and the volatile wood degradation products trapped. The trapped products were then thermodesorbed and analysed by GC-MS. Chromatograms of the different samples indicated the formation of different products resulting from degradation of lignin and hemicelluloses. The important formation of acetic acid is concomitant with the formation of most degradation products and at the origin of the difference of reactivity observed between softwoods and hardwoods.
K Candelier, M Chaouch, S Dumarçay, A Pétrissans, M Pétrissans, P Gérardin

Above Ground Field Evaluation and GC-MS Analysis of Naturally Durable Wood Species
2012 - IRG/WP 12-10764
Nine wood species are being evaluated in above ground field studies in Mississippi and Wisconsin. Candidate naturally durable wood (NDW) species are being rated at yearly intervals for resistance to decay, cupping, and checking. Field ratings after 12 months exposure are presented. To date, Paulownia tomentosa (PAW) and southern yellow pine (SYP) are least durable and cedars are the most durable in above ground exposure. Wood samples are being taken from the deck-boards and subjected to chemical analysis using GC-MS. Fatty acids from NDW species were extracted, derivatized, and analyzed along with commercial fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) standards. With few exceptions, results indicate that FAMEs are more abundant in NDW species. However, preliminary bioassays found no inhibition of select wood decay fungi by FAMEs at naturally occurring concentrations.
G T Kirker, A B Blodgett, S T Lebow, C A Clausen

Utilization of thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS to characterize volatiles formation kinetics during wood thermodegradation
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40587
Identification of volatile degradation products produced during wood mild pyrolysis is important to have better insight on thermodegradation mechanisms. Previous studies have shown that thermodesorption coupled to GC-MS is an attractive tool to characterize and quantify products formed during wood thermodegradation indicating an higher susceptibility of hardwoods to thermodegradation compare to softwoods. The aim of this study is to give better insights on wood thermodegradation pathways during wood heat treatment with special emphasis on the kinetics of thermodegradation. For this purpose, one hardwood species (beech) and one softwood species (Sylver fir) have been subjected to thermal treatment directly in the thermal desorption glass tube of the thermodesorber under helium at temperatures of 210 and 230°C for different times ranging from 10 to 80 minutes and volatiles compounds formed analysed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy. Starting from these results, it’s was possible to visualize the different products formed as a function of time allowing determination of the kinetic curves of formation of the main degradation products. Making the assumption that acetic acid is representative of hemicelluloses degradation and vanillin representative of lignin degradation, it was possible using Arrhenius equation to determine a mean activation energy of formation of this two products leading to indirect informations on lignin and hemicelluloses stability for each wood species.
K Candelier, S Dumarçay, A Pétrissans, M Pétrissans, P Kamdem, P Gérardin

Recycling of used railroad ties via two-staged pyrolysis for fractionation of wood preservatives and bio-oil: pyrolytic characterization by TGA and Py-GC/MS
2015 - IRG/WP 15-50311
Creosote and copper naphthenate (CuNap) (in an oil carrier) treated railroad tie materials (crossties or sleepers) were initially heat-treated at 200 – 300 oC and subsequently pyrolyzed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) to recover wood preservatives and produce a higher quality bio-oil. Preservative-desorptive temperatures at 200 and 250 oC by TGA removed water and creosote (6.6 – 9.3 wt%) from the creosote-treated crosstie materials, and water and CuNap components (21.2 – 23.3 wt%) from the CuNap-treated crossties. Temperature at 300 oC removed a shoulder DTG peak at 305 - 325 oC and weight loss accounted for 25.5 wt% in the creosote-treated tie and 30.6 wt% in the CuNap-treated tie. Temperature at 200 – 300 oC by Py-GC/MS desorbed creosote-derived chemicals such as naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorine, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) derived from the creosote-treated tie; and mineral oil (alkane hydrocarbons such as tetradecane, nonadecane, hexadecane and octadecane, and heptacosane) from the CuNap-treated ties. Pyrolysis of the wood tie with elevated temperature produced a high amount of carbohydrate- and lignin-derived compounds from wood ties. Fast pyrolysis of the 200 oC-treated crossties by Py-GC/MS produced a high fraction of creosote- and CuNap compounds most of which were then not subsequently recovered through fast pyrolysis of the 250 and 300 oC-treated samples. Fast pyrolysis of the thermally preservatives-removed tie samples produced high anhydrosugars such as levoglucosan and low acetic acid, furfural and ketones as well as high pyrolytic lignin-derived compounds, which shows good potential for phenolic-based chemical production. The results demonstrate that a thermal preservative-removal step (similar to a torrefaction step) can successfully remove valuable creosote and CuNap components for re-use as preservatives and subsequently supply a clean wood without significant levels of contaminant hazardous air pollutants for use as boiler fuel, more efficient pyrolysis to produce higher quality bio-oil, gasification or other uses.
Pyoungchung Kim, J Lloyd, Jae-Woo Kim, N Labbe

GC-MS Characterizations of Termiticidal Heartwood Extractives from Wood Species Utilized in Pakistan
2016 - IRG/WP 16-10857
Wood species that exhibit innate tolerance to wood destroying organisms such as termites are considered to be naturally durable. This durability can, in part, be due to the complex chemical compounds in the heartwood of naturally durable wood species. We examined the effects of varying concentrations of heartwood extractives on the subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes from four wood species from Pakistan (Dalbergia sissoo, Cedrus deodara, Morus alba and Pinus roxburghii) as well as Teak (Tectona grandis). Termites showed increasing levels of mortality with increasing concentration of heartwood extractive when exposed to extractive treated non-durable southern yellow pine (SYP) blocks in a force feeding test compared to SYP blocks treated with water or solvent (ethanol: toluene) only. Characterizations of heartwood extractives were performed using Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Chemical profiles were prepared for each wood species’ extractives and are discussed relevant to their termiticidal properties. Future work will focus on further isolation of bioactive compounds or synergistic groupages of bioactive compounds from these and other wood species for use as environmentally friendly insecticides/termiticides for wood and wood based materials.
M E Mankowski, B Boyd, B Hassan, G T Kirker

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