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The effect of storage and subculturing on in vitro fruit body formation and spore production in Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Oligoporus placentus
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20232
Spores are widely assumed to be the main mode of infection of wood in conditions conducive to decay above ground. In order to supply spores on demand as an experimental material, fruiting body and basidiospore production in vitro by Gloeophyllum sepiarium and Oligoporus placentus have been examined. The optimum medium, time to spore production, and duration of fruiting as well as fruiting body shape varied among strains of both species. Even when the same strain was used as the inoculum source, there were differences in duration of fruiting and time to spore production in different experimental sets. This suggests that the method of mycelium storage and repeated subculturing could affect fungal capacity for fruiting and basidiospore production. Among the tested methods of mycelium storage, mycelia stored on wood blocks showed the most stable response in both fruiting and spore production.
S Choi, J N R Ruddick, P I Morris


Monographic card for Gloeophyllum sepiarium (Wulf. ex Fr.) Karst. (First Draft)
1975 - IRG/WP 131
T Hof


Some wood-destroying Basidiomycetes. Volume 1 of a collection of monographs
1981 - IRG/WP 1121
One of the first tasks of the International Research Group on Wood Preservation, when it began its work in 1969, was to compile a series of reports on the common decay fungi which can attack wood. This volume, which contains the first of these reports, has been compiled with the help of mycologists and wood preservation specialists in France, Ghana, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden and Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. It gives up-to-date information on fifteen common Basidiomycete fungi and indicates the gaps in the world's present knowledge that exist about these.
R Cockcroft


Conditions for basidiospore production in the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum separium in axenic culture
1984 - IRG/WP 1232
Attempts to control and optimize the production of hymenial structures and basidiospore production in Gloeophyllum sepiarium in axenic culture resulted in the proposal of the following conditions as being suitable. The dikaryotic mycelia originally isolated from basidiocarps could consistently be induced to produce hymenial structures and pure basidiospore collects if illuminated by near ultraviolet light with emission maximum at 355 nm ("black light") at a temperature of 15°C on a chemically defined medium, where the concentration of the carbon and the nitrogen sources were shown to be of critical significance. The necessary conditions for basidiospore production in lignicolous fungi in general are is briefly discussed.
J Bjurman


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Progress report to May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 2338
Further sets of data received from STU (Sweden) after 36 months exposure and Sipad-IRC (Yugoslavia) after 45 months exposure are presented and discussed in conjunction with data reported previously. The new data are generally in agreement with those presented previously and the major difference between institutes continues to be one of rate of colonisation rather than any relative difference in performance of the treatments. Some data from the co-operating institutes is still outstanding. A final report summerising the whole trial will now be produced.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


A chemical and mycological evaluation of fused borate rods and a borate/glycol solution for remedial treatment of window joinery
1983 - IRG/WP 3225
The possibility of using fused borate rods (Impel Borpatron) and a borate/glycol solution (Boracol-40) for depot impregnation of window joinery has been examined in a co-operative project between The Swedish Forest Products Research Laboratory, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and Prolignum AB. The fused Impel rod is a glassy rod composed of disodium octaborate which readily dissolves and is distributed as bore acid when introduced into moist timber. Boracol-40 is a liquid containing disodium octaborate dissolved in glycol which has an ability to disperse in timber with a moisture content below 25%. The study involved treatment of a large number of windows in service as well as chemical and biological laboratory tests on the distribution and protective effect of the preservatives. In the field study about 100 windows, selected at random in various buildings in the Stockholm and Gothenburg areas were treated in-situ.
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson, A Käärik, P-E Dickèr


Lethal temperature for some wood-destroying fungi with respect to eradication by heat treatment
1984 - IRG/WP 1229
The lethal heat dosis as a function of temperature and time of exposure has been tested for mycelium and for wood infested by three strains of Serpula lacrymans and by Coniophora puteana, Poria monticola, Paxillus panuoides, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Gloeophyllum sepiarium. Even for Serpula lacrymans, which is well known for its sensivity to heat treatment, 30 min at 55°C were necessary to kill the most resistant strain. The lethal dosis of heat was slightly lesser for infested timber than for mycelial cultures in Petri dishes.
M Miric, H Willeitner


Toxic value estimation of wood preservatives by using the probit analysis
1990 - IRG/WP 2348
As it was assumed from previous experiments, the probit analysis appears to be the most suitable method of all used to estimate the toxic value of wood preservatives. With the help of the classical agar-block method the probit analysis was tested for its suitability in: 1) fungitoxic value estimation of the WR-3 preservative (quaternary ammonium compound + borate), as compared to different test fungi (Coniophora puteana, Gloeophyllum sepiarium, Lentinus lepideus, Poria placenta, Serpula lacrymans), and 2) in leaching value estimation by the mycological method (Coniophora puteana)
J Wazny, K J Krajewski


Silicon tetrachloride: A potential wood preservative
1980 - IRG/WP 3133
In its present form, this paper is a preliminary draft of a paper that will eventually be submitted for publication in the Forest Products Journal. We are continuing the work on the effects of silicon tetrachloride on wood and expect to have additional data for the meeting in May 1980. Specifically we are measuring the penetration rate and depth of SiCl4, and we are chemically analyzing the treated wood with respect of phenolic and other extractives. Our results continue to appear quite favourable for the future use of SiCl4 as a preservative.
C W Owens, W T Shortle, A L Shigo


rDNA-ITS sequence of Serpula lacrymans and other important indoor rot fungi and taxon-specific priming PCR for their detection
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10298
Taxon-specific priming polymerase chain reaction (TSPP) is a powerful molecular tool for fungal diagnosis. For its application to indoor rot fungi, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) of the main fungal species causing wood rot in European buildings was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ITS region was sequenced. The complete sequences are presented. From base sequence divergency among the fungi, species-specific oligonucleotide primers were designed for TSPP. These marker molecules were suitable for the differential diagnosis of the dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans, the wild merulius, S. himantioides, the oak polypore, Donkioporia expansa, the brown cellar fungus, Coniophora puteana, the broad-spored white polypore, Antrodia vaillantii, the sap polypore, Tyromyces placenta, and the yellow-red gill polypore, Gloeophyllum sepiarium. Each specific marker identified isolates of its respective target species. Cross reaction with 'foreign' fungi was the exception. Species identification from unknown field samples from rot damage in buildings is also possible, because DNA from contaminating organisms does not response to the specific primers. Our variant of the technique is fast, because no preceding fungal pure cultures, no special DNA extraction/purification, and no restriction by endonucleases are necessary.
O Schmidt, U Moreth


Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports of some copper naphthenate-treated poles rapidly failing. One possible explanation for the varying effectiveness could be that the structure, and resulting biological activity, of the naphthenic acids used to make copper naphthenate may vary. To test this hypothesis several naphthenic acids and copper naphenates were obtained and their fungicidal activity against three wood-destroying fungi measured. In addition, the chemical structure of the naphthenic acids were examined by proton- and carbon- NMR. Different activities were observed, especially against a copper-tolerant fungus. Some apparent correlations were seen between the fungicidal activity and chemical structures for the few samples studied.
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher


Sequestration of copper ions by the extracellular mucilaginous material (ECMM) of two wood rotting basidiomycetes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10533
The radial growth rate of colonies originating from either whole or ECMM-free inocula of Coriolus versicolor was investigated. The presence of ECMM allowed colonies to maintain higher growth rates than those form ECMM-free inocula up to 2 mM CuSO4 in the medium. The ECMM of C. versicolor and G. trabeum was able to reduce the diffusion of copper ions in solution. The ‘raw’ ECMM of both fungi had a greater ability to reduce the diffusion of copper ions than ECMM which had been subject to dialysis to remove soluble, low molecular weight components. The ‘insoluble’ fraction of ECMM for both species was more effective than the ‘soluble’ fraction at reducing the diffusion of copper ions. It is concluded that ECMM confers some protection to hyphae against the toxic effects of copper ions on growth in vivo and that this due to the binding of copper ions to both the polysaccharide and to low molecular weight components of the ECMM
D Vesentini, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy


Successive collections of Basidiospores from wood decay fungi (in vitro) show variation in germination levels on common media
1978 - IRG/WP 191
In the course of various preliminary experiments in which spore germination levels of 6 decay fungi on malt and water agar were recorded as controls, it was noted that one could not reliably obtain an expected level of spore germination for any particular fungus. Inconsistent 'control' spore germination levels of a fungus greatly complicates large scale experiments in which comparisons of data based on germination levels are attempted upon replication of the study over time. This study was done to determine if, in fact, spores collected at different times from specific hymenial areas of wood decay fungi sporulating in vitro differed significantly in germination level on common media under standardized conditions.
E L Schmidt, D W French


Influence of aliphatic acids on spore germination of wood decay fungi
1984 - IRG/WP 2224
Influences of eight saturated fatty acids (C5-C10, C12 and C16) on spores of four isolates of wood decaying basidiomycetes (white rot fungi: Poria tenuis and Trametes hispida; brown rot fungus: Gloeophyllum trabeum [two isolates]) were observed in-vitro. Spore response after 24 hr on malt extract agar containing 10, 10² , or 10³ ppm of each fatty acid included: no effect on normal germination, delayed germination or restricted mycelial growth, vacuolation and degeneration of spore cytoplasm, or germination inhibition without loss of spore integrity. C7-C10 acids destroyed spores of all fungi at 10² ppm whereas spores remained 'intact' at 10³ ppm of the same acids. C12 destroyed spores of the brown rot isolates but not the white rot fungi, and C16 lacked effect on all fungi at all concentrations. C5 and C6 destroyed spores only at 10³ ppm.
E L Schmidt


Spore germination of Gloeophyllum trabeum on wood is related to the mass of the wood sample
1978 - IRG/WP 2118
E L Schmidt, D W French


A preliminary study on the feasibility of substituting the soil culture medium in soil block tests
1984 - IRG/WP 2209
In this work the possibility was studied of substituting the soil culture medium in preservative screening methods. The conclusions are that another type of material, Sphagnum moss, can be used with advantages, but that some more information is still needed to give a real idea regarding the differences caused by the substrate tested.
J C Moreschi


Detoxification of preservatives: Tri-n-butyltin oxide as a biocide
1982 - IRG/WP 1156
T E Dudley-Brendell, D J Dickinson


A direct basidiomycetes test methodology. Report on an EWPM ring test
1988 - IRG/WP 2306
Results of an EWPM-ring test using a direct basidiomycetes test methodology are reported. The test is caracterized by using big test blocks and infestation by infected wood under unsterile conditions. The test procedure needs further development work, but the results are so promising that co-operation with CEN and EHC is initiated with the purpose of recognition and standardization.
B Jensen


Determination of the preventive efficacy against wood destroying basidiomycetes fungi, EN V 839 - CEN/TC 38 WG 9
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20015
The WG 9 of CEN TC/38 has presented to EC a mycological test to assess efficacy of preservatives applied by surface process. This method is now an experimental standard (EN V 839) which has to be approved by the different european delegations. The following paper is not the standard as it has been proposed but is a presentation of the principle of the method. The experimental standard specifies a laboratory method of test which gives a basis of the assessment of the preventive action of a wood preservative when applied as a surface treatment against Basidiomycetes fungi. This method is applicable to formulations of preservatives in a ready to use form (organic formulations, organic water-dispersible formulations, water-soluble materials). Series of susceptible wood species specimens are treated on longitudinal faces whith the preservative in test using brushing as surface procedure. Test specimens are then exposed by an intermediate mesh to feeder blocks infestedby pure culture of Basidiomycetes fungi in sterile conditions and penetration of fungi is assessed on cross section sawn in the samples at the end of the test.
D Dirol


Gloeophyllum trabeum and Gloeophyllum abietinum, the most frequent brown rot fungi in fir wood joinery
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10319
In Croatia the primary raw material for joinery production is silver fir wood (Abies alba Mill). L-joints made of home-grown fir sapwood and prepared according to EN 330: 1993 were used to establish the infection and colonisation of micro-organisms, particularly wood decay fungi, to compare the performance of untreated and 1% TnBTO treated L-joints. The L-joints were coated with two types of coat, and 36 months exposed in Zagreb. The first type of coat was alkyd paint and the second was a stain, in three different colours: white, brown, and black. The influence of the preservative, and the type of coat were most important factors which affected the rate of colonisation. The influence of coat colours was significant at the the beginning of exposure. The fastest and the strongest colonisation occurred in untreated L-joints coated with alkyd paint and the lowest colonisation occurred in treated L-joints coated with stain. It was due to the well known vaporous diffusivity of the stains and the low natural permeability of fir sapwood. The most frequently isolated fungi were Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers.: Fr.) Murr. and Gloeophyllum abietinum (Bull.: Fr.) Karst.
R Despot, M Glavas


Effects of a chitin synthesis inhibitor on spore germination of the decay fungi Gloeophyllum trabeum and Poria tenuis
1986 - IRG/WP 2253
This study sought to determine the effect of a chitin synthesis inhibitor - Polyoxin D, on spore germination and early hyphal development of a brown rot and a white rot fungus in-vitro. Polyoxin D is a competitive, substrate-analogue type of chitin synthtase inhibitor (2). The drawbacks to use of such a compound as a wood preservative tie. cost - $20,000/g, possible leaching or degradation) might be reduced should it be effective in preventing decay initiation by spore germination at very low concentrations.
E L Schmidt


Decay fungi in Finnish houses on the basis of inspection samples from 1978 to 1988
1989 - IRG/WP 1401
A summary of the causes and sources of fungal damages was made on the basis of decay samples and sample information sent to the Forest Products Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) between 1978 and 1988. About 50-130 decay cases in wood structures were studied annually. In almost 50% of all fungusdamage cases the cause was Serpula lacrymans. The proportion of Coniophora puteana is also high and the occurrence of Antrodia and Poria species is general. The most generally damaged structures were floors. According to sample information water pipe leakages often caused the damage.
L Paajanen, H Viitanen


Detection of incipient brown rot decay in wood by fourier transform infrared spectrometry
1987 - IRG/WP 2275
Fourier transform infrared spectrometry was evaluated as a possible method for detecting different levels of brown-rot decay in pine sapwood. By using first derivative spectra and regression analysis, an equation based on 4 absorption peaks, normalized with an internal standard peak, was developed. The correlation between weight loss and absorption was highly significant indicating that this is a valid method for detecting incipient brown-rot decay.
D D Nicholas, T Schultz


Answers to the questionnaire on Gloeophyllum trabeum ( = Lenzites trabea)
1972 - IRG/WP 107
In the Working Group I of the IRG it was agreed to prepare monographic cards of wood destroying fungi. In first instance three fungi, amongst which Gloeophyllum trabeum, were chosen to start with. A questionnaire was drawn up by Prof. C. Jaquiot and the members of the IRG were asked to give information on Gloeophyllum trabeum in accordance with this questionnaire. The results of this enquiry are given in this report.
T Hof


First draft of a monographic card for Gloeophyllum trabeum (Pers. ex Fr.) Murr
1973 - IRG/WP 113
T Hof


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