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Investigation of some technical properties of heat-treated wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40266
The objective of this study was to investigate some technical properties of heat-treated wood. Wood heat-treated according to a process intended for wood in above-ground end-uses (European hazard class 3) was subject to the following: · A delamination test according to EN 391 with glulam beams made of heat-treated pine (Pinus sylvestris) and spruce (Picea abies) laminations, assembled with PR...
C Bengtsson, J Jermer, A Clang, B Ek-Olausson


Thermal treatment of wood: European Processes and their background
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40241
Recent efforts on thermal treatment of wood lead to the development of several processes introduced to the European market during the last few years. The total production capacity of heat treated wood in 2001 is estimated as approx. 165.000 m3. In the paper the different heat processes are presented. The general technology as well as scientific data on the chemical transformation of the cell wall ...
H Militz


Corrosion of fasteners in heat-treated wood – progress report after two years’ exposure outdoors
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40296
The corrosion of common fastener materials now in use - mild steel, zinc-coated steel, aluminium and Sanbond Z-coated steel – has been evaluated after two years’ exposure outdoors in untreated and heat-treated spruce (Picea abies) respectively. Spruce from South-western Sweden was used. The heat-treatment was carried out in Finland according to the ThermoWood process at a maximum temperature ...
J Jermer, B-L Andersson


Improved resistance of Scots pine and Spruce by application of an oil-heat treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40162
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subject to a heat treatment which was carried out in an oil-bath. The aim was to improve the dimensional stability of the treated wood and its resistance against fungi. The bath of vegetable oil provides a uniform heat transfer at temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C and protects the submersed wood from oxygen. Heat trea...
M Sailer, A O Rapp, H Leithoff


The effects of heat treament on the specific gravity of beech and spruce wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40254
The effects of heat treatment on specific gravity of beech (Fagus orientalis) and spruce wood (Picea orientalis) naturally grown and intensively used in forest products industry in Turkey were studied. The wood samples were cut into 2 x 2 x 3 cm. Heat treatment was than applied to the wood samples at four different temperatures (130 °C, 150 °C, 180 °C and 200 °C) and three different durations...
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, G Colakoglu, E D Gezer, A Temiz


Durability of different heat treated materials from industrial processes in ground contact
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40312
In this study the durability of heat treated wood originating from four different European industrial heat treatment processes in ground contact was examined. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood/Finland, New Option Wood/France and Menz Holz/Germany where Oil-Heat treated Wood (OHT) is produced. All heat treated materials showed significantly i...
C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp


The effects of heat treatment on the toughness of beech wood
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40283
The effects of heat treatment on toughness of beech (Fagus orientalis) wood naturally grown and intensively used in forest products industry in Turkey were studied. The wood samples were cut into 5 x 5 x 5 cm. Heat treatment was than applied to the wood samples at three different temperatures (130 °C, 150 °C and 180 °C) and three different durations (2 h, 6 h and 10 h) under air atmospheres. ...
S Yildiz, Ü C Yildiz, E D Gezer, Ali Temiz, E Dizman


Thermal modification of non-durable wood species 1. The PLATO technology: thermal modification of wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40123
The PLATO technology is an innovative upgrading technology with low environmental impact, which can be applied to fast grown and non-durable wood species. This technology is based on a thermal modification of solid wood without the addition of chemicals (e.g. preservatives), consisting of a hydrothermal treatment, followed by drying and curing. The PLATO technology results in a substantial improve...
M J Boonstra, B F Tjeerdsma, H A C Groeneveld


Investigation of the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) for thermal modification
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40275
In this study the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) was examined for thermal modification. Comparative experimental investigations were performed with silver fir and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) after thermal treatments. Besides properties, which characterize the quality of heat treatments, like dimensional stability and resistance against fungal attack, strength properties of the...
C Brischke, A O Rapp


Durability aspects of (hydro)thermal treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40160
Samples of several wood species were treated in a two steps process, subsequently hydrothermal and dry heat-treated, by the so-called PLATO-process and analysed for their resistance against fungal attack. Both PLATO-treated and dry heat-treated specimen were prepared and analysed, in order to study the influence of moisture during hydrothermal treatment of wood. The resistance against all of the s...
B F Tjeerdsma, M Stevens, H Militz


Thermal modification of non-durable wood species 2. Improved wood properties of thermal treated wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40124
Properties of wood treated in a new heat-treatment process called the PLATO-process have been studied. Several wood species have been treated using this new thermal modification process using a range of process conditions (mainly time and temperature). In this study the characteristics of the treated wood were determined using samples from whole planks treated on pilot plant scale. The modified ch...
B F Tjeerdsma, M J Boonstra, H Militz


Comparison of thermally modified wood originating from four industrial scale processes – durability
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40229
This study examined the differences in biological wood properties of heat treated wood originating from four different European industrial heat treatment plants. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood/Finland, New Option Wood/France and Menz Holz/Germany where Oil-Heat treated Wood (OHT) is produced. The results of miniblock tests with basidiomyc...
C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp


Characteristics of thermally modified wood in vacuum
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40287
In commercial thermal wood modification processes nitrogen, steam or oil has been used for the reduction of oxygen content in the reactor atmosphere. In present study no special heating medium, but an initial vacuuming step has been used for this purpose. Mass loss, resistance to fungal decay, dimensional stability, bending strength and modulus of elasticity of heat treated wood were evaluated and...
G Rep, F Pohleven, B Bucar


The Effect of Flavonoids on Colour and Spectral Changes of the Wood Surface Caused by Heat Treatment or Ultra-violet Irradiation
2006 - IRG/WP 06-40341
Both heat treatment and UV irradiation can cause discolouration and change in the spectral properties of wood surface. Some of the characteristic flavonols have significant role on colour and spectral changes, despite of their relative small quantities in wood. Colour changes and spectral properties of natural and extracted black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) and poplar (Populus nigra L.) were...
R Csonka-Rákosa, L Molnár-Hamvas, E Börcsök, J Molnár, K Németh


Effects of heat treatments on decay resistance and material properties of ponderosa pine and yellow poplar
2007 - IRG/WP 07-40374
The potential for using heat treatment to improve the properties of North American fenestration species was evaluated on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L) and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L) treated using the ThermoWood process at various treatment temperatures and times. Soil block tests using Gloeophyllum trabeum, Postia placenta, or Trametes versicolor showed that durability was enh...
C Vidrine, C Freitag, J Nicholson, J J Morrell


Heat treatment, thermal treatment, thermal degradation of wood, carbon nanotubes and Damascus steel swords. What do they all have in common?
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40399
Thermal degradation of wood is a well known phenomenon. Yet heat-treatment of wood can also provide protection for wood against certain environmental hazards. This paper explores some of the aspects of thermal degradation of wood fiber at relatively low temperatures with a surprising result. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were produced when a specific heating regime was used to carbonize the wood fiber. ...
Xinfeng Xie, B Goodell, Yuhui Qian, G Daniel


High Temperature Treated Wood
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40429
High temperature can modify internal structure and physic-chemical properties of wood by a controlled pyrolysis process. Such treatment, among other changes in properties, modifies the wood color in a way that resembles exotic species, increasing its market value. The main objective of this work is to determine the changes in wood properties caused by the effect of temperature and time, in order t...
C C Borges, A L Barbosa, R Faber de Campos, S T Targas


Wettability and bonding strength of wood thermally-treated with different combinations of soy oil and chemical additives
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40454
Thermal treatment is a method which has gained wider acceptability as an alternative to the chemical treatment in wood preservation. In order to maximize the benefits of this technique several options have been adopted including the use of soy oil in transferring the heat to the wood. Available information on thermal treatment in general and the oil method in particular show that there are still n...
L Awoyemi, P A Cooper, T Ung


Barefoot-heat-impact of oil-heat-treated wood: An important thermal property of decking boards
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40458
In this study the phenomenon of sensual heat impression was examined, when walking with bare feet on sun exposed wood based decking boards. A suitable method for measuring the heat flux from decking boards into an artificial foot was developed. The method and measuring device is described as well as results from measuring three different decking board materials: Oil-heat-treated spruce (OHT), untr...
A O Rapp, C R Welzbacher, C Brischke


Corrosion of fasteners in heat-treated wood – progress report after nine years’ exposure outdoors
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40601
The corrosion of common fastener materials now in use - mild steel, zinc-coated steel, aluminium and Sanbond Z-coated steel – has been evaluated after nine years’ exposure outdoors in untreated and heat-treated (thermally modified) spruce (Picea abies). Spruce from south-western Sweden was used. The heat-treatment was carried out in Finland by Stora-Enso Oy according to the ThermoWood process ...
J Jermer, B-L Andersson


Effect of the nature of the inert atmosphere used during thermal treatment on chemical composition, decay durability and mechanical properties of wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40625
Wood heat treatment is an attractive alternative to improve decay resistance of low natural durability wood species. Nowadays, several types of thermal treatments of wood exist. These treatments differ mainly by the nature of the inert atmosphere used to avoid wood combustion which may correspond to: nitrogen, vacuum, steam or oil. Decay resistances as well as mechanical properties are strongly co...
K Candelier, S Dumarçay, A Pétrissans, M Pétrissans, P Gérardin


Experiences with an industrial system for controlled thermal wood modification in pressurized unsaturated steam
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40678
Thermal wood modification in pressurized reactors has a long history, but these processes are to date industrially scarcely used, because of the relatively complicated process equipment, compared to the more common high-temperature processes in kilns at atmospheric pressure. However, based on our practical experience with the FirmoLin® process, supported by recent scientific findings, it is foun...
W Willems


A review of the analytical methods used in determining the decay resistance of heat treated wood
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40690
Heat treatment as a wood process is increasingly used because of its non-biocide behaviour and its low environmental impact. This sort of treatment is based on biopolymer chemical degradation by heat transfer. This process improves mainly the dimensional stability and the decay resistance of wood. Wood becomes darker after this type of treatment and thus gives it an aesthetic appearance. These i...
K Candelier, M-F Thévenon, A Pétrissans, S Dumarçay, P Gérardin, M Pétrissans


Effects of heat treatment on sound absorption coefficients in nanosilver-impregnated and normal solid woods
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40770
Effects of impregnation with silver nano-suspension as well as heat-treatment on sound absorption coefficients (AC) were studied in tangential direction of five different solid woods based on their importance. AC was measured at two frequencies of 250 and 500 Hz. A 400 ppm nanosuspension was used for the impregnation; silver nanoparticles had a size range of 30-80 nm. Based on the obtained results...
A Esmailpour, J Norton, H R Taghiyari, H Zolfaghari, S Asadi


Is the SPM 15 effective? Survival of Pine Wood Nematode under thermal treatments
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40775
The pine wood nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Steiner and Buhrer) Nickle (PWN) is the causal agent of “Pine wilt disease” affecting coniferous forests, and since its detection in 1999 in Portugal, has obligated the European Union to take action to prevent its spread (Decision 2006/133/CE). The main measure applied is the International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures ISPM No. 15 (ISPM ...
L Robertson, M Conde, J C Cabrero, F Llinares, M T Troya


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