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Proposal for a method aiming at the quantification of the impact of wood extraction in Life Cycle Assessment
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50113
Life Cycle Assessment has been accepted as an instrument for the assessment of the environmental impact of products. Characterisation factors for impact assessment of emissions from products have been established. To date no characterisation factor exists for the extraction of biotic resources, for example wood. Since the main disadvantage of using wood as a material lies in the extraction of reso...
P Esser, E Van der Voet


Fungus cellar and antisapstain field trial studies of six triazole fungicides
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30077
The efficacy of six triazole fungicides was compared using a fungus cellar soil bed test, a rapid antisapstain laboratory trial and a 36 week antisapstain field trial. After 21 months in the fungus cellar the mean soundness of radiata pine treated with 1.5 kg/m³ of cyproconazole, azaconazole, hexaconazole, tebuconazole, propiconazole and flusilazole in combination with 1.0 kg/m³ didecydimethyl a...
R N Wakeling, J G Van der Waals, R D Narayan, J B Foster, B E Patterson, P N Maynard


A field study on the suitability of the European lap-joint test
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20239
Within the framework of the European SM&T Research Project "Co-normative research on field tests for wood preservatives out of ground contact in conjunction with methods for preconditioning test specimens prior to test" (FACT) one aim was to establish the suitability of the European lap-joint test (as it is described in ENV 12037:1996) to assess wood preservatives in the field in EHC 3. Scots ...
M Grinda, Ö Bergman, H-V Borck, D Dickinson, P Esser, R Gründlinger, H Leithoff, S Molnar, L Paajanen, N Pfabigan, E D Suttie, F Thomassin, T Nilsson, J Van Acker, M Van Der Zee, A Voss


Bethoguard; A new wood protecting fungicide for use in metal free ground contact wood preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30301
Research has identified the limitations in both the spectrum of activity and permanence of organic biocides placed in wood in high hazard environments, particularly in the absence of heavy metals such as copper. More specifically, the control of soft rot decay in wood in soil contact has proven to be most problematic. The new organic biocide, Bethoguard; an oxathiazine, has demonstrated excellen...
S C Forster, G R Williams, M Van Der Flaas, M Bacon, J Gors


A comparison of rates of decay and loss in stiffness of radiata pine and Douglas fir framing lumber
2008 - IRG/WP 08-20378
Stiffness loss with time was recorded for untreated radiata pine and Douglas fir framing size lumber and preservative treated radiata pine which dad been pre-inoculated with Oligoporus placenta, a brown rot decay fungus isolated from decaying untreated radiata pine framing. Between stiffness measurements, samples were contained in a plastic tank located outside at ambient temperature. Index of Con...
M Hedley, D Page, J van der Waals


Assessment of Boracol 200RH (FrameSaver) as a remedial treatment to control decay in pre-decayed model timber frame units
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30529
Model timber frame units constructed from untreated radiata pine were pre-wetted to approximately 40% moisture content and inoculated with Coniophora puteana and Oligoporus placenta. Units were transferred to a controlled environment room maintained at 25°C and 95% RH for 7 and 10 weeks to allow two levels of decay to become established in units. Following pre-decay, units were disassembled, clea...
Mick Hedley, Dave Page, Jackie van der Waals


The durability of acetylated radiata pine sapwood (Accoya). Results from five years testing
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30560
New Zealand grown radiata pine sapwood was modified using the Accsys PLC acetylation process (Accoya). Following treatment, various test samples were exposed in the Scion Accelerated Field Test facility (Fungus Cellar) and in exterior ground contact field tests. In the Fungus Cellar, performance was compared with that of radiata pine treated with CCA to Hazard Classes H3.2 (0.37% m/m Cu+Cr+As) and...
M Hedley, D Page, J van der Waals, K Nasheri, G Durbin


The development of accelerated test systems to evaluate the durability of framing timber
2014 - IRG /WP 14-20547
Various accelerated decay resistance trials including small simulated wall units, samples exposed in enclosed tanks and ‘I’ samples in stacks have been explored and used to test the durability of treated and untreated radiata pine framing at Scion since 2001. These testing methods have been established to determine the effectiveness of commercial formulations in preventing decay in framing sub...
T Singh, D Page, J van der Waals


Characterization of biofilm formation on wood treated with vegetable oils by color-based image interpretation method
2015 - IRG/WP 15-40697
The protection of wood in order to extend its service life is an important issue nowadays. As an alternative to traditional wood coatings biofilms can be used. It is a living protective coating for the wood surface against UV and bio-degradation that has the ability to recover from local damage, such as cracks. This paper presents preliminary results of biofilm formation from an 8-month’s fie...
K Filippovych, H Huinink, L van der Ven, O C G Adan


Dynamics of biofilm formation on wood impregnated with vegetable oils
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40769
Biofilms can be used as a living protective coating for wood, showing advantages compared to traditional wood-coatings regarding sustainability and self-repair. Biofilms can be formed on oil impregnated wood. Such an oil-biofilm system has the potential of protecting the wood against UV and bio degradation, creating a homogeneously black surface with self-healing properties. Results of biofilm for...
K Filippovych, H Huinink, L van der Ven, O C G Adan


Redwood Durability in NZ – Can pure culture laboratory tests predict outdoor service life
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20610
Coast Redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) is an alternative species in New Zealand to the large scale Pinus radiata plantations. Redwood is classified as moderately durable but its durability is extremely variable. In order to reduce this variability in future stock, understanding growth conditions, clone, and tree age effects are important however this involves many samples and is not suitable for ass...
D O’Callahan, C Chittenden, J van der Waals, D Meason, T Singh


Biofinish: A Functional Wood Surface Treatment based on Aureobasidium
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40903
Xyhlo Biofinish is a natural and environmentally friendly wood protection concept based on linseed oil impregnation and a fungal-based coating. It emerged in the late 1990s and has been developed over the past 15 years into an industrially applicable process in the Netherlands. The combination of linseed oil impregnation and a surface treatment with the living fungus Aureobasidium extends the serv...
S Rensink, M Sailer, S Roukens, J Gerber, H van der Mel, K Potgieter, J Spit, R Bulthuis, C Struck, M Bennink


Insect resistance of preservative treated tropical plywood against Lyctus
1990 - IRG/WP 1453
Seven plywood types composed of tropical wood species, vulnerable to Lyctus, were treated with various commercial water-borne and oil-borne preservatives. A wide range of preservative retentions was obtained by treating boards with dip treatment, steeping, double-vacuum and vacuum-pressure impregnations. Selected samples were subsequently tested for their insect resistance against Lyctus africanus...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, M Pallaske


Report of Section 4 2001
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40218
H M Barnes, J Van Acker


Effects of various preservative treatments on the mechanical and physical properties of plywood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40007
The technical properties of plywood are related to both the intrinsic characteristics of its composing wood species and the quality and performance of the glue bond which acts as an interface between veneer sheets. Consequently mechanical and physical testing and glue bond strength analysis offer an appropriate means for studying the effect of preservative treatments on the overall quality of plyw...
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Effect of protective additives on leachability and efficacy of borate treated wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30290
Borate preservatives have been used extensively in many countries as an effective means for protecting wood against fungal and insect attack especially in interior environments. Under exterior conditions, borate compounds have a main disadvantage as they can be leached from treated wood as a result of their water solubility. In this study, we compared the potential of different additives for re...
A Mohareb, J Van Acker, M Stevens


Report of Section 4 2002
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40250
J Van Acker


Eco-tax - A new threat for wood preservation? The Belgian experience
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-32
At the end of January 1993, a bill was put for Belgian Parliament related to the introduction called "Eco-taxes" on a series of products, such as packaging for drinks (especially on PVC-bottles), non-returnable articles (shavers, small cameras), batteries, pesticides for non-agricultural use and paper....
G Van Steertegem, F De Jaeger


Report of Section 4 2003
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40269
J Van Acker


Laboratory culturing and decay testing with Physisporinus vitreus and Donkioporia expansa orginating from identical cooling tower environments show major differences
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10184
Both Basidiomycete fungi Physisporinus vitreus (Pers.:Fr.) P. Karst. and Donkioporia expansa (Desm.) Kotl. & Pouz. were isolated from identical cooling tower environments. Azobé heartwood (Lophira alata), a very durable tropical wood species was totally deteriorated in cooling towers in a similar way by both fungi. First attempts to culture Physisporinus vitreus in laboratory circumstances sh...
J Van Acker, M Stevens


Effects of the anaerobic wood decay bacterium Clostridium xylanolyticum on unbleached Pinus and Eucalyptus pulp
1991 - IRG/WP 1506
Clostridium xylanolyticum has been shown to produce extracellular enzymes capable of degrading wood. The present work was conducted to quantify growth on various lignocellulosic substrates and degradation of pulped wood fibre. In the latter tests Clostridium xylanolyticum was incubated at 35°C under anaerobic conditions in a medium containing 0.2% (w/v) peptone and 4% (w/v) unbleached Pinus and E...
G D Shelver, U Matai, W Van Wyk, A A W Baecker


Decay resistance of resin treated wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30206
Selected natural resin systems were evaluated for their potential as wood protecting agents according to standard test procedures. As indicated by the European standard EN 599 both a Basidiomycete test according to EN 113 and a ENV 807 soil bed test were carried out. Six resin treatments were tested using 3 concentration or treatment levels. Using the biocidal activity criteria as usually applied ...
J Van Acker, A J Nurmi, S M Gray, H Militz, C Hill, H Kokko, A O Rapp


Tagung der Internationalen Forschungsgruppe für Holzschutz
1976 - IRG/WP 550
O Wälchli


LCA applied for wooden products
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50059
This paper presents some of the international developments within ISO and SETAC to standardize and harmonize LCA methodologies. In this framework it is also important to be aware of the problems that companies have to generate and validate data for the complete product chain from cradle to grave. This concerns problems in nomenclature of substances and processes, system boundaries, allocation prob...
A Kloppenburg, A Van Dam


Fipronil - le nouvel insecticide de Rhone Poulenc pour la preservation du bois
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30078
After the 3rd International Symposium in Cannes '95. More trial results and practical information on FIPRONIL, this new insecticide from Rhone Poulenc for Wood Preservation and PCO....
M G E J Van Maanen


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