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Copper preservative systems: A rapid investigation into effects of co-biocides and used treating solutions
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30541
The efficacy of various micronized and amine copper preservative systems was evaluated using soil block testing with the copper tolerant brown rot fungi, Postia placenta. The American Wood Protection Association E22 protocol was used to compare the relative efficacy of preservatives by monitoring compressive strength losses of the systems in southern pine wood. As information, the weight losses ...
T F Shupe, K Ragon, Q Wu, M H Freeman, C R McIntyre


Standardized Field Trials with Micronized Copper
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30564
In 2008, an extensive review of all available data from standardized tests of micronized copper systems was published and there has been considerable work since then. This paper discusses over 20 field stake trials underway in well-known sites such as Gainesville, FL, Hilo, HI and the Dorman and Saucier sites in MS as well as tests from Australia and New Zealand. In addition, 4 ground proximity ...
C R McIntyre, M H Freeman


A Critical Review and Survey of the US Wooden Pallet Industry: Focusing on Market Segmentation & N. American Trends
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40545
This paper reviews the history and current and predicted future use values in N. America. Included in this work is historical data on rationality and wood species used to manufacture wooden pallets in the USA and an ongoing current market survey sent to the 1000 largest manufacturers and re-manufacturers in the USA based on SIC Code 2448(Standard Industrial Code Classification). Although CHEP, the...
M H Freeman


KERUING and APITONG: A Timely Review of the Perfect Choice Wood Species for Crossarms and Brace Arms, Including Data on Copper Naphthenate Treatments
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40603
Apitong or the wood species more commonly known as Keruing is an important tropical hardwood known for its high strength to weight ratio and its reasonable durability and preservative treatability. This wood has been exported from managed permanent forest estates in Malaysia into the United States for over 4 decades for its widespread use in wooden utility industry brace arms and crossarms, yet cu...
A Wong, M Freeman


Copper naphthenate treatment for wood pols - a review and update
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30600
This paper reviews copper naphthenate (CuNap) and its utility as a treatment for wooden utility poles. One of the principal reasons that CuNap has gained market acceptance, in addition to its efficacy against decay fungi and wood-destroying insects, is its low mammalian toxicity. CuNap is a well-proven non-restricted use preservative, used extensively and specified for environmental reasons by ut...
J A Brient, M H Freeman


Micronized Copper Wood Preservatives: Strong Indications of the Reservoir Effect
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30609
Micronized copper wood preservative systems were launched commercially in May 2006. Now, over 75% of the residential lumber produced in the USA is treated with micronized wood preservative formulations. Although considered controversial at first, the mode of action of micronized copper has been clearly defined by multiple authors over the years, as well as a need for a co-biocide in water-borne sy...
M H Freeman, C R McIntyre


The Concept of Copper and Boron Synergy: Why Copper Naphthenate and Borates are a Couple Made in Heaven
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30622
Fungicides are often combined for four basic reasons:(1) to widen the spectrum of the fungicidal activity in which to broaden the spectrum of activity, (2) to exploit additive and synergistic activities between actives, and the activities are increased and thereby reducing the needs for the higher loadings of the active in the substrate, (3) to delay the resistance of one of the actives in the for...
M H Freeman


An Overview of Western Red Cedar as a Wood Pole Species
2014 - IRG/WP 14-10815
This paper reviews the characteristics of western red cedar, with particular emphasis on its use in utility poles. Western red cedar naturally grows primarily in British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, Idaho and Montana. Compared to other commercial softwoods it has low density, increased corrosivity, weaker mechanical properties, high dimensional stability, and high natural dura...
M H Freeman, R Stirling


COPPER NAPHTHENATE: A Product for All Seasons: Protecting the Americas’ Infrastructure for Over 100 Years and Potential for Expanded Usage in Europe
2019 - IRG/WP 19-30738
This paper is a brief review of the history and use of the wood preservative Copper Naphthenate, with a focus on use patterns within the USA and opportunities for expansion in Europe and Canada. This paper reviews how copper naphthenate has performed to preserve and protect cellulosic and wooden items essential to critical infrastructure, and why it is the ideal choice for use in the replacement o...
M H Freeman, J A Brient, M Manning


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