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Formation of hydrophobic wood surface by means of thermal treatment and surface modification with alkyl ketene dimer (AKD)
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40738
One of the major shortcomings of wood-based materials compared to technical materials is attributed to their poor dimensional stability in changing climates and in contact with liquid water. Heat treatment induces chemical change with a consequent decreasing of reactivity of the material showing unwanted surface inactivation. Alkyl ketene dimer (AKD) is a widely used sizing agent in papermaking, w...
T Lovaglio, T Meints, L Todaro, W Gindl-Altmutter

The effect of temperature on the rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound (AAC) wood preservative
1984 - IRG/WP 3293
The rate of fixation of an alkyl ammonium compound wood preservative was measured by soaking samples of wood wool in various preparations of the preservative for arbitrary times followed by immediate leaching in water. The wood wool was then analysed for residual preservative. The results indicated that fixation was very rapid and increased at higher temperatures....
P Vinden

Relationship between bond strength and surface characteristics of CCA-treated Douglas-fir
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30008
Chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated Douglas-fir was laminated using a commercial phenol-resorcinol resin. CCA treatment enhanced the water repelleney of wood espeeially in the presence of extractives. However, the shear strength of CCA treated wood was 12% lower in dry condition and 38% lower in wet condition after six cycles of vacuum-pressure test than that of untreated wood. Slight removal ...
K Yamamoto, J N R Ruddick

Evaluation of an alkyl ammonium compound as a fungicide to control sapstain and mould during diffusion storage
1984 - IRG/WP 3282
An alkyl ammonium compound ('Akzo' ES 255) was evaluated for its effectiveness against mould and sapstain during diffusion storage of boron-treated rubber wood. Though ES 255 at 1.0% concentration was effective against mould (71%) and sapstain (89%) it is less satisfactory compared to 0.5% sodium pentachlorophenoxide against mould (92%) and sapstain (98%)....
R Gnanaharan

Low-toxicity DNBP wood preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3408
Low and very low toxicity single compound preservatives of both excellent insecticidal and fungicidal activity for interior, extrior and ground-contact applications are presented. These are ester derivatives of alkyl dinitrophenols, in particular of 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP) and 2-sec-octyl-4,6-dinitrophenol. These esters, of much lower toxicity than DNBP impart to the treated timber co...
A Pizzi, W E Conradie, A Jansen, R Vosloo

Improvement of some technological and biological properties of poplar wood by impregnation with aqueous macromolecular compounds
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3721
Poplars (Populus spp) belong to the most important tree species in afforestation programs of the Netherlands. Due to their rapid growth, the wood quality is usually low. Therefore, studies were performed to elucidate whether some technological properties and the resistance against fungal attack could be improved by impregnation with water-soluble resins. The results showed that swelling and shrink...
R D Peek, H Militz, J J Kettenis

Tests with ammoniacal copper and alkyl ammonium compounds as wood preservatives
1984 - IRG/WP 3299
Formulations based on copper and alkyl ammonium compounds in ammonia solution have been tested in a fungus cellar on Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica. This type of products gives promising results as wood preservatives, especially on hardwood and are safe to destroy by e.g. combustion. The best results were achieved with a dialkyl ammonium compound, Cu/octyldecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (NH3)....
C-E Sundman

Improvement of intrinsic properties of wood by chemical wood densification - Hydrophobic aspects and durability aspects
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40149
To improve the intrinsic properties of Scot pine wood ((1) hydrophobic surface and (2) durability), two ways of chemical modification have been tested. The first one is the chemical modification of hydroxyl groups by active substances like diisocyanate compounds with a copolymerization step. The second way is a densification by an impregnation of resins and a gamma polymerisation. This second way ...
G Labat, Q K Tran, I Le Bayon

Alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride: toxicity to Coniophora puteana when formulated in water and organic solvent
1986 - IRG/WP 2250
Results from agar block tests using Coniophora puteana demonstrate that the biological activity of alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride is affected by the nature of the carrier solvent in which it is applied. In contrast to some earlier work, an alkyl ammonium compound in organic solvent formulation was identified that had significantly greater activity than its aqueous equivalent. A simple sol...
D P Blow

Effect of amphiphilic antioxidant alkyl ammonium ascorbate on inhibition of fungal growth: Application to wood preservatives formulation
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30466
Amphiphilic surfactants were synthesized from ascorbic acid and different fatty amines and evaluated for formulation of wood preservation products. Characterization of physicochemical properties of the new compounds indicated classical behavior of cationic surfactants. Antioxidant properties, estimated using methyl linoleate oxidation inhibition method, were similar to that of ascorbic acid teste...
C Gérardin , T Koumbi Mounanga, P Gérardin

Chemical modification of Scots Pine Sawdust by mixed anhydrides
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40439
By making react mixtures containing acetic-fatty anhydrides on Scots pine sawdust (SPS) without any solvent or catalyst; we synthesized mixed acetic-fatty esters of SPS. Such mixtures were synthesized by reaction between a carboxylic acid and acetic anhydride. These mixtures were obtained after reaction of acetic anhydride and a fatty acid that yields at equilibrium a mixture of five compounds: ac...
J Peydecastaing, E Borredon, S El Kasmi

Wettability and bonding strength of wood thermally-treated with different combinations of soy oil and chemical additives
2009 - IRG/WP 09-40454
Thermal treatment is a method which has gained wider acceptability as an alternative to the chemical treatment in wood preservation. In order to maximize the benefits of this technique several options have been adopted including the use of soy oil in transferring the heat to the wood. Available information on thermal treatment in general and the oil method in particular show that there are still n...
L Awoyemi, P A Cooper, T Ung

Adsorption of ACQ components in wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30522
To investigate the chemical adsorption capacity of copper-monoethanolamine (Cu-Mea) components on wood, the Na+ cation exchange capacity (CEC) of red pine (Pinus resinosa Ait.) was determined and compared to the adsorption capacity of free Mea and Cu-Mea complexes. The CEC increased with increasing pH. Free Mea adsorption as a function of pH followed the sodium adsorption curve except at pH over 9...
Myung Jae Lee, P Cooper

The potential of silicone-based formulations to enhance wood properties through industrial treatment for outdoor use
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30578
High hygroscopicity is one of the main weaknesses of wood as far as its susceptibility to biodegradation, and specifically to fungal decay. New wood preservation technologies are constantly entering the wood protection market, competing with traditional, biocide-based preservation. Silicones are commercially used as hydrophobic agents on stones and concrete. They belong to the restricted number of...
F Simon, F Marchal, F Pochon, M Kutnik, I Le Bayon

Reducing Extractives Stain in Western Red Cedar Sidewall Shingles
2014 - IRG/WP 14-30654
One of the aesthetic challenges that western red cedar shingles face is extractives redistribution stain, particularly in unpainted sidewall applications. Dip and pressure treatments with a mixture of quaternary ammonium compounds and alkyl amine oxides were investigated for their ability to prevent this stain. After nine months of exposure in Vancouver, extractives stain was present on nearly all...
R Stirling

The influence of log soaking temperature and thermal modification on the properties of birch veneers
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40749
In veneer manufacture the logs are routinely soaked in heated water baths in order to soften the wood prior to peeling. The temperature of the water may vary greatly between batches; however, the influence of log soaking temperature on veneer properties has had little research attention. Uncontrolled moisture is known to cause problems in wood-based materials, while thermal modification offers a m...
S Källbom, K Laine, M S Moghaddam, A Rohumaa, K Segerholm, M Wålinder

Hydrophilization of wood using a FE-DBD air plasma
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40907
One of the goals of surface protection of wood with coatings is to prevent the evolution of moisture in wood, which accelerates its degradation by abiotic and biotic factors. Good wettability of wood is a necessary pre-condition for sufficient protection with water-based coatings. Treatment of wood surface with atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge in configuration with a floating electrode was...
J Žigon, M Petrič, S Dahle

Effect of nano-particle characteristics and concentration on UV protection of timber: A field exposure test
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40941
Wood has a well-known susceptibility to ultra-violet light degradation, leading to premature replacement. A variety of products have been developed to protect against this damage, but most provide less than 12 months of protection and must be regularly reapplied. Developing improved coatings would help reduce wood losses and reduce maintenance costs. Nano-particles have a variety of attractive pro...
T Yi, J J Morrell

The influence of thermal modification and surface charring to different levels on wettability of Norway spruce wood
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40942
The wood can alternatively be protected from water absorption by thermal modification and charring. Both techniques cause certain chemical and physical changes in the wood, the extent of which depends on the level of temperature applied. The objective of this study was to determine how the combination of charring to different levels and thermal modification affects the chemical, morphological, and...
J Žigon, C Gerardin, M E P Wålinder, P Gerardin

Biocomposites based on PVA, cellulose nanofibrils and tannic acid
2022 - IRG/WP 22-40957
Biocomposite films based on a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with the addition of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) as a reinforcing component and with the addition of the biologically active tannic acid (TA) were prepared. The influence of different additions of CNF and TA in the polymer matrix PVA on the mechanical properties, improvement of hydrophobicity of the prepared films was studied. In all cases, the...
U Osolnik, V Vek, I Poljanšek, Poven

Effects of preservative impregnations on wettability and surface free energy properties of Eucalyptus grandis wood
2023 - IRG/WP 23-40978
Wettability and surface free energy (SFE) are crucial parameters for evaluating the adhesion thermodynamics of solid surfaces. Hence, this study investigated the effects of copper azole (CA) and disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) preservative impregnations on Eucalyptus grandis wood wettability and SFE. Wettability was determined in terms of contact angles with polar (water) and non-polar (dii...
A A Alade, C B Wessels, H Stolze, H Militz