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Effect of protective additives on leachability and efficacy of borate treated wood
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30290
Borate preservatives have been used extensively in many countries as an effective means for protecting wood against fungal and insect attack especially in interior environments. Under exterior conditions, borate compounds have a main disadvantage as they can be leached from treated wood as a result of their water solubility. In this study, we compared the potential of different additives for reducing the leachability of boron preservatives from treated wood. Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) and poplar (Populus trichocarpa x deltoides) test samples were vacuum treated with 1 % BAE (Boric Acid Equivalent) disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) solutions containing various additives e.g. glycerol/glyoxal, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVPY), a commercial resin compound and a commercial water repellent. The European Standard EN 84 was used as a leaching test for both coated and uncoated specimens. The results of chemical analysis of leachates taken at different periods showed that the use of protective additives reduces the boron leachability. The glycerol/glyoxal additive applied to treated pine sapwood showed the best performance. The percent of boron retained in uncoated pine sapwood was 26% while coated samples still retained 45% after 14 days of intense leaching. Similar tests on poplar revealed 19% and 34% for uncoated and coated samples, respectively.This represents a gain of 20 to 25% compared to pure DOT treated specimens of both wood species. Preliminary biological tests were carried out on malt agar using a miniblock technique for uncoated pine sapwood and beech, with Poria placenta and Coriolus versicolor, respectively. After six weeks of exposure to fungal attack all boron protective systems tested proved their effectiveness, as none of the test samples exhibited a mass loss exceeding 4%. The reference 1% BAE without protective additives showed an average mass loss of 15%. Finally, test data are reported of standard EN 113 testing in view of a further evaluation of the biological efficacy of combined DOT-additive treatments.
A Mohareb, J Van Acker, M Stevens

The distribution of introduced acetyl groups and a linseed oil model substance in wood examined by microautoradiography and ESEM
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40169
Microautoradiography, a photographic method that shows the localization of substances labelled with radioactive isotope, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM) were combined to enhance sensitivity, resolution and reliability for examination of the distribution of introduced substances in wood. The preparation of microautoradiographs is less complicated when investigated with ESEM and the preparation of ESEM-samples is quick and easy compared to a conventional SEM. When investigating microautoradiographs with ESEM, the wood structure is observed underneath the almost transparent photographic film. Silver grains, indicating the location of studied substances, are clearly distinguish from the wood material. The technique was used in two case studies for examination of cell wall penetration and distribution in pine sapwood. The distribution of acetyl groups, introduced by acetylation with acetic anhydride, and the distribution of a linseed oil model substance, triglycerol trioleate, were examined. Examinations of introduced acetyl groups showed an even distribution of acetyl groups in the wood cell wall at acetylation level of about 5, 15 and 20% (weight gain). Examination of the linseed oil model substance, glycerol trioleate, showed the presence of the model substance on applied surfaces, in rays and in lumen of some latewood cells. No cell wall penetration was observed.
M Rosenqvist

Effect of aqueous polymer treatments on wood properties. Part 2: Mechanical properties
1990 - IRG/WP 3611
Partially air-dried sapwood of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and southern pine (Pinus spp.) was treated with either aqueous polyacrylate or aqueous dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) solutions. Tests for static bending, toughness, and hardness were conducted on matched treated and untreated pieces according to ASTM Standards. Properties of pine were not affected by treatment with the polyacrylate. With sweetgum, the modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity were reduced, while hardness was improved. For the DMDHEU treatment, reduction in property values for both species was related to curing temperature.
Z Ashaari, H M Barnes, D E Lyon, R C Vasishth, D D Nicholas

Effect of aqueous polymer treatments on wood properties. Part 1: Treatability and dimensional stability
1990 - IRG/WP 3610
Partially air-dried sapwood of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and southern pine (Pinus spp.) was treated with either aqueous polyacrylate or aqueous dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) solutions. Tests for dimensional stability were conducted on matched treated and untreated pieces. Measurement of the antishrink efficiency indicated that DMDHEU was a better stabilizer than the polyacrylate system. Stability was related to polymer retention and curing temperature.
Z Ashaari, H M Barnes, R C Vasishth, D D Nicholas, D E Lyon

Characterization of wood decay enzymes by MALDI-MS for post-translational modification and gene identification
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10442
The recent sequencing of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium genome presents many opportunities, including the possibility of rapidly correlating specific wood decay proteins of the fungus with the corresponding gene sequences. Here we compare mass fragments of trypsin digests, determined by MALDI-MS (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Mass Spectrometry), with predicted mass fragments derived from genome sequence. Glyoxal oxidase of P. chrysosporium is used for proof of concept because its genomic organization is known. Glyoxal oxidase was also chosen because it is a glycoprotein, as are many other fungal proteins, and post-translational sites are predicted by MALDI-MS.
T H de Koker, P J Kersten

State of progress of utilisation of supramolecular gels for formulations of water-soluble wood preservation salts
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30630
This article is a compilation of the work done so far concerning the utilization of supramolecular hydrogels, built on low-molecular-weight amphiphilic molecules and containing boron salts conferring fungicidal properties. Mixing boron with thermoreversible hydrogels allows the formation of a supra molecular network incorporating boron and important amount of water upon gelification of the solution when the temperature decreases. Hydrogels obtained from several amphiphilic peptides, pseudo-peptides or various gelling molecules were impregnated in pine wood block using vacuum pressure treatment and subjected to leaching. Results indicated that incorporation of boron salts in the hydrogel network, allowed to protect effectively wood from degradation caused by the brown rot fungus Poria placenta even after leaching. It was assumed that these hydrogels are able to limit the leachability of boron salts.
F Obounou Akong, P Gérardin, M-F Thévenon, C Gérardin-Charbonnier

Effects of thermal modification on properties of Douglas-fir heartwood
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40663
The flexural properties and mass losses of thermal modified Douglas-fir pretreated with boron or glycerol were examined. Pretreatments were associated with slight, but not significant, reductions in modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE)of Douglas-fir at different thermal treatment levels. Boron pretreatment had the greatest effect on MOR. MOR of non-pretreated and boron treated samples increased slightly at the initial stage of thermal treatment and then decreased with rising temperature and time. The MOR of glycerol treated samples decreased with increasing temperature and time. The thermal treatments employed had no significant effect on MOE. Further studies are underway to characterize the durability of these materials.
Li Yan, J J Morrell

Dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic properties of heat treated glycerol-impregnation poplar wood
2016 - IRG/WP 16-40732
The viscoelastic properties of glycerol-impregnated poplar wood after heat treatments at various temperatures were examined by dynamic-mechanical analysis. The spectra of storage modulus (E’) and loss tangent (tgδ) in the frequency at 10 Hz were measured at the temperature range from -100 to 300℃. Compared to no peak in E’ spectra and two relaxation processes in tanδ spectra of non-impregnated wood, two peaks in E’ spectra and two new relaxation processes in tanδ spectra were observed in the glycerol-impregnated wood. The magnitudes of the peaks decreased with the heat treatment temperatures. Both the peaks in E’ spectra and the new relaxation processes in tan δ spectra disappeared at the heat treatment temperature above 180℃. The analysis results suggested that there are special interactions between glycerol and wood polymer and the interactions completed at the higher temperature.
Li Yan

Development of beech wood thermo-chemical modification treatments based on different vinylic derivatives of glycerol and polyglycerol
2019 - IRG/WP 19-40855
In this study, a combination between chemical and thermal wood modification has been investigated. Seven types of a low concentration of 10% aqueous additive solution of vinylicglycerol [glycerol-maleic anhydride (Gly-MA), glycidyl methacrylate (GM), and Glycerol methacrylate-maleic anhydride (GM/MA(2eq))], vinylicpolyglycerol [polyglycerol-maleic anhydride (PG-MA), polyglycerol methacrylate (PGM), and polyglycerol methacrylate-maleic anhydride (PGM/MA(3eq))], and maleic anhydride (MA) were impregnated into European beech wood (Fagus sylvatica), known for its low dimensional stability and poor natural durability. Varied with different curing temperatures at 103, 150, 200, and 220oC under inert condition, the modified wood and control were then characterized for their physical, mechanical, decay, and termite resistance properties. We found that, at the same initial weight percent gain (WPG) value (8 – 11%), mass changes (∆m) after thermal treatment, bulking (B), weight loss due to leaching (WLL), swelling (S), wettability, modulus of elasticity (MOE), and modulus of rupture (MOR) values of the additive-treated wood decreased as the curing temperature increased. In contrast, anti-swelling efficiency (ASE), decay resistance against Coriolus versicolor, and termite resistance against Reticulitermes flavipes values of additive-treated wood increased considerably for some treatments as the curing temperature increased, with better results at 200 and 220oC. In other words, the study has disclosed that the addition of some selected additives combined with thermal treatment can improve wood decay resistance and termite resistance better than untreated wood or wood with only thermally modified treatment.
M Mubarok, S Dumarcay, H Militz, K Candelier, M-F Thevenon, P Gerardin

Mechanical and biological durability properties against soft-rot and subterranean termite in the field (grave-yard test) of beech wood impregnated with different derivatives of glycerol or polyglycerol and maleic anhydride followed by thermal modification in an opened or in a closed system
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40917
This paper presents mechanical and biological durability properties in soil beg test (soft-rot test) and field test (grave-yard test) against subterranean termite of the wood modified with an aqueous vinylic derivative of glycerol/polyglycerol or maleic anhydride cured in an opened or in a closed system. Wood modification was performed through impregnation of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) with aqueous solution of polyglycerol maleate, glycerol maleate, or maleic anhydride at 10 or 20% w/w concentration, followed with curing under oven heating (OHT) at 120°C, 150°C, or 220°C in opened system or under heat pressurised steam (HPS) at 150°C in closed system. The modified woods were then characterized for their weight percent gain and mass losses after curing process, mechanical properties [modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), work to maximum load in bending (WMLB)], and biological durability properties against soft-rotting micro fungi in soil beg test and against subterranean termite (grave-yard test) in a tropical country. Results have revealed that almost all modified wood presented higher MOE values than untreated wood, however, MOR and WMLB decreased up to 27% and 87%, respectively. Biological durability in the soil beg test against soft-rot indicated that almost all modified wood were specified as durable to very durable wood. However, among the treatments, the wood modified with polyglycerol maleate/glycerol maleate/maleic anhydride at 20% under OHT 150°C or the wood modified at lower additive concentration (10%) under OHT 220°C presented significantly better durability against subterranean termite within a period of 328 days in the field.
M Mubarok, H Militz, S Dumarcay, I W Darmawan, Y S Hadi, P Gerardin