Your search resulted in 47 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
Durability of Furfurylated Wood – Results from Laboratory and Field Tests in the Ecobinders project
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40602
Within the EU project Ecobinders, laboratory tests were performed with furfurylated wood produced in semi-industrial scale in the factory of Kebony ASA. Field trials in Horizontal double layer decks and in-ground of transmission poles were also started. Four wood species, Southern yellow pine (SYP), maple, beech and aspen were treated to two treatment levels by using two impregnating liquids with ...
A critical view on early indicators for above ground field performance of wood
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20509
Above ground field tests are quite often a balancing act between the provision of realistic test conditions, reliable statistics, and acceptable long test durations. Within this study we therefore reviewed 543 data sets from above ground field tests performed at 36 different test sites in 8 countries in Australia and Europe. The main objective was to investigate possible correlations between early...
C Brischke, L Meyer, G Alfredsen, P-O Flæte, L Francis, M Hansson, P Larsson Brelid, J Jermer
The natural durability of wood in different use classes
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10457
The natural durability of important European wood species has been tested on 3970 specimen in field trials. The wood was exposed at five test fields in Germany with different climates at each site in European hazard class 4 and 3 (with and without soil contact). Within EHC 3 it was distinguished between tree different expositions (end grain sheltered, unsheltered and with water trap). The test is...
U Augusta, A O Rapp
The full guideline for the “double layer test method” - A field test method for determining the durability of wood out of ground
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20290
This guideline describes a test method for wood to be exposed to the weather out of ground contact. The main objective of the method is to evaluate the durability of wood in above ground exposure as shifted overlaid stakes, which form the so called double layer. The method is applicable to the testing of untreated, treated and modified wood. Initially it was developed and found to be most useful ...
A O Rapp, U Augusta
Natural durability of Norwegian wood species for above ground applications – Project presentation and preliminary results
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10594
In Norway exterior wood structures have traditionally nearly exclusively been made of treated and untreated Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). In recent years there has been a tendency that other tree species, like various domestic hardwoods and imported species have been used in exterior above ground applications, often unfinished. For several wood speci...
P O Flæte, G Alfredsen, F G Evans
Moisture content and other tested values in. Double layer tests of different size in Lithuania and Germany
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20299
The paper presents measurement results of moisture content and the analysis of durability trial of double layer wood in variants of varying size, conducted in Girionys, Kaunas distr., Lithuania and in Hamburg, Germany. In this trial 3 sample sets of varying size, containing 25, 50 and 100 specimens, are used. The aim of this trial is to ascertain an optimal number of test specimens. The dynamics o...
J Saladis, A O Rapp
The natural durability of wood in different use classes - PART II
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10598
The natural durability of important European wood species has been tested on 3970 speci¬mens in field trials. The wood was exposed at five test sites in Germany with different climates, at each site in European use class 4 and 3 (with and without soil contact). Within European use class 3 three different expositions were tested: vertical with sheltered end grain, vertical unsheltered and horizont...
A O Rapp, U Augusta, K Brandt
Service life prediction of wooden components – Part 1: Determination of dose-response functions for above ground decay
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20439
Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Douglas fir heartwood (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) specimens were exposed in double layer field trials at 24 different European test sites under different exposure conditions (in total 28 test sets). The material climate in terms of wood moisture content (MC) and wood temperature was automatically recorded over a period of up to eight years and compar...
C Brischke, A O Rapp
Impact of climate change on wood deterioration - Challenges and solutions for cultural heritage
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20441
Deterioration of wood in cultural assets follows the same physiological mechanisms as in modern structures. Therefore rules and data for prediction of service life derived from old wooden structures can be used to model the service life of recent wooden structures and vice versa. The latter is done in this paper: From experimental test set ups in the field spread over Europe, climatic data, wood t...
C Brischke, A O Rapp, M Hasan, R Despot
Natural durability of wood tested in different environments in Northern Europe
2011 - IRG/WP 11-10747
Moisture is often recognised as a key factor regarding the long time performance of wooden products, and one of the main challenges for timber products is to predict accurate service life in use class 3 (not covered above ground) and use class 4 (in soil or fresh water contact). A range of durability classification studies have been performed both in field and laboratory. But for several wood spec...
P O Flæte, G Alfredsen, F G Evans
Moisture performance based wood durability testing
2012 - IRG/WP 12-20495
In the frame of a scientific cooperation within the Swedish research program ‘WoodBuild’ comparative field and laboratory durability studies have been carried out by the Technical Research Institute of Sweden SP and Leibniz University Hannover. One objective was to improve test methods as well as evaluation systems in order to facilitate the use of (field) testing for service life prediction. ...
L Meyer, C Brischke, A Pilgård
Report on COST E37 Round Robin Tests – Comparison of results from laboratory and field tests
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20535
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consists of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. When comparing EN 84 preconditioning (two weeks water leaching) with natural preconditioning (1 year in field, above ground) according to CEN/TS 15397, no significant difference...
M Westin, E Conti, J Creemers, P-O Flæte, A Gellerich, I Irbe, M Klamer, B Mazela, E Melcher, R Möller, L Nunes, S Palanti, L Reinprecht, E Suttie, H Viitanen
10 year Report on COST E37 Round Robin Tests – Comparison of results from laboratory and field tests
2017 - IRG/WP 17-30718
A round robin involving 15 European participants was set up in 2006. The round robin consisted of both a field test according to the double layer test method and a laboratory test with two different preconditioning methods. The laboratory test results were reported in an earlier IRG paper (IRG/WP13-20535) but are included also in this paper in order to facilitate the comparison with the field test...
M Westin, E Conti, J Creemers, P-O Flæte, A Gellerich, I Irbe, M Klamer, E Melcher, R Moeller, L Nunes, S Palanti, L Reinprecht, E Suttie, H Viitanen
Above-ground testing methods – review of Rotorua, New Zealand test site results after ten years
2018 - RG/WP 18-20642
A series of seven different types of above ground durability tests were initially conducted over four years to determine which type of tests would give the fastest, most consistent results. Five types of test; ground proximity, two types of decking, flat panels and double layer, were reassessed after ten years. Exposure conditions varied between tests with ground proximity producing close to groun...
D Page, T Singh
Future development of durability assessment of wood, according to typical usage of preservative-treated wood and naturally durable wood in Japan
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20675
A market of preserved wood products in Japan has two unique histories. First is the market shift to residential ground sills from utility poles and sleepers; the other is the stop of CCA treatment caused by the new effluent standard. In 2018, around 85% of preserved wood products used for residential ground sills were treated with non-CCA such as Cu-based agents. Since the market of treated wood h...
T Osawa, W Ohmura, H Kurisaki
Performance of treated fence posts after 6 years in five test plots in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil
1976 - IRG/WP 376
Fence posts treated with creosote, pentachlorophenol and creosote/ pentachlorophenol mixtures showed good performance after 6 years of exposure in five test plots located in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Good results were also achieved with copper sulphate/sodium arsenate and copper sulphate/potassium dichromate mixtures. Fungi and termites were the main destroying agents found attacking the po...
M S Cavalcante
Ultra-structural observations on the degradation of wood surfaces during weathering
1987 - IRG/WP 2280
Radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood was converted into blocks with a transverse face about 5 mm square and measuring 8 mm longitudinally. Transverse (T.S.), Radial (R.L.S.) and Tangential (T.L.S.) surfaces were prepared and specimens exposed to the weather inclined at 45° facing equatorially for periods of between 20-60 days. After 30 days exposure erosion of the middle lamella was observ...
P D Evans, S Thein
Preservative treatment of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts by the double-diffusion method
1982 - IRG/WP 3196
Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated by the double-diffusion method with two chemical combinations showed average lives of 11.2 years (copper sulphate and potassium dichromate at 10.5 kg/m³ retention)and of 14.3 years (copper sulphate and sodium mono-H arsenate at 7.1 kg/m³ retention), as determined in five test sites in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The exponential model was the best fit wh...
E S Lepage, A R De Freitas
Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
Studies of the distribution and degradation of tributyltin naphthenate in double-vacuum treated wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3230
The effects of forced solvent evaporation by kilning redwood (Pinus sylvestris) that has been double-vacuum treated with tributyltin naphthenate (TBTN) have been investigated. Contrary to previous studies reported, it has been shown that forced evaporation can have a considerable influence on the losses of the fungicide. It has been found that, whether the solvent is allowed to evaporate slowly or...
J Jermer, M-L Edlund, W Hintze, S V Ohlsson
Analysis of organotin fungicides in wood preservative solutions and double-vacuum treated wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3250
A new analytical method using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), for the assay of organotin compounds in preservative-treated wood, is presented. The organotin compounds are extracted from the ground wood sample with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and ethanol. After HPTLC-separation, exposure of the thin-layer plate to ultraviolet light, and dipping of the plate into a 0.1% pyroca...
W Hintze, S V Ohlsson
Treatment of messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hérit) by double-diffusion: Preliminary report
1983 - IRG/WP 3234
Modified double-diffusion is suggested as a method of impregnation for mixed tropical hardwoods for certain types of ground contact use in less developed countries. Compared with vacuum/pressure impregnation, capital costs are low and little skill is needed for the operations involved. Treatment of messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua L'Herit) rounds involving pre-heating in water prior to their ...
F F K Ampong, C-W Chin
Effect of double-vacuum and vacuum-pressure impregnation with water-borne preservatives on the dimensional characteristics of spruce
1990 - IRG/WP 3613
Air-dried planed spruce (Picea abies) samples were treated with a water-borne preservative (micro-emulsion) and one oil-borne type both containing azaconazole and deltamethrin. Each set of samples contained equal number of specimens with different growth ring orientation, heartwood content and density. In addition to the preservative retention and the penetration of a.i., the swelling of the sampl...
J Van Acker, M Stevens, G Rustenburg
TBTO absorption and penetration in pine joinery treated by various processes
1989 - IRG/WP 3523
Matched sections of several White pine (Pinus strobus) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) mouldings were treated with TBTO by Double vacuum, modified empty-cell, 15 second dip and several preheating treatments followed by a 15 s dip treatments. As expected the double vacuum and empty-cell (batch) treatments resulted in much greater retentions and penetrations than the dip treatments. The absorpt...
P A Cooper, Y T Ung
Preservative treatement of muli bamboo (Melocanna baccifera) by pressure process
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40194
This study was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of preservative treatment of split bamboo by pressure process. Whole bamboo is very difficult to treat by pressure process, which is the best and most dependable of all treating processes. Because it surface has a coat of impervious cutiular which make it very resistance to the penetration of liquid. Beside this it is prone to deve...
K Akhter, M Younusuzzaman, M H Chowdhury