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A below-ground exposure method for determining the resistance of woody and non-woody materials to attack by subterranean termites
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10012
With existing field test procedures, in which specimens are installed vertically to some of their length into the ground and spaced out from each other ("grave-yard" tests), variations in the rate of contact by termites between replicates can be common. Mechanical damage to specimens during inspection and re-installation may also be difficult to avoid. A new field test method, evaluated in Australia, is described. Close to nests of or within the most active foraging sites of target species of termite, test specimens are exposed horizontally below the grownd in trenches (300 mm deep). The base of the trench is lined with strips of termite-susceptible timber. On top of the strips, specimens of susceptible timber and test specimens are layed adjacent to each other in alternating sequence. These are covered with additional strips of timber. Finally the test trench is backfilled with soil. Offering specimens together with a concentrated supply of susceptible timber below the soil surface provides an attractive food source and an environment that is conducive to sustained foraging by termites. Under Australian conditions brown, white and soft rots were present in timber specimens buried horizontally in the soil at a depth of 300 mm. The below-ground exposure method is very versatile and can be used for assessing the resistance of a wide range of materials of any shape. Inspections and re-installations of tests can be performed with ease and without causing damage to test specimens.
M Lenz, J W Creffield


Mechanical and biological durability properties against soft-rot and subterranean termite in the field (grave-yard test) of beech wood impregnated with different derivatives of glycerol or polyglycerol and maleic anhydride followed by thermal modification in an opened or in a closed system
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40917
This paper presents mechanical and biological durability properties in soil beg test (soft-rot test) and field test (grave-yard test) against subterranean termite of the wood modified with an aqueous vinylic derivative of glycerol/polyglycerol or maleic anhydride cured in an opened or in a closed system. Wood modification was performed through impregnation of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) with aqueous solution of polyglycerol maleate, glycerol maleate, or maleic anhydride at 10 or 20% w/w concentration, followed with curing under oven heating (OHT) at 120°C, 150°C, or 220°C in opened system or under heat pressurised steam (HPS) at 150°C in closed system. The modified woods were then characterized for their weight percent gain and mass losses after curing process, mechanical properties [modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), work to maximum load in bending (WMLB)], and biological durability properties against soft-rotting micro fungi in soil beg test and against subterranean termite (grave-yard test) in a tropical country. Results have revealed that almost all modified wood presented higher MOE values than untreated wood, however, MOR and WMLB decreased up to 27% and 87%, respectively. Biological durability in the soil beg test against soft-rot indicated that almost all modified wood were specified as durable to very durable wood. However, among the treatments, the wood modified with polyglycerol maleate/glycerol maleate/maleic anhydride at 20% under OHT 150°C or the wood modified at lower additive concentration (10%) under OHT 220°C presented significantly better durability against subterranean termite within a period of 328 days in the field.
M Mubarok, H Militz, S Dumarcay, I W Darmawan, Y S Hadi, P Gerardin


Programme section 2, Test methodology and assessment
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20126
IRG Secretariat


Progress report on co-operative research project on L-joint testing
1983 - IRG/WP 2192
A F Bravery, D J Dickinson, M Fougerousse


A comparison of soft rot, white rot and brown rot in CCA, CCP, CCF, CCB, TCMTB and benzalkonium chloride treated Pinus radiata IUFRO stakes, after 9-15 years exposure at five test sites in New Zealand
1991 - IRG/WP 1485
The aim of this study was to determine if decay type varies significantly between five field trial test sites of different soil type, aspect and climate in 9-15 year old, replicate CCA, CCF, CCP. CCB, TCMTB and AAC treated IUFRO stakes. A visual on-site assessment of decay type on every test stake was made and observations confirmed by microscopical examination. Regression analyses were used to determine significant differences of percentage frequency of occurrence of each rot type between sites and preservatives. Large differences in percentage frequency of occurrence of rot type were evident between sites. One site was dominated by brown rot (85%) and two were dominated by soft rot (99 and 91%). The fourth site had intermediate proportions of brown rot (40%) and soft rot (71%) but had the second highest occurrence of white rot (32%) (highest = 37%; lowest = 11%). The fifth site was distinct in that a large proportion of stakes (69%) had both well established brown rot and soft rot. Stakes at the other four sites tended to have only one rot type. Some highly significant preservative effects were also found. Possible causes of these differences are discussed in terms of inter-site soil type, climate and other differences.
R N Wakeling


Wood preservatives: Field tests out of ground contact. Brief survey of principles and methodology
1976 - IRG/WP 269
This paper contains the following spots: 1.: The general need for field tests. 2.: Interests and limits of field tests in ground contact. 3.: Various methods in use for out-of-ground contact field tests. 4.: Fungal cellar tests are they an alternative to above-ground decay exposure tests? 5.: Conclusions.
M Fougerousse


Collaborative soft rot tests. Names and addresses of collaborators
1973 - IRG/WP 231
IRG Secretariat


A suggested method to test the toxicity of wood preservatives towards the house longhorn beetle
1977 - IRG/WP 275
This method was developed in the Institute for Wood Technology in Sarajevo, Yugoslavia and is used to get quick information on the toxicity of wood preservatives against house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus). The method can be used for superficially treated or deeply impregnated wood blocks, and by using small or normal size test material it can be used as a laboratory or field test, and also for accelerated infestation of test material out of ground contact. The paper is given to the International Research Group on Wood Preservation as a suggested method which could possibly be used as a standard. Only the laboratory test method is described.
N Vidovic


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed.
J Beesley


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


A rapid field bioassay technique with subterranean termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1188
Details are summarised of a field procedure which is designed to ensure continuous exposure to a replenishing termite biomass. After pre-baiting to determine the presence and identification of a termite hazard, test specimens (35 x 35 x 250 mm³) are installed vertically in the ground adjacent to and in contact with bait specimens of the same dimensions and interconnected by susceptible feeder strip.
C D Howick, J W Creffield


Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi
M-L Edlund


Performance of treated fence posts after 6 years in five test plots in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil
1976 - IRG/WP 376
Fence posts treated with creosote, pentachlorophenol and creosote/ pentachlorophenol mixtures showed good performance after 6 years of exposure in five test plots located in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Good results were also achieved with copper sulphate/sodium arsenate and copper sulphate/potassium dichromate mixtures. Fungi and termites were the main destroying agents found attacking the posts.
M S Cavalcante


How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market and fulfil the formal requirements. In the European Union countries, the EN 599-1 is the standard that needs to be complied when approving a new product for the market, but it only focuses on the toxic limit against representative decay fungi according to EN 113. However, decay test, above ground and other forms of field tests are optional, this is not in line with the traditional test philosophy in the Scandinavian countries. The open question is to which extent treatment to the level of the toxic threshold value also ensures a long service life and expected performance of the treated commodity. Superwood™ is evaluated using a strategy, in which basic laboratory tests are done to get the toxic value (according to EN 599-1) and in addition a number of field tests are done including accelerated testing in the tropics. These tests are focussed on the evaluation of the performance criteria such as durability and service life and maintenance requirements. These questions must be answered by the producer without having a full record of performance test for their new products. A short status on the test performed on super-critical treated wood (Superwood™) is presented. Based on a comparison between field test in Scandinavia and in the tropical Malaysia a service life of more than 25 years for a specific supercritical treated product is estimated. It is stated that the existing European standardisation system is insufficient when it comes to service life prediction. A number of important questions need to be addressed by the European standardisation system as soon as possible because the market and the public opinion change quickly due to environmental concern.
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


Developments in the protection of wood and wood-based products
1980 - IRG/WP 340
Technology is playing an increasingly important role in the field of wood protection. This current review highlights how modern techniques have provided greater insight into the biological and physical processes affecting the durability of wood and wood-based products. Emphasis is also given to developments in preservative testing methodology and to the encouraging changes towards both the correct use of timber and the improvement of Standards and Codes of Practice. A final section, on recent technical developments in wood preservation, considers subjects ranging from an evaluation of new specific biocides to methods of increasing the permeability of refractory timber species.
J M Baker


IRG Working Group II. Co-operative leaching test (letter to collaborators)
1974 - IRG/WP 240
J W W Morgan


Testing of wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 1). Method of testing wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 2)
1971 - IRG/WP 37
P C Trussell, C C Walden


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. 2nd Interim Report
1981 - IRG/WP 477
Three reference wood species - Alstonia scholaris, Fagus sylvatica and Pinus sylvestris, untreated and treated with 3%, 6% and 10% CCA and CCB solutions were supplied to all participants for submergence at local sites. Regular examination of samples is being carried out - 6 months, 12 months and then annually for 7 years.
R A Eaton


Protocol for evaluation and approving new wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 2159
M E Hedley, J A Butcher


The proposal for the method of testing the phytotoxic effect of wood preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50163
Four methods of testing the phytotoxic effect of wood preservatives are proposed as the unified test by: - direct application of the preservatives to the test plants by spraying; - direct application of the preservative to the soil substrate; - indication plants growing in the vicinity of treated wood; - seed germination rate on the treated substrate.
J Wazny, P Witomski


International collaborative laboratory comparison of two wood preservatives against subterranean termites: Third update and first report
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10174
At the 24th annual meeting of IRG in Orlando, USA, in May 1993 an international subterranean termite laboratory bioassay to compare the various preferred termite protocols used by IRG termitologists was initiated. The author was nominated to co-ordinate this comparative laboratory evaluation of two wood preservatives, copper-chrome-arsenic (CCA) and copper naphthenate (Cu-Na) against the subterranean termites used as test termites in Australia, France, Japan, Thailand, United Kingdom and the Unites States of America. Solutions of these two wood preservatives were prepared and impregnated into Pinus radiata wood blocks to obtain loading of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 kg/m³ respectively. All preservative treatments were carried out at the Division of Forestry and Forest Products in Melbourne. The treated specimens were dispatched to the participating researchers who subjected these specimens to attack by their test termite species, and have now returned the specimens to Melbourne. This paper reports the amount of wood consumed and the mean mass loss (%) on both treated and untreated wood blocks by the termites in the various laboratory bioassays.
J R J French


Comparison of Different Methods for Assessing the Performance of Preservatives in the BAM Fungus Cellar Test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20149
The fungus cellar test is a common means to get reliable data on the long term performance of treated wood in soil contact. A constantly high humidity and a suitable of water holding capacity for a range of micro-organisms provide high decay rates in untreated wood and produce intensive microbial pressures on wood treated with biocides. Presently a range of biocides are under test in the BAM fungus cellar and the results will be presented for the following types of biocides: Tebuconazole in combination with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar), quats with copper and boron (5 years fungus cellar) and Cu-organic compound combined with copper and boron (3 years fungus cellar). Figures will be shown on the development of the Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) over the years and on an assessment of the stakes according to EN 252.
I Stephan, M Grinda, D Rudolph


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 13: Report of fourth inspection (36 months) in Australia
1981 - IRG/WP 481
This report presents the results of the fourth inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. The inspection took place on 9th December, 1980, after 36 months exposure. Full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens, as well as results of the first three inspections (after 6, 12, and 24 months exposure), have been presented in earlier reports. All inspections of this test have been carried out in accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) except for an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. In conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan, the fifth and sixth replicates of the whole test (i.e. those specimens with '5' or '6' as the final digit of their serial number) were recovered and returned to the United Kingdom after 6 months and 24 months of immersion. Thus, only four replicates remain to be examined at this and ensuing inspections.
J Beesley


Laboratory decay test of Burmese in and kanyin treated with three wood preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 3210
Laboratory decay tests were performed on samples of In (Dipterocarpus tuberculatus Roxb.) and Kanyin (Dipterocarpus alatus Roxb. and Dipterocarpus turbinatus Gaertn f.) pressure treated with three wood preservatives - copper arsenic additive (CAA - a variation of ammoniacal copper arsenate), Arquad C-33 (a waterborne quaternary ammonium formulation), and tributyltin acetate (TBTA) dissolved in ethanol. Pressure treatments with each preservative involved a 0.5 - 1 hour vacuum followed by a 4 hour period of pressure. This resulted in a very variable treatment because of the inherent difficulty in treating these woods. The decay tests entailed a slightly modified form of the AWPA M10-77 standard soil-block test using three brown-rot and three white-rot fungi. The untreated In and Kanyin samples were moderately susceptible to decay though weight losses were very variable and some samples of Kanyin (usually the densest and least permeable) were naturally resistant. At the concentrations tested CAA was the most effective in reducing weight losses incurred in the soil-block tests. TBTA was successful in controlling decay caused by all but two of the test fungi. It is suggested that preservative retentions for TBTA conforming to those included in the Candadian standard for bis (tributyltin) oxide would exceed the toxic limit for all the fungi tested
J N R Ruddick, R S Smith, A Byrne


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