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Wood preservation in East European countries
1989 - IRG/WP 3527
The paper discusses the main problems of wood preservation in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, German DR, Hungary, Poland, Rumania and the USSR. The main types of wood preservatives produced have been presented, as well as the state of standarization to test their properties. There have been considered methods of wood treatment in use and application range of treated wood.
J Wazny


The amazing wooden churches from Northern Romania - learning from the past, restoring for the future, preserving the present valuable heritage of forgotten wood building tradition
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10683
The beauty and the uniqueness of the north-western region of Romania called “Maramureş” are well known in Europe. Surrounded by mountains, the region remained to some extend isolated from modern influences, preserving the local village architecture and craftsman traditions learnt and passed on from generation to generation. Local folklore and past heritage sets you back centuries ago when the manual work and wood in particular was the only way to build. Wood construction with specific architecture has developed in this region. Houses and churches were erected in a way in which even today some of these building are still standing and integrate nicely with the landscape. As always good time and bad time are cycles in the human history and time have its impact on the any wooden construction. Restoring and preserving these unique wooden churches from Maramureş is not only a necessity for the local people but an honour and duty in order to preserve their heritage and traditions. In this study, a biological evaluation of the aged and destroyed wood from an historical wooden church from Maramureş, Romania, recently restored, is being investigated and discussed. The aged oak material used in the initial construction is compared with today’s oak wood material available on the market. The option of using VPT treated wood as a material of choice for restoring these monuments are being suggested and eventually considered as a recommendation. The knowledge, the talent and the traditional craftsman type of work used in building these churches are slowly disappearing and somehow needs to be preserved by maintaining this knowledge through restoration work. The question which remains to be answered is whether this material will last centuries like the original one used for construction?
R Craciun, R Möller


Degradations and conservation strategies for an XVIII-th century wooden church from Oltenia County, Romania
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40521
The wooden churches construction has a rich tradition in Romania, the technique spreading from North – Maramures, to South, especially in hill and mountain areas. The church from Ursi village, Oltenia County, represents a particular case, the church being abandoned since 1913. The lack of a roof for a long time resulted in severe deterioration of the whole structure. Yet the inner and outer wall painting retains, in many areas, both the colors freshness and the adherence to the wood wall, owing to a particular working technique. The resistance structure was strongly affected by weather conditions and especially by xylophages or micro- and macromycetes attack. The paper presents a recovery project of this architectural jewelry, regarding both the wooden construction and the painted decoration.
G Niculescu, O Chachula, A Nicolaescu


Deterioration of wooden heritage in outdoor exposure in Romania
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40535
The paper contains a study of the deterioration of wooden heritage in Romania, in outdoor exposure. Romania belongs to the few countries having a rich heritage of this kind. A quantitative image of this heritage reveals the 1,350 objectives transferred and reconstructed in 16 open-air museums, over 1,500 wooden churches, more than 4,000 buildings and technical facilities, historical monuments listed and found “in situ”.The research work was made on 200 wooden churches, historical monuments, found “in situ”, 400 buildings and 100 popular technique outdoor facilities (water mills, floating mills, wind mills), from 6 open-air museums. Beside buildings, investigation was made on wooden polychrome heritage, consisting of 50 painted wooden crosses, belonging to the well-known “Merry cemetery” of Săpânta. The durability of various wooden buildings elements (roof cover, technical utilities) and polychromatic wooden artifacts directly exposed to the influence of environmental factors, was studied. The main biological pests, which cause the decay of the timber are presented as well as the other causes of decay. We also made an analysis of the treatments applied to timber in open air museums, during the latest 4 decades and their efficiency throughout the time. On the basis of the data processing in building books and other documents, one managed to establish resistance throughout the time of certain parts of the building and deadlines were suggested for their replacement in due time.
L Bucşa, C Bucşa