Your search resulted in 25 documents.
An insight into brown rot decay of timber as revealed by 13C CP/MAS NMR
1985 - IRG/WP 1259
L E Leightley
Analysis of D-glucose metabolism of wood decay fungi using 13C-NMR and 13C-labeled substrates
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10475
D-Glucose metabolism is thought to be important during wood decay by fungi, not only for anabolic and catabolic purposes of central metabolism, but also as a potential source of peroxide required by extracellular peroxidases. There has been some confusion in the literature as to whether this peroxide-generating activity is of the glucose 1-oxidase or pyranose 2-oxidase (glucose 2-oxidase) type wi...
T H de Koker, M D Mozuch, P J Kersten
Effect of wood polymers degradation during heat treatment on extracellular enzymatic activities involved in beech degradation by Trametes versicolor
2008 - IRG/WP 08-40392
Effect of heat treatment on extracellular enzymes involved in wood degradation by Trametes versicolor was investigated. Heat-treated and untreated beech blocks were exposed to T. versicolor on malt agar medium and extracellular enzymatic activities investigated. A strong ABTS oxidizing activity has been detected during the first stage of colonization in both cases, while cellulase activities are m...
S Lekounougou, G Nguila Inari, M Pétrissans, S Dumarçay, J P Jacquot, E Gelhaye, P Gérardin
Characterisation and evaluation of various chitosan oligomers, and decay resistance
2011 - IRG/WP 11-30562
Chitosan, a polymer of D-glucosamine, is known for its antimicrobial activity. However, the physicochemical properties of chitosan depend upon three principal factors, i.e. source of raw material, molecular weight and degree of deacetylation. Here, we report synthesis and characterization of chitosan oligomers prepared by deaminative depolymerization of chitosan (s) obtained from Sigma Aldrich and...
I Hussain, C Chittenden, T Singh
Tannin resin-boron associations: Leaching and biological resistance
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30587
The easy leaching of boron in wood preservation formulations has allowed to use this fungicide only for short term applications. The recently discovered adduct with flavonoids allows boron to resist longer periods of time within wood and consequently extend its life. Two different leaching treatments were compared and the fungal and termite decay was examined. The biological tests have shown extre...
G Tondi, S Wieland, N Lemenager, A Petutschnigg, A Pizzi, M-F Thevenon
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood against brown-rot, white-rot and soft-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 3540
Effect of acetylation on decay resistance of wood was investigated using wood blocks of Cryptomeria japonica, Pinus densiflora, Albizia falcata and Fagus crenata. Blocks were treated with uncatalyzed acetic anhydride for different lengths of time and exposed to Tyromyces palustris, Serpula lacrymans, Coriolus versicolor and unsterilized soil. The action of OH-radical on acetylated wood was also ex...
M Takahashi, Y Imamura, M Tanahashi
Preliminary study of the fungicidal and structural variability in copper naphthenates and naphthenic acids
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30114
Copper naphthenates, an oil-borne wood preservative listed by the American Wood-Preservers' Association (AWPA), is manufactured by complexing copper(II) with naphthenic acids. Prior to AWPA listing as a wood preservative, field experiments showed that copper naphthenates generally had good stability and were active against wood-destroying organisms. Recently, however, there have been reports ...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, L L Ingram Jr, T H Fisher
An investigation into the stability of TBTO in LOSP-treated radiata pine
1987 - IRG/WP 3459
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and reverse phase paper chromatography were used to characterise the organotin compounds found in radiata pine treated with bis (tri-n-butyl) tin oxide (TBTO). Preliminary results indicate that the preservative is remarkably unstable in wood after light organic solvent preservative (LOSP) treatment. Significant decomposition of TBTO occurs in a matter ...
K J Archer, R Meder
The formation of organotin carboxylates in bis(tributyltin) oxide - treated Pinus sylvestris sapwood
1990 - IRG/WP 3618
Tributyltin compounds have been successfully used for many years as wood preservatives, although their chemical nature in timber have not been fully elucidated. This study by 119Sn and 13C NMR spectroscopy has shown that, on impregnation into Pinus sylvestris sapwood, bis(tributyltin) oxide, (Bu3Sn)2O, is rapidly converted to tributyltin carboxylates, Bu3SnOCO·R, via reaction with components of t...
S J Blunden, R Hill
Extracellular layers of wood decay fungi and copper tolerance
1983 - IRG/WP 1180
Extracellular layers around the hyphae of brown, white and soft rot fungi have been examined using electron microscopy. These layers were isolated for identification. Particular interest was directed towards the extracellular layers of copper-tolerant soft rot fungi....
D M Francis, L E Leightley
The use of C CP/MAS NMR in the chemical identification of decayed and undecayed, tropical timber species
1984 - IRG/WP 1224
13C CP/MAS NMR was found to be an extremely powerful tool for elucidating the chemical composition of Eucalyptus maculata, Pinus elliottii and Alstonia scholaris. The differences in lignin composition were different for each timber and discussed in relation to decay caused by soft-rot and white rot fungi. In particular the presence of syringyl and guaiacyl lignin types are discussed.
L E Leightley
The chemical analysis and biological evaluation of wood extractives as potential timber preservatives
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30090
Work involved the biological performance of water and organic solvent soluble extractives of four naturally durable wood species, namely; Matumi, Tamboti, Sneezewood and the Turpentine tree. These timber species are known to be naturally durable against termites and fungi (±25 to 35 years). The extractives were evaluated against termites and fungi using impregnated pine pencil stakes in field tes...
P Turner, D Conradie
The chemical nature of bis(tributyltin) oxide in Pinus sylvestris sapwood
1989 - IRG/WP 3508
Tributyltin compounds have been used for many years as wood preservatives. This study has provided, for the first time, an explanation for the previously reported dealkylation and/or volatilisation of the tributyltin species in, and from, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sapwood. Thus, 119 Sn nuclear magnetic resonance studies have shown that, on impregnation into this timber, bis(tributyltin) oxide ...
S J Blunden, R Hill
Solid state NMR study on pine wood degraded by brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10067
Blocks of Pinus koraiensis wood were degraded by Gloeophyllum trabeum and examined by solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Chemical compositions were estimated from relative signal aras. There was no evidence for preferential degradation of the noncrystalline cellulose which accounted for about 4% by weight of the wood. Loss of partly ordered cellulose on crystal surfaces exceeded the loss of crystal...
Yoon Soo Kim, R Newman
NMR T1 relaxation time as a non-destructive method for the study of decay in wood
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2406
The NMR spectroscopic technique of measuring the T1 spin-lattice relaxation times has been investigated for its potential in the detection of microbial decay in wood. The T1 NMR analyses were carried out on samples of Scots pine and European beech that had been exposed to decay and non-decay fungi representing each of the important groups colonising wood. Decay in the test material was also assess...
P W McCormack, A E G Cass, R J Murphy
Preliminary observations on tributyltin treated Scots pine sapwood using 119Sn (Mössbauer and NMR) spectroscopic techniques
1984 - IRG/WP 3312
119mSn Mössbauer data are presented for bis(tributyltin) oxide, tributyltin ethanesulphonate, bis(tributyltin) carbonate and tris(tributyltin) phosphate, both in the pure form and in Scots pine sapwood. The structures proposed for these compounds, in the solid state, are supported by 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
An unusual soft-rot decay pattern caused by the Ascomycete Hypoxylon mediterraneum (de Not.) J Miller
1984 - IRG/WP 1222
A distinct pattern of soft-rot decay has been observed for the fungus Hypoxylan mediterraneum (de Not.) J. Miller. This fungus also produced decay patterns typical of brown and white rot decay. The production of characteristic cavities by Hypoxylan mediterraneum was prolific in the hardwoods Eucalyptus maculata and Eucalyptus regnans, but infrequent in the softwoods, Pinus elliottii and Pinus radi...
D M Francis, L E Leightley
The action of siderophores isolated from Gloeophyllum trabeum on the structure and crystallinity of cellulose compounds
1991 - IRG/WP 1479
Low molecular weight, high affinity iron-binding compounds (siderophores) were isolated from the brown-rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum. The compounds were shown to be inducible by iron starvation and could be purified by ultra-filtration, ethyl acetate extraction, column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated compounds were shown by analytical and immunological techniques to be produced...
J Jellison, V Chandhoke, B Goodell, F Fekete, N Hayashi, M Ishihara, K Yamamoto
Effect of fungal degradation on the chemical composition of acetylated beech wood
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40267
This study investigated the impact of fungal attack on the chemical composition of acetylated wood. Beech wood acetylated to different degrees was exposed to decay by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor under solid-state fermentation conditions. Laboratory soil-bed assays were also conducted to study the degradation of acetylated wood by soft rot fungi and other soil-inhabiting microorganisms...
H Militz, Dong-won Son, L Gómez-Hernández, R Sierra-Alvarez
Quantification of methylene bis thiocyanate in wood and its effect on a sapstain fungus Ophiostoma floccosum
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10591
The mobility and concentrations of MBT at different depths of wood billets (200 mm long, 40 mm in diameter) were determined using NMR spectroscopy and ICP-ASE, and then correlated the effect of wood MBT concentrations on growth of O. floccosum in a bioassay using stereomicroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The 13C NMR spectra showed the presence or absence of MBT in wood but w...
Discovering anti-fungal agents in New Zealand native plants for use in wood protection
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10692
Extracts from Hinau (Elaeocarpus dentatus) leaves were tested in the laboratory for antifungal activity. In addition, the anatomical structure of the leaf was also examined by a combination of light and scanning electron microscopy. Chemical characterisation of the extracts and investigation into potential use of its components for wood protection is underway. A combination of light microscopy (...
C Rickard, T Singh, A Singh, R Newman
New insights from NMR, FTIR, X-ray diffraction and physical chemistry into digestive processes in the wood-boring marine crustacean Limnoria quadripunctata
2010 - IRG/WP 10-10732
This paper summarises preliminary findings of a multi-technique exploration of the degradation of lignocellulose in the marine isopod Limnoria quadripunctata. Scanning electron microscopy revealed connections between the digestive gland and the hindgut that would permit the exchange of fluids between the two organs while the food mass is retained in place within the hindgut. This enables enzymes t...
G P Malyon, S LaBarre, N Kervarec, P Carey, J McGeehan, X Xie, A Klüppel, S M Cragg
Measurement of Cell Wall Moisture in Acetylated Radiata Pine Using Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
2016 - IRG/WP 16-20583
Understanding the interaction of water with acetylated wood is necessary to explain how the protective mechanism of acetylation functions. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance is one technique for assessing water in wood. Pinus radiata earlywood sapwood samples were acetylated to various weight percentage gains and then analysed with this method. Increased levels of acetylation showed significantl...
H G Beck, C A S Hill
Effect of Particle Size on Wax Distribution in Paraffin Wax Emulsion Impregnated Wood
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40779
Paraffin wax emulsion impregnation has been a common eco-friendly approach for improving water repellency of wood. In this study, southern pine (Pinus spp.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvesteris L.) samples were impregnated with paraffin wax emulsions of different solid contents and particle sizes, and then the time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) was used to elucidate the influence of part...
Wang Wang, Jinzhen Cao, Yiheng Huang
Water interactions in wood polyesterified with sorbitol and citric acid
2020 - IRG/WP 20-40888
Polyesterifcation of wood with sorbitol and citric acid seems to be a promising chemical wood modification technique that is both low-cost and produced from bio-based chemicals. An interesting aspect of the modification is the interaction of water with the polyesterified wood since the relationship with moisture appears to be unique compared to other wood modification systems. This communication p...
G Beck, A Treu, E Larnøy