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Performance of boron diffused wood products used indoors for 144 months in Bangladesh
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30581
In this service performance study of boron diffused hardwoods, boron in the form of boric acid (H3BO3) was applied separately through paste and through wet cloth. The born diffused woods were kept indoors for 144-months in Bangladesh to ascertain the performance of treated wood against wood destroying insects. The new easy application processes of cost effectual boric acid have been found effective to sterilize wood through diffusion and after 144-months exposure the treated wood samples have been found intact and fresh. The untreated similar types of hardwoods used and stored indoors have been found damaged within 6-months by the attack of wood destroying insects. Both the application processes of boric acid on the surfaces of woods or wood members are found to be the sustainable solution to protect lumbers being used or to be used indoors where timber products are very susceptible to termite and borer attack in tropical and subtropical climatic conditions similar to Bangladesh. The findings of this research is functional now and the methods should be applied to all use purposes including bamboo products in order to protect one of the vital environmental resources thus conserving plant resources in a sustainable fashion.
A K Lahiry, T Lahiry


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 13: Report of fourth inspection (36 months) in Australia
1981 - IRG/WP 481
This report presents the results of the fourth inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. The inspection took place on 9th December, 1980, after 36 months exposure. Full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens, as well as results of the first three inspections (after 6, 12, and 24 months exposure), have been presented in earlier reports. All inspections of this test have been carried out in accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) except for an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. In conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan, the fifth and sixth replicates of the whole test (i.e. those specimens with '5' or '6' as the final digit of their serial number) were recovered and returned to the United Kingdom after 6 months and 24 months of immersion. Thus, only four replicates remain to be examined at this and ensuing inspections.
J Beesley


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Sampling after 8 months exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 2208
It was anticipated in Document No IRG/WP/2192 that exposure of L-joints by the European co-operators would take place on 1 April 1983. Where L-joints were exposed at this time, sampling after 8 months exposure is due on 1 December 1983. The present document draws attention to relevant previous documents which describe the sampling methods to be adopted. It also provides Tables for recording the results.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
M Fougerousse


Report on marine borer attack on some timbers treated with CCA wood preservative and exposed for three months in sea-water
1985 - IRG/WP 4112
Destruction of timbers by marine borers has long been a problem for the coastal population of Thailand. The use of heavy durable timbers with frequent maintenance, or total replacement, is the only solution for fishermen with their fishing craft or marine installations, meanwhile wharves or other large scale constructions are usually made by using concrete pilings or concrete casings. In recognition of the economic importance of the problem, the Faculty of Forestry with co-operation of the Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, has set up a preliminary investigation on the marine borer hazards to some timber species, treated and untreated, in order to gather basic information on the performance of test samples and also on the types of attacking organism involved.
A Rananand, W Yoosukh, U Sittiphuprasert


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 20: Report on the inspection of specimens at Sekondi, Ghana after 48 months
1985 - IRG/WP 4116
The results of the second inspection of CCA- and CCB-treated test panels exposed at Sekondi, Ghana, in June 1980, are presented. The panels of Pinus sylvestris treated with 3% CCA are stil unattacked after 48 months. Panels treated with 10% CCA and still in test (Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris and Alstonia scholaris) are still free of attack. Locol species treated with 3% CCB have all been destroyed. Of the panels treated with 10% CCB recovered from the bottom of the sea, those of Ongokea gore were shown by X-radiography to be in various stages of attack by teredinids. One recovered panel of Erythrophleum guineense and four of Mitragyna stipulosa remain free of attack. Teredinids constitute the major hazard.
F F K Ampong, N Asare-Nyadu


Isolation and identification of the fungal flora in treated wood
1976 - IRG/WP 144
J F Levy


Use of the Pilodyn to assess deterioration of treated aspen waferboard after 30 months of outdoor exposure
1986 - IRG/WP 2254
Samples of preservative treated aspen waferboard exposed outdoors for 30 mo. were compared using pin penetrations of the 6 Joule Pilodyn. These results correlated well with rankings of treatment performance based on more laborious standard mechanical tests, and demonstrate the potential for use of the Pilodyn as a tool to evaluate wood composites in test exposures with minimal destruction.
E L Schmidt, M G Dietz


The Effect of Soil pH on the pH of Treated Southern Pine in Ground Contact after 12 Months
2011 - IRG/WP 11-50281
Southern pine samples treated with soluble and particulate copper solutions were subjected to three soils that had been amended to provide acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Wood pH was measured prior to, and after 6 and 12 months after being placed in the soil to determine the effect of soil pH on wood pH.
L Jin, C Schauwecker, C Vidrine, P Walcheski, A Preston


Evaluation of Barrier Wrap Systems after 71 Months of Exposure
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40631
A 71 month study of the performance of booted samples in ground contact was conducted in AWPA hazard zone 4. Data indicated that excellent performance of wrapped systems, even over untreated wood, could be obtained. Instances of decay colonization or termite attack could all be attributed to some breaking of the integrity of the barrier system. Good performance for treatment below ground contact threshold was demonstrated.
H M Barnes, M G Sanders, G B Lindsey, C McIntyre


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 4: Report of second inspection (12 months) in Australia
1979 - IRG/WP 448
Previous reports have presented full details of the treatment and installation of the test specimens in Sydney Harbour during December, 1977, and of the results of the first (6 months) inspection made during June, 1978. At the June inspection it was apparent that the plastic tubing used to make up the frames from which to suspend the specimens was inadequate for the job and not strong enough to support the heavy fouling which had occurred. Consequently, frames were re-designed and rebuilt in a heavier grade of plastic tubing and, within a week or two of the actual inspection, the remaining test specimens were transferred to new frames. These have proved entirely adequate, as can be seen from the photoqraphs. In accordance with the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414), the whole of the remaining part of the test was re-examined on 13th December, almost exactly 12 months from the day of installation. The inspection procedure previously adopted was again followed. Fouling was assessed for whole frames as there was no apparent difference between individual groups of specimens in the amount of fouling present; the specimens were then cleaned and again assessed for teredine and crustacean attack - which were recorded separately and independently.
J Beesley


Comparison of decay rates of preservative-treated stakes in field and fungus cellar tests. Results after 40 months fungal cellar exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 2200
Decay rates of preservative-treated Pinus radiata stakes during 40 months exposure in the FRI fungus cellar were compared with those of similarly treated material in a field test. Decay rates in the fungus cellar were from 4 to 100 times higher than in the field, although for the majority of preservatives the rate was between 7 and 12 times higher. The lag phase before onset of decay, noticeable with most of the preservatives in the field test, was largely eliminated in the fungus cellar. Possible reasons are given for inconsistencies in relative rates of decay of preservatives in the two tests.
M E Hedley


Chemical Analysis of Southern Pine Pole Stubs Thirty-Nine Months Following Treatment with Three Methylisothiocyanate-Based Fumigants
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30349
Agricultural fumigants have been commercially used in the United States for over 20 years to control internal decay in utility poles and other wooden structures. Of the four fumigants which are currently used in the remedial treatment of utility poles, three are based on methylisothiocyanate (MITC) as being the principal fungitoxic component. Two of these MITC-based fumigants, liquid metham sodium and granular dazomet, chemically decompose within a utility pole to release methylisothiocyanate. The third MITC-based fumigant consists of 97% methylisothiocyanate in a solid melt form. Laboratory and field studies conducted as part of the Cooperative Pole Research Program at Oregon State University have demonstrated the efficacy of all three MITC-based fumigants. However, studies conducted to date have not evaluated the three fumigants under the same experimental conditions. As a result, a field study of the three commercial MITC-based fumigants was established in June, 2000 in southern pine utility pole sections. At the second inspection conducted 39 months following fumigant treatment, chemical assay borings were removed at various pole heights and depths and analyzed for concentrations of MITC using GCMS. The 39 month results showed that MITC concentrations were greatest at all pole heights and core depths in the pole stubs treated with the 97% MITC product. In addition, similar concentrations of MITC were found in the metham sodium and dazomet treated pole stubs. When compared to the corresponding chemical assay results at 13 months following fumigant treatment, the 39 month results showed a sharp increase in concentrations of MITC in the 97% MITC treated pole stubs and a sharp decrease in MITC concentrations in the metham sodium treated pole stubs. MITC concentrations remained relatively unchanged in the dazomet treated pole stubs from 13 to 39 months following fumigant treatment. When compared to a MITC threshold value for decay fungi proposed by Oregon State University, the chemical assay results at 39 months indicated all three fumigants are effectively protecting the zone of fumigant treatment (15.2 cm below to 15.2 cm above groundline) of southern pine pole stubs. However, the greatest protection within and above the zone of treatment was provided by the 97% MITC treatment. Future sampling and chemical analysis of the southern pine pole stubs are planned to monitor long term efficacy of the fumigant treatments.
R J Ziobro, J Fomenko, D J Herdman, J Guzzetta, T Pope


A study of decay type variability in variously treated Fagus sylvatica and Pinus radiata field test stakes exposed at a vineyard for 30 - 45 months
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10271
Pinus radiata test stakes were treated with 10 kg/m3 of CCA plus 4 lower retentions in a geometric series of 1.5. Fagus sylvatica was treated with 15 kg/m3 and 2 lower retentions. Both timber species were also treated with equivalent retentions of various new generation preservatives (P. radiata was also treated with creosote). Whilst these stakes were exposed at 11 sites in New Zealand (NZ) and 2 in Queensland Australia, this paper reports only data from a single NZ site where preservative and timber species effects on decay type were particularly pronounced. Of particular interest was the finding that copper-azole and copper-quat. treated pine was less susceptible to soft rot attack but more susceptible to attack from tunnelling bacteria, compared to CCA treated wood. Beech was not attacked by tunnelling bacteria but was attacked by an unusual type of fungal cavitation/erosion. These, and other preservative and timber species effects on decay type are discussed.
R N Wakeling, A P Singh


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. Results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment
1986 - IRG/WP 3388
CCA-treated poles in service with incipient internal soft rot were remedially treated by inserting borate rods, brushing with a boron/glycol solution and injecting boric acid paste, copper/creosote paste or a commercial product (DFCK paste). The spread of active chemicals in the treated zone as well as the change in microflora have been studied with time. After six months chemicals had spread to most parts of the pole in the ground-line zone and the microflora had been changed - in some cases drastically. The test is still in progress. Chemical and microbiological analyses after 12, 28 and 60 months will be published at a later date.
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


Remedial ground-line treatment of CCA poles in service. A final report after 60 months' testing
1989 - IRG/WP 3534
Remedial treatment of CCA treated utility poles of Pinus sylvestris with incipient decay was carried out in 1983 and the results of chemical and microbiological analyses 6 months after treatment were reported in Document No: IRG/WP/3388 while microbiological studies 12 and 28 months after treatment as well as chemical analyses of poles treated with boron rods or boric acid paste 28 months after treatment were reported in Document No: IRG/WP/3481. 60 months after the treatment a final study was carried out on the remaining two poles left from each treatment. The study included isolations of fungi as well as chemical analyses of poles treated with boron rods, boric acid paste and borate/glycol.
B Henningsson, H Friis-Hansen, A Käärik, M-L Edlund


Leaching of active components from preservative-treated timber - Ongoing research: Status after approx. 4 months’ out-door exposure
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20276
The Danish Technological Institute is together with manufacturers of active ingredients and formulators of wood preservatives running a project aiming at finding realistic leaching rates from preservative treated wood in hazard class 3 (above ground). The project is focussed on developing a field trial method for investigating leaching. According to BPD hazard assessment has to be carried out for biocide products and a part of that includes possible environmental impact of preservative treated wood. Leaching of active ingredients from treated wood has to be measured and assessed. Several organisations (CEN, OECD and others) are in progress of developing laboratory leaching test methods. In order to give more realistic data for leaching of active ingredients it is important to study natural exposure. According to recent publications (IRG/WP 01-50171), it appears to be a significant difference between natural leaching and laboratory leaching methods and a relative comparison is, therefore, needed. Data from close to practice applications are important in order to support products in the BPD. Furthermore, the results are needed to provide benchmarking data to allow other laboratory or accelerated leaching data to be put into perspective. The results from the project are intended to serve as part of the basic documentation for leaching of active ingredients in hazard class 3. Panels are exposed outdoors under natural conditions at the field trial at Danish Technological Institute and the leachate is collected and monitored by chemical analysis of the active ingredients. The project is ongoing and the paper presents results from approximately 6 months of exposure. The study includes commercially available organic and in-organic fungicides using 4 different application methods: pressure-, vacuum-, flow-coat- and supercritical treated wood. Different test set-ups are investigated and the results obtained from outdoor exposure will be compared with a laboratory test method (CEN/OECD). Furthermore, the laboratory method suggested by CEN/OECD is evaluated and suggestions for improvement are stated.
N Morsing


Distribution of copper/chrome/boron preservative in light red meranti (Shorea leprosula) before and after exposure test for 72 months
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20073
Copper/chrome/boron (CCB) preservative at 6% w/w was impregnated into light red meranti (Shorea leprosula) by full cell process. The quantitative analysis for copper, chrome and boron contents in treated wood samples was carried out by Inductive Couple Plasma (ICP). Electron Probe Microanalyser (EPMA) was used to monitor the distribution of copper, chrome and boron in the various treated wood tissues before and after exposure for 72 months.
S Salamah, S Ani


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 6: Report of third inspection (24 months) in Australia
1980 - IRG/WP 456
This report presents the results of the third inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test specimens installed at the Goat Island Marine Biological Station of the Maritime Services Board of New South Wales, in Sydney Harbour. The inspection was completed on 5th December, 1979, after 24 months exposure. As on previous occasions, this inspection was carried out in conformity with the provisions of the Working Plan (see IRG/WP/414) apart from an X-ray examination of the specimens. This facility is not available at the test station. At the conclusion of the inspection, all specimens remaining on the frame designated for removal at this inspection were recovered, re-labelled and despatched to Portsmouth for laboratory examination. The re-designed frames of PVC water-pipe were found to be in good order and can be expected to survive the remaining 5 years of test exposure.
J Beesley


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 14: Report of fifth inspection (48 months) in Australia
1982 - IRG/WP 484
This report presents the results of the fifth inspection of the IRG/ COIPM Internatlonal Marine Test specimens installed in Sydney Harbour in December, 1977. This inspection took place on 9th December, 1981, just 48 months after the specimens were installed. Earlier reports have contained full details of the treatment and installation of the specimens as well as results of all previous inspections, made after 6, 12, 24 and 36 months, as stipulated in the working plan.
J Beesley


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 18. Report of seventh inspection (72 months) in Australia
1984 - IRG/WP 4108
This report includes the results for the 72 month inspection of the IRG/COIPM International Marine Test installed in Sydney Harbour. Although, overall, attack by teredinid and limnorid borers have been most commonly encountered in test specimens at this site, slight attack, mainly by sphaeromatids, has recently been initiated on some hitherto unattacked treated Alstonia scholaris and Pinus sylvestris specimens. There is still little difference between the performances of CCA or CCB treated specimens for each timber species after 6 years immersion.
L J Cookson, J E Barnacle


Soil-bed decay resistance evaluation of strandboards treated with preservative at different points of the manufacture process after 18 months exposure
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40230
Strandboards were treated with a copper-boron water-based preservative at different points of manufacture process namely, green strand diffusion, vacuum, spray application in the resin blender and post manufacture heat and cold quench. Preservative was applied to achieve five different retentions (0, 1.5, 3, 6, 12 kg m-3). The modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity were assessed before exposure to decay. Treated boards were then exposed to unsterilised soil at high level of relative humidity and temperature for 18 months at two different soil moisture contents. Assessment of results was based on weight losses and strength losses. At the lower moisture content decay was severe and brown rot was the predominant decay type at ineffective preservative retentions. At the higher soil moisture content soft rot decay predominated. Vacuum, diffusion and spray treatment achieved protection only at the highest preservative retention while the heat and cold quench failed to achieve protection. There was significant difference in terms of decay between the high and low moisture conditions. Weight loss and strength loss showed good correlations.
G J Goroyias, M D C Hale


Leaching amount of wood preservatives from treated wood in different size during outdoor exposure for 6 months
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50160
Eighteen impregnated specimens with CCA, ACQ, and BAAC preservatives were subjected to a outdoor leaching test. Test specimens, 10 x 10 x 25 cm3, 5 x 10 x 25 cm3, 2 x 10 x 25 cm3 in size, were cut from Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica). Both of end surfaces were sealed with a silicone sealer in the half number of specimens. Total leaching amounts of copper from the open-end ACQ specimens of 10 x 10 x 25 cm3, 5 x 10 x 25 cm3, 2 x 10 x 25 cm3 in size were 76.2 g/m3, 60.6 g/m3, 153.4 g/m3 respectively during 6 months exposure. Those from the end-sealed ACQ specimens were 40.9 g/m3, 50.9 g/m3, 92.7 g/m3 respectively. The ratio of surface area to volume influenced the leaching amount of preservatives. Sealing of end surface of samples reduced the loss of preservatives considerably.
K Yamamoto, S Motegi, A Inai


Interim balance after 20 months of lap-joint exposure
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20164
The application of natural resins and integrated resin systems to improve the performance of Pinus sylvestris was assessed in a lap-joint test according to DIN V ENV 12037 (1996). Lap-joints of Pinus sapwood were exposed at the test field in Hamburg (Germany) in May 1997. The treated lap-joints were assessed with regard to the performance of the resin treatments out of ground. The exposure of lap-joints showed that much more information can be obtained by this testing method than from laboratory testing methods which are usually applied to determine the biological resistance. Suggestions are made with regard to the assessment and handling of the lap-joints.
M Sailer, A O Rapp, R-D Peek, A J Nurmi, E P J Beckers


Co-operative research project on L-joint testing. Sampling after 18 months exposure
1984 - IRG/WP 2233
In September 1983, Document No: IRG/WP/2208 was distributed giving guidance on sampling after 8 months exposure (due 1 December 1983 for those L-joints exposed on schedule on 1 April 1983), and including tables on which to record the test results. No major problems have been notified to Princes Risborough Laboratory concerning the sampling method. It is therefore proposed that the next sampling, after 18 months exposure for those L-joints exposed on 1 April 1983, should proceed using the same methodology, on 1 October 1984.
J K Carey, A F Bravery


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