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Low-toxicity DNBP wood preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 3408
Low and very low toxicity single compound preservatives of both excellent insecticidal and fungicidal activity for interior, extrior and ground-contact applications are presented. These are ester derivatives of alkyl dinitrophenols, in particular of 2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol (DNBP) and 2-sec-octyl-4,6-dinitrophenol. These esters, of much lower toxicity than DNBP impart to the treated timber co...
A Pizzi, W E Conradie, A Jansen, R Vosloo


Water-borne DNBP wood preservatives - Preparation and performance
1987 - IRG/WP 3407
Three waterborne wide-spectrum ground-contact DNBP (2-sec-butyl-4,6-dinitrophenol) wood preservative formulations and their performance are presented. Two are double-treatment formulations in which insolubilization and precipitation of the preservative is attained by salt formation or by formation of a water insoluble Cu/NH3/DNBP complex of formula [DNBP]2 [Cu(NH3)2]2 the clarified structure of wh...
W E Conradie, A Pizzi


Efficacy of anhydrides as wood protection chemicals - II. Performance against soft rot fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30174
Pine sapwood modified with various anhydrides and with butyl isocyanate was tested for its resistance to soft rot decay. Small stakes were exposed for 20 months in unsterile soil in a fungal cellar test. Wood modified with butyl isocyanate performed better than any of the anhydrides tested, with a threshold level of protection (less than 3% weight loss) at 12% weight percent gain (WPG). Stakes ac...
S C Forster, M D C Hale, G R Williams


The Role of Coformulants in Preventing Bacterial Biotransformation of IPBC
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10436
The inhibitory effects of disodium tetraborate decahydrate and benzalkonium chloride (BAC), two common coformulants of IPBC in antisapstain treatments, on an IPBC-transforming enterobacterial isolate ‘W1’ were determined by their effect on the specific growth rate constant in vitro. The IC50s of IPBC, BAC and borate were found to be 0.46, 0.026 and 5.7 mM respectively. The IC50 of the Arch ant...
S R Cook, D J Dickinson


Potential toxicants for controlling soft rot in preservative treated hardwoods. Part 4: Evaluation of combined diffusion and toxicity
1979 - IRG/WP 2129
A large number of inorganic and organic preservatives were evaluated as potential soft rot control chemicals, by their degree of inhibition of fungal growth after allowing them to diffuse through a 6 mm thick wood slab. The tests were inoculated with wood powder from soft-rotted CCA treated poles. Pentachlorophenol was unable to diffuse quickly through the wood slab, although formulations with hex...
E W B Da Costa, O Collett


Studies on the Toxicity of IPBC and Other Biocides to Bacteria
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10544
Twenty-six strains of bacteria were isolated from IPBC-, Bethoxazin- and creosote-enrichment. These were found to fall into six principal clades: enterics, pseudomonads, Stenotrophomonas, Actinomycetes, Alcaligenes and Bacillus. Of these, only the last group was largely incapable of the dehalogenation of IPBC. Six representative strains were chosen for further study, and the ability of these six b...
S R Cook, D J Dickinson


The Bacterial Biotransformation of IPBC
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10437
The bacterial biotransformation of the biocide IPBC, widely used as an antisapstain wood preservative, was investigated in bacteria isolated from failed wood, soil experiencing IPBC wash-off, and John Innes No. 2 compost. Nine strains of bacteria were isolated, belonging to the genera Alcaligenes, Enterobacter, Microbacterium and Pseudomonas. The sole organic degradation product in an enteric bact...
S R Cook, J Sullivan, D J Dickinson


Performance of 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) in L-joints under tropical conditions
2016 - IRG/WP 16-30688
The ability of 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC) to protect wood against fungal decay out of soil contact was evaluated using ponderosa pine L-joints at two exposure sites over a 12 year period. IPBC tended to provide better protection when formulated in an organic solvent and when applied using a double vacuum treatment. Performance also tended to be better when systems contained a water...
J J Morrell