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Occupational exposure risk assessment at a commercial treatment plant using copper azole preservative
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-15
Experience with traditional water-based preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) applied in closed system vacuum pressure impregnation plants has shown that operator atmospheric exposure is low during normal operation. TANALITH E is a commercially available copper azole wood preservative introduced as a chrome and arsenic-free alternative to CCA based on the actives copper, tebuconaz...
A S Hughes, M Connell


Further steps in the development of above ground wood preservative systems
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30300
Metal and organo-metallic wood preservative systems have provided the consumer with cost effective wood preservative systems which satisfy the performance requirements in a wide range of end uses. With increasing environmental and legislative control, metal-free formulations have emerged as the dominant preservative systems for the protection of timber in the lower hazard classes. In higher ha...
P Warburton, A S Hughes


A review of the implementation of results-based standards for preservative treated timber
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20156
European standards for the specification of preservative treated timber are written in terms of the results achieved in the commodity by the treatment process. This is described in terms of penetration and retention of preservative. Results from a study on the commercial application of this approach in the UK show the difficulties associated with applying the new European standards; particularly w...
E D Suttie, A S Hughes, R J Orsler


Examination of preservative-treated Pinus sylvestris using electron paramagnetic resonance
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3710
EPR is currently being used to help elucidate the nature and extent of the chemical reactions occurring between wood and copper based timber preservatives. In the work reported here treated Scots pine samples were examined at room temperature and in the frozen state. Plots of the electronic parameters A|| vs. g|| were found to be a useful index of the electronic properties of the various formulati...
A S Hughes, R J Murphy, J F Gibson, A J Cornfield


Comparison of gauge and assay retention in crossties treated with copper naphthenate
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40667
Creosote has been the most widely used preservative for wooden railroad crossties or sleepers for over 100 years. Alternative preservatives such as copper naphthenate (CuN) have been shown to provide equivalent performance against decay fungi and wood destroying insects; however, the use and specification of CuN involves an education process for treaters and railroad customers alike. One differe...
J Brient, H Tomlinson, J Hughes


Controlled deposition of copper nanoparticles using wood inherent architecture as natural template
2017 - IRG/WP 17-40783
As one of the most abundant renewable biomass resources, wood can be used as templates for synthesizing functional nanoparticles with controlled shapes and sizes. In this study, copper nanoparticles were synthesized with controlled shapes and sizes using poplar wood as the natural inexpensive and renewable templates. The crystal structure and morphologies of the copper nanoparticles were character...
Youming Dong, Kaili Wang, Yutao Yan, Jianzhang Li, M Hughes, Shifeng Zhang


Is cascading of harvested wood products really an environmentally beneficial strategy in Finland and Norway?
2020 - IRG/WP 20-50364
The role of cascading wood waste in the bioeconomy is highlighted in the several strategic documents. The European Waste Framework Directive describes a waste hierarchy where re-use and recovery are considered more favourable options compared with energy recovery, and applies strict re-use and recycling targets to household waste and non-hazardous construction and demolition waste. It is not fully...
C A S Hill, G Alfredsen, M Hughes, L R Gobakken


An Update on the Status of Industrial Heavy-Duty Preservatives in Europe
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30762
Creosote has been used for over 150 years for preservation of heavy duty industrial timbers such as railway sleepers, utility poles, and agricultural posts. The regulatory regimes in place today across Europe (eg EU & GB Biocidal Products Regulation (BPR)) require a detailed assessment of the environmental and human health properties of wood preservatives at both the active substance and product l...
S Uphill, H Griffiths, M Giannuzzi, A Hughes