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Durability of pine modified by 9 different methods
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40288
The decay resistance was studied for pine modified by nine methods of wood modification: 1) Acetylation, 2) Treatment with methylated melamine resin (MMF), 3) Acetylation followed by post-treatment with MMF-resin, 4) Thermal modification, 5) Furfurylation, 6) Maleoylation (using water solution of MG or ethanol solution of maleic anhydride), 7) Succinylation, 8) NMA-modification and 9) modification...
M Westin, A O Rapp, T Nilsson

Improved resistance of Scots pine and Spruce by application of an oil-heat treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40162
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subject to a heat treatment which was carried out in an oil-bath. The aim was to improve the dimensional stability of the treated wood and its resistance against fungi. The bath of vegetable oil provides a uniform heat transfer at temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C and protects the submersed wood from oxygen. Heat trea...
M Sailer, A O Rapp, H Leithoff

Durability of different heat treated materials from industrial processes in ground contact
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40312
In this study the durability of heat treated wood originating from four different European industrial heat treatment processes in ground contact was examined. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood/Finland, New Option Wood/France and Menz Holz/Germany where Oil-Heat treated Wood (OHT) is produced. All heat treated materials showed significantly i...
C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp

Decay resistance of resin treated wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30206
Selected natural resin systems were evaluated for their potential as wood protecting agents according to standard test procedures. As indicated by the European standard EN 599 both a Basidiomycete test according to EN 113 and a ENV 807 soil bed test were carried out. Six resin treatments were tested using 3 concentration or treatment levels. Using the biocidal activity criteria as usually applied ...
J Van Acker, A J Nurmi, S M Gray, H Militz, C Hill, H Kokko, A O Rapp

Quality assurance approach of the German TMT manufacturers
2010 - IRG/WP 10-40513
Due to an increasing number of TMT manufacturers in central Europe, an organisation of TMT manufacturers was founded in Germany in the beginning of 2010. Since the current level of product testing and property declaration is not satisfying, one of the first activities is the establishment of a quality assurance system. In this paper a concept for quality assurance (QA) will be outlined....
W Scheiding, C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp

SEM of wood dust particles
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50084
Dust particles from beech and oak trees have been classified in Germany as being "working materials which are definitely carcinogenic to humans". All other wood dusts, including those from softwoods, are classified as being materials "with reasonable suspicion of carcinogenic potential". The carcinogenic principle of action continues to remain unclear. The mechanical irritation is one of a number ...
U Schmitt, R-D Peek, A O Rapp

Testing method for the treatability of wood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40031
In order to test and classify the treatability of wood species in pressure treatment processes with water-based solutions, a laboratory method was developed which allows the testing of small samples and limited sections of a stem, e.g. sapwood. The penetration of different liquids was determined separately concerning the three anatomical directions of wood. The common parameters for pressure impre...
A O Rapp, R-D Peek

EELS (Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy) - a technique for quantification of nitrogen and other light elements in the cell wall
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20163
A literature survey was performed to find progress in techniques for monitoring penetration of synthetic resins in wood cell walls. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was successfully applied for the high resolution examination of the distribution of a partly methylated hydroxymethyl melamine resin in Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst...
A O Rapp, H Bestgen, W Adam, R-D Peek

Inorganic preservatives in wood dust - Cause of nasal cancer?
1997 - IRG/WP 97-50085
Since 1985 dust particles from beech and oak trees have been classified by the Senate Commission of the German Research Council (DFG) as being ,,working materials which are definitely carcinogenic to humans". All other wood dusts, including those from softwoods, are classified as being materials ,,with reasonable suspicion of carcinogenic potential". The carcinogenic principle of action continues ...
A O Rapp, K Brandt, R-D Peek, U Schmitt

The natural durability of wood in different use classes
2003 - IRG/WP 03-10457
The natural durability of important European wood species has been tested on 3970 specimen in field trials. The wood was exposed at five test fields in Germany with different climates at each site in European hazard class 4 and 3 (with and without soil contact). Within EHC 3 it was distinguished between tree different expositions (end grain sheltered, unsheltered and with water trap). The test is...
U Augusta, A O Rapp

Determination of the water sorption properties and preliminary results from field tests above ground of thermally modified material from industrial scale processes
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40279
In this study the differences in moisture behavior and durability above ground of heat treated wood originating from different European industrial heat treatment plants by means of the water sorption properties as well as field tests were examined. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood (Premium wood)/ Finland and Menz Holz/ Germany, where Oil-...
C R Welzbacher; A O Rapp

The full guideline for the “double layer test method” - A field test method for determining the durability of wood out of ground
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20290
This guideline describes a test method for wood to be exposed to the weather out of ground contact. The main objective of the method is to evaluate the durability of wood in above ground exposure as shifted overlaid stakes, which form the so called double layer. The method is applicable to the testing of untreated, treated and modified wood. Initially it was developed and found to be most useful ...
A O Rapp, U Augusta

Curing conditions for a low formaldehyde etherificated melamine resin
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40108
Waterbased methanol etherificated melamine formaldehyde resins have the potential to increase the resistance of impregnated wood against wood destroying fungi. Previous studies indicated that the resin with the lowest formaldehyde content tested showed the best results regarding fungal resistance, dimensional stability and formaldehyde emissions after curing. In the present paper the influence of ...
D Lukowsky, R-D Peek, A O Rapp

Natural durability of 4 different Larix species tested in soil contact
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10434
Importers of Siberian Larch claimed to have a material which can replace pressure treated wood in soil contact. This gave reason to investigate the durability of 4 different Larix species (L. decidua, L. sibirica, L. decidua x sibirica, L. gmelini var ologenis) coming from 7 different origins in comparison with sapwood of Pinus sylvestris untreated as well as pressure impregnated with retentions o...
A O Rapp, H Viitanen, T Nilsson

Field test design for service life prediction of wooden components
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20308
Wood is predominantly degraded by organisms. Thus, compared to other building materials, service life of wooden material is influenced by many more factors, which are divided into direct and indirect factors. Climate, geographical position, and construction criteria count to the indirect decay factors. Besides material inherent properties (natural durability, wood preservatives), wood temperature...
A O Rapp, C Brischke

Biological resistance of wood treated with waterbased resins and drying oils in a mini-block test
1998 - IRG/WP 98-40107
In recent years it was found that the resistance of wood against fungal degradation could be increased by impregnation with an etherificated melamine formaldehyde resin. Using this resin as a reference, a waterbased fatty acid modificated alkyd-resin and two drying-oils were assessed for their biological performance in a mini-block laboratory test. Although drying-oils, like linseed-oil, are often...
M Sailer, A O Rapp, R-D Peek

Influence of different resin treatments on the dimension stability of wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-40090
The dimension stability of wood is considered to be an important contribution to its durability and its performance in practice. A number of different treatments have been developed to improve the dimension stability of wood. One applied method is the treatment of wood with monomers or resins. The application of appropriate impregnation conditions seemed to be essential to enhance the efficiency o...
M Sailer, A O Rapp

Water-based silicones on wood
1997 - IRG/WP 97-30144
Five waterbased silicones commonly used on masonry where tested as water repellents for wood. The Water Repellent Effectiveness was determined by swellometer-tests and by measuring the water uptake of samples after 24 hours complete immersion and by immersion in a water level of 4 mm for 24 hours. The different methods are compared and discussed. Artificial and natural weathering was performed to ...
D Lukowsky, R D Peek, A O Rapp

Interim balance after 20 months of lap-joint exposure
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20164
The application of natural resins and integrated resin systems to improve the performance of Pinus sylvestris was assessed in a lap-joint test according to DIN V ENV 12037 (1996). Lap-joints of Pinus sapwood were exposed at the test field in Hamburg (Germany) in May 1997. The treated lap-joints were assessed with regard to the performance of the resin treatments out of ground. The exposure of lap-...
M Sailer, A O Rapp, R-D Peek, A J Nurmi, E P J Beckers

Investigation of the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) for thermal modification
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40275
In this study the suitability of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) was examined for thermal modification. Comparative experimental investigations were performed with silver fir and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) after thermal treatments. Besides properties, which characterize the quality of heat treatments, like dimensional stability and resistance against fungal attack, strength properties of the...
C Brischke, A O Rapp

Effect of some resin treatments on fungal degradation reactions
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10318
The effect of impregnation of wood with vegetable oil, tall oil and two water soluble on fungal degradation reactions was assessed by hydrolysis and enzyme activity measurements. The experiments were carried out by using isolated enzyme preparations and a living brown-rot fungus Poria placenta. The results indicate that the inhibitory effect of treatments was clearly directec towards the enzymatic...
A-C Ritschkoff, M Rättö, A J Nurmi, H Kokko, A O Rapp, H Militz

Field Trials with mini-stakes
2002 - IRG/WP 02-20244
In 1995 an extensive field test program with wood mini-stakes, 8 x 20 x 200 mm, was started. In these trials a large number of parameters are being evaluated, including several new wood preservatives, differently chemically modified woods and natural durability of various wood species. The test sites are three fields in Sweden for in-ground and “close to ground” testing, one subterranean termi...
M Westin, A O Rapp, Y S Hadi, T Nilsson

New principles for the protection of wood: Impregnation with waterborne resins
1995 - IRG/WP 95-40047
The environmental impact of classical wood preservatives as well as the use of tropical wood species with high natural durability is regarded increasingly critically in the public. Therefore other partially new principles for the protection of wood, like chemical modification, or treatment with resins were examined especially in USA, Japan and in Europe with promising results predominantly in the ...
A O Rapp, R-D Peek

The ecotoxicology assessment of wood preservatives and their active ingredients by means of germination tests using cress - A critical consideration
1999 - IRG/WP 99-50125
With putting the Biocidal Products Directive 98/08/EC (BPD) in place an environmental risk assessment for wood preservatives and impregnated timber is requested. To assess possible risks, suitable test methods are required, which reveal the ecotoxicological profile including environmental fate and behaviour of treated commodities. Germination and growth tests could contribute to the determination ...
P Jüngel, A O Rapp, E Melcher

Comparison of thermally modified wood originating from four industrial scale processes – durability
2002 - IRG/WP 02-40229
This study examined the differences in biological wood properties of heat treated wood originating from four different European industrial heat treatment plants. The manufacturers of heat treated material were: PLATO Hout B.V./Netherlands, Thermo Wood/Finland, New Option Wood/France and Menz Holz/Germany where Oil-Heat treated Wood (OHT) is produced. The results of miniblock tests with basidiomyc...
C R Welzbacher, A O Rapp

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