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The 1999-2000 annual report for the IRG - Wood Preservation in Egypt
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40188
The wood destroying insects in Egypt are belonging to several families of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Isoptera. Imported woods are treated by The Agricultural Quarantine or the authorized companies. The materials used for protection as pre-treatment are the same of the treatment. They are Bromide methyl, copper or fluoride salts, organo-phosphorus compounds, pyrethroides, creosote or creosodial. A...
S I M Moein


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 2: Report of treatment and installation in Australia
1978 - IRG/WP 440
The purpose of this test and the procedures to be followed have been fully set out in documents distributed by the International Research Group on Wood Preservation and numbered IRG/WP/414 and IRG/WP/420. The prescriptions set out in these two documents have been closely followed....
J Beesley


The leachability and specificity of the biological protection of timber using Scytalidium sp. and Trichoderma spp
1986 - IRG/WP 1302
The results of field experiments, using biological control against internal decay of creosoted poles, are briefly reviewed and the evidence concerning the leachability of the antibiotics produced by these species is presented. A pure culture miniblock decay test on biological control treated pine sapwood is described and the results compared to previously published data. The protection against Len...
P I Morris, N A Summers, D J Dickinson


Marine performance of preservative treated Southern pine panels. Part 2: Exposure at Mourilyan Harbour, Queensland, Australia
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10337
Southern yellow pine panels treated with ACQ type B, ACQ type A, CCA type C, creosote, and copper naphthenate have been exposed at Mourilyan Harbour, north Queensland, Australia for almost 6 years. These panels have been inspected and rated for fouling and attack by Teredinid, Limnoria, Martesia, and Sphaeroma during this exposure. After 70 months exposure, overall performance of ACQ type B was eq...
A R Zahora, A F Preston, K J Archer, S Kleinschmidt


The yeast Pichia sp. As a short-term biological control agent to fungal spoilage of sawn softwood timber
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10362
Previous work has found isolates of the yeast Pichia to be a successful biological control agent toward moulding of fruits. An isolate was tested for the ability to protect sapwood of Pinus sylvestris timber against visual degrade by surface growth of moulds and staining fungi. Successful protection of autoclaved wood sprayed with a mixture of common wood moulding fungi was achieved when the yeast...
C Payne, H J Staines, A Bruce


Laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil formulation for stain and mold control on rubberwood and maple
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30175
We evaluated the efficacy of several chlorothalonil and carbendazim fungicides (F1 and F2), etc. in the control of mold and stain fungi on rubberwood and maple. The results showed that these formulations effectively inhibited the selected fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp. (P71H), Aureobasidium pullulans, Ceratocystis minor (C-188), Ceratocystis pilifera (RW...
Mingliang Jiang, T L Highley, L Ferge, T L Woods


Laboratory tests on light organic solvent preservatives for use in Australia. - Part 6: Soft rot resistance of three fully formulated preservatives on different timber substrates
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30245
The above-ground soft rot resistance of substrates treated with three fully formulated light organic solvent preservatives (Cuprivac Green WR, Impresol WR 205 and Vacsol) was studied using a modified vermiculite burial method. The substrates were sapwood of Pinus elliottii and P. radiata and heartwood of Eucalyptus regnans, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Shorea sp. (a lower and a higher density source) an...
G C Johnson, M A Tighe, J D Thornton


Wood preservation in Kenya
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40190
Focussing an Wood Preservation in Kenya, the Report discusses and elaborates on Education and Training, Research, Wood deteriorating organisms, Treatment Plants and Processes, Preserving Chemicals, Specifications, Markets, Health and Safety and Environmental issues. Education and Research is limited to one Institution only, other Institutions involved with the properties and utilization of wood ha...
R Venkatasamy


Boron treatment methods for lyctid susceptible hardwoods growing in Tasmania
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30168
A survey of existing boron plants that treat to protect hardwoods from attack by lyctids in Australia showed that hot and cold bath, and vacuum pressure impregnation (vpi), were the two most common methods employed. In experimental work, two of the treatment methods, vpi and dip diffusion, were used to treat seasoned and green messmate (Eucalyptus obliqua) and blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon). The t...
L J Cookson, D Scown, K McCarthy


Natural resistance of Bamboo (Bambusa sp.) to marine wood-borers in Goa waters (India)
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10032
The paper deals with the natural durability of Bambusa sp. against the attack of marine wood-borers in Goa waters. Test specimens of this species were completely destroyed within a short period of nine months due to severe attack of borers indicating its very low natural resistance. Wood-borers involved were Martesia striata (Linnaeus), Nausitora hedleyi Schepman and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefa...
L N Santhakumaran, S G Sawant


Natural durability of 4 different Larix species tested in soil contact
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10434
Importers of Siberian Larch claimed to have a material which can replace pressure treated wood in soil contact. This gave reason to investigate the durability of 4 different Larix species (L. decidua, L. sibirica, L. decidua x sibirica, L. gmelini var ologenis) coming from 7 different origins in comparison with sapwood of Pinus sylvestris untreated as well as pressure impregnated with retentions o...
A O Rapp, H Viitanen, T Nilsson


Laboratory tests on the natural durability of timber methods and problems
1984 - IRG/WP 2217
In literature a large variety of test methods is mentioned to examine the natural resistance of timber against fungal attack. This concerns the kind of sampling as well as the test procedure, the test fungi, the duration of test, and the classification of the resistance according to the test results. These variations, however, are of great influence on the test result. Long term exposure will lead...
H Willeitner


Differential susceptibility of living and dead timber to colonisation by sapstain and mould fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10288
Field studies have revealed that when timber is irradiated (i.e. killed) it is more susceptible to colonisation by mould fungi than sapstain fungi. By comparison, freshly sawn timber shows very little mould colonisation, tending to be colonised by sapstain fungi. It appears, therefore that the physiological state of the wood may influence the pattern of colonisation. A laboratory trial was underta...
J R Williams, D J Dickinson, J F Webber


Study of the degradation caused by micro-organisms in Pinus sp. waterlogged wood
1989 - IRG/WP 1411
So far, the different Centers are trying the restoration and the conservation of wood structures, coming from subaquatic archeological deposits, with interest from the historic - artistic point of view. The main objective of this paper has been the determination of the decay level of Pinus sp. wood coming from a roman ship (approximately 2000 years old), where we have analyzed their physical prope...
M T De Troya, M C Escorial, J Garcia, A Cabanas


Adequate preservative treatment of kiln dried Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Acacia mangium for tropical and subtropical wood poles
1996 - IRG/WP 96-40075
The Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Acacia mangium round timbers kiln-dried at EMC and full cell pressure treated with CCA-C ensured requisite penetration and adequate dry retention (30 kg/m³ or 4% w/w). The sufficient inherent strength, seasoning property, treatability of sapwood and heartwood equivalent to 44% of radius, natural durability of heartwood, and field investigation on service performan...
A K Lahiry


Intraspecific variability of durability of Wapa courbaril (Eperua grandiflora) against Antrodia sp. and Coriolus versicolor: effect of radial and height position in the stem
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10531
The variation of a lesser-used species, Eperua grandiflora attacked by brown and white rot has been examined. Trees of this specie showed differences in their behaviour against the type of rot used and also showed evidence of intra and inter tree variation. The “tree” effect is very significant concerning natural resistance. In the same way, there is variation of durability observed according ...
N Amusant, J Beauchêne, M Fournier


Soft-rot in Tabebuia sp. wood used in water cooling tower: identification and degradation capacity of the fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10253
Tabebuia sp. (ipe), a native Brazilian wood, is considered of high natural resistance to decaying fungi, and has been used in harsh environments, as cooling towers. Fifty-one fungi, belonging to mitosporic fungi group (Fungi Imperfecti), were isolated from deteriorated Tabebuia sp. wood samples, collected from the mist eliminator and packing of a cooling tower in operation for about 23 years. The ...
S Brazolin, M Tomazello, I H Schoenlein-Crusius


An aquaria test of the natural resistance against marine borers of some commercial timbers available in Australia
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10145
The natural resistance of the heartwood of 22 different timbers grown or commercially available in Australia was examined. Radiata pine sapwood both untreated, and treated with 5.4 kg/m³ CCA salt, was included for comparison. Small timber blocks were exposed for one year in tanks containing either Limnoria tripunctata or Lyrodus pedicellatus. Four softwood species tested were heavily attacked and...
L J Cookson


Preservative technique of three commercially important timber species – Sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), Akasmoni (Acacia auriculiformis) and Ghoraneem (Melia azedarach) of Bangladesh
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40299
Wood is renewable resource and is widely used as construction material in rural and urban areas of Bangladesh. Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia auriculiformis and Melia azedarach, locally known as Sissoo, Akasmoni and Ghoraneem respectively are three important timber species of Bangladesh. These are used for different purposes normally without preservative treatment. Heartwood of Sissoo, Akasmoni and Ghor...
M R Bulbul, M O Hannan, P K Sarker, A A Mahafuz, G N M Ilias


Enzymatic study of Ceratocystis sp., blue-stain fungi on Pinus nigra
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10315
One of the main problems that the forest exploitation industry has with Pinus nigra wood is the blue-stain fungi, whose causing agent is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to study, through enzymatic tests of the isolated cultures, if these fungi infect Pinus nigra in any specific way. After the incubations, isolates of Ceratocystis were obtained. These were cultured in a sali...
M T De Troya, F Rubio, D Muñoz-Mingarro, F Llinares, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, M Yuste, M J Pozuelo, J I Fernández-Golfín


Protection and efficient utilization of plantation grown lesser-known timbers of arid region in India - Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis cineraria
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40321
The plantation-grown timbers are highly susceptible to insects/pests, borers and wood rot fungus. Wood preservatives copper chrome arsenic (CCA) 2% and chloropyriphos 2% solution treated under pressure on three plantation grown timber species viz. Acacia tortilis, Prosopis juliflora and Prosopis cineraria have shown encouraging results in enhancement of shelf life by protection of wood against woo...
S H Jain, H Kumar, R Arya, R L Srivastava


Differential retention and leaching of CCA (C) in sapwood and heartwood of Kenyan-grown blue gum (Eucalyptus saligna) and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii)
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30371
Retention and leaching of CCA(C) in small samples of sapwood and heartwood of Kenyan-grown blue gum (Eucalyptus saligna) and black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) were tested under laboratory conditions. Clear samples (100mm x 30mm x 40mm) were removed from the sapwood and heartwood of sampled defect-free and sound plantation trees of the two species. These were separately air-dried to 15% MC, end-seal...
R Venkatasamy


Utilisation of carbohydrates by stain fungi in agar culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10248
Stain fungi are often defined by their ability to utilise the starch and free sugars found in ray parenchyma cells, and their inability to utilise other wood constituents. However, several species of stain fungi produce bore holes in wood cell walls. This suggests that enzymatic activity capable of degrading structural polysaccharides and/or lignin is associated with the growth of the appressorium...
J Snow, P Vinden, S M Read


Degradation of resin constituents in various wood species by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10301
In previous studies, the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was shown to cause extensive degradation of lipophilic extractives (resin) in Scots pine wood. Further research was carried out in order to investigate the ability of Bjerkandera sp. for reducing resinous constituents in various softwood (Douglas fir, larch and spruce) and hardwood species (birch, beech and poplar). The greates...
J Dorado, T A Van Beek, F W Claassen, R Sierra-Alvarez


The effects of pH on leaching of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) from pressure-treated Kenyan-grown Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii: Initial findings.
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30298
The effects of pH on leaching of CCA from pressure-treated Kenyan-grown Eucalyptus saligna and Acacia mearnsii were tested under laboratory conditions. Small samples of the two species (100mm x 30mm x 40mm) were smooth sawn from 8-year old trees to represent equal amounts of both sapwood and heartwood, air-dried to 12% moisture content, end-sealed, and pressure-treated at a commercial treatment p...
R Venkatasamy


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