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Effects of terpene compounds on the growth and peroxidase activity of Phellinus pini
1979 - IRG/WP 2130
The volatile compounds myrcene, limonene, a-pinene, a-terpineol, D-fenchol and 1,8-cineole, present in the oleoresin fraction of coniferous wood, were tested individually and as mixtures for their effect on the growth and peroxidase activity of cultures of six strains of Phellinus pini (Fr.) A.Ames and one strain of Phellinus chrysoloma (Fr.) Donk (Phellinus pini var. abietis (Karst.) Pilát). Phellinus pini was more tolerant of the substances than Phellinus chrysoloma. There were differences in the tolerance and peroxidase activity between the strains of Phellinus pini. Peroxidase activity was generally higher in the test cultures than in the controls, but was lower in cultures exposed to 1,8-cineole and a-terpineol.
L Väisälä


Monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi. [Fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores]
1970 - IRG/WP I 5B
C Jacquiot


Soft rot and bacterial decay in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1155
Bacterial type decay was observed in CCA and PCP treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Detailed observations made with the SEM revealed bacterial colonisation and decay, especially in fibres. Plug samples taken from poles throughout Queensland were examined for preservative retention and presence of soft-rot decay. The severity of decay was different according to location, retention and species.
L E Leightley


Questionnaire pour la préparation de fiches monographiques pour les champignons lignivores
1972 - IRG/WP 103 F
C Jacquiot


Monographic card for Stereum hirsutum
1973 - IRG/WP 119 E
C Jacquiot


Model questionnaire for preparation of monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi
1972 - IRG/WP 103
C Jacquiot


Virulence testing of cultures of different origins of the test fungus Coriolus versicolor strain CTB 863 A
1986 - IRG/WP 2267
The virulence of cultures of different origins of Coriolus versicolor CTB 863 A - a strain which is mentioned in EN 113 - was tested. Standard blocks of beech wood were used at temperatures of 20-22°C and 26-28°C and particleboard was tested at 26-28°C. The decay capacity of the different inoculations varied widely, as could be expected it was greatest at the higher temperature level.
W Kerner


Questionnaire for Volume 2 of the basidiomycete monographs
1985 - IRG/WP 1254
12 monographs of wood destroying basidiomycetes were published in volume 1. Volume 2 includes the following 17 basidiomycetes: Antrodia serialis, Chondrostereum purpureum, Climacocystic borealis, Fomitopsis pinicola, Hyphoderma tenue, Lentinus degener, Lentinus squarrulosus, Paxillus panuoides, Phellinus contiguus, Poria xantha, Pycnoporus sanguineus, Rigidoporus vitreus, Serpula himantoides, Sistotrema brinkmannii, Stereum sanguinolentum, Trametes corrugata
T Nilsson


Report on the monographic card on Coriolus versicolor
1972 - IRG/WP 111
C Jacquiot


Monographic card: Coniophora puteana (Schum. ex Fr.) Karst. (Second draft)
1978 - IRG/WP 171
A Käärik


The influence of age on retention and fixation of CCA in pressure-treated Kenyan-grown Eycalyptus saligna: Summary of findings
2002 - IRG/WP 02-30296
The present study investigates the influence of age on retention and fixation of copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) in Kenyan-grown Eucalyptus saligna. Samples for the study were obtained from sound trees aged 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 years. Test samples were radially cut from round material to represent total sapwood and heartwood for each age class, and measured 50mm in thickness, 100mm long, with widths varying according to the radii of the pieces. The samples were air-dried to an average of 15% moisture content, end-sealed, and treated at a commercial pressure treatment plant with 6% CCA-C (oxide type). They were subsequently conditioned for 6 weeks, air-dried to 15% MC, leached in running tap water for 9 days, re-dried to 15% MC, retentions calculated and results analysed. The results indicated a decreasing trend in retention with increasing age, but substantially higher fixation of the preservative was achieved in samples from older than younger trees. Samples from 4-year old trees with wider sapwood bands achieved consistently higher initial retentions (31.4Kg/M3) compared to those from 24-year old trees with narrower sapwood bands (9.4Kg/M3). However, losses through leaching were higher in samples from younger trees, 14.5Kg/M3 (46.2%) in 4-year old trees, compared to 0.8Kg/M3 (8.5%) in 24-year trees. It was also noted that both retention (31.4 -28.6Kg/M3), and percentage losses of CCA through leaching (46.2-41.6%), were higher in samples from trees between 4 and 8 years, but markedly decreased in samples from trees of between 20 and 24 years, 12.8-9.4Kg/M3 and 10.2-8.5% respectively. Fixation of CCA proved to be low in samples from younger trees, 53.8% and 58.4% for 4 and 8-year old trees respectively, but substantially higher, 89.8% and 91.5%, in samples from 20 and 24-year old trees. Treated eucalyptus poles and posts in the country are invariably from younger trees, and the recommended CCA ground contact retention of 18.0Kg/M3 for pressure treatment may not be adequate.
R Venkatasamy


Final draft of a monographic card for Pole Fungus A, L Harmsen, Rigidoporus vitreus (Fr.) Donk according to the 'Model Questionnaire for preparation of monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi'
1978 - IRG/WP 178
L Harmsen


First draft of a monographic card for Peniophora gigantea (Fr.) Mass
1975 - IRG/WP 137
J Wazny, A Grzywacz


Monographic information on Serpula (Merulius) lacrymans (Schum. ex Fr.) S. F. Gray, according to the 'Model Questionnaire for preparation of monographic cards for wood-destroying fungi'
1978 - IRG/WP 170
J Segmüller, O Wälchli


First draft of a monographic card for Daedalea quercina (L) ex Fr
1975 - IRG/WP 136
J Wazny, L Brodziak


The evaluation of the occurrence of soft rot in creosoted wooden poles
1988 - IRG/WP 1368
The occurrence of soft rot decay in creosoted wooden poles for overhead power lines was investigated by collection of field samples, their subsequent microscopic examination and statistical analysis of the data collected. Examination of samples collected from 296 poles revealed that approximately 15% of the pole population studied (Eastern Electricity Board) showed the presence of soft rot decay. Further, it was found that of undated poles, (those emplaced before 1953,) 17% displayed soft rot attack.
A Wylde, D J Dickinson


Oxalate production and calcium oxalate accumulation by Gloeophyllum trabeum in buffered cultures
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10075
Most basidiomycetous fungi produce oxalic acid as a result of their metabolic activities and nutrient procurement. There is currently a renewed interest in the role that oxalic acid may play in the decomposition of wood by basidiomycete fungi. It has been observed that although most wood degrading fungi have the capacity to produce oxalic acid, not all of these organisms express this capacity equally in the wood environment. In addition, not all of the fungi which produce oxalic acid will accumulate this metabolite. Very often the production of oxalic acid is coincident with the precipitation of oxalate salts such as calcium oxalate. At this time it is unclear as to what controls the differential production and accumulation of oxalate by wood degrading fungi. An investigative series of experiments was established using the brown rot fungus Gloeophyllum trabeum to examine the conditions which favor oxalate production and accumulation as manifested through the production of metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals. Batch cultures which were buffered by base cation exchange sites of mineral amendments stimulated the production of calcium oxalate crystals. The results of these buffering experiments indicate that at pH values below approximately 6.0 there is a diminution of oxalate accumulation, and that a pH environment of approximately 3.0 is consistently attained in weakly buffered cultures inoculated with this fungus. These pH values correspond to the pH optima for oxaloacetase (EC 3.7.1.1) and oxalate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.2) respectively, and thereby suggest a mechanism for both pH control and oxalate production and accumulation.
J H Connolly, J Jellison


Fiche pour Stereum hirsutum
1973 - IRG/WP 119
C Jacquiot


Identification card for Coriolopsis polyzona (Pers.) Ryv
1977 - IRG/WP 161
A Ofosu-Asiedu


Monographic information on Serpula incrassata (Berk. and Curt.) Donk
1980 - IRG/WP 1128
J G Palmer, W E Eslyn


First draft of a monographic card for Gloeophyllum abietinum (Bull. ex Fr.) Karst
1973 - IRG/WP 116
T Hof


Copper storage in the digestive caecae of Limnoria tripunctata and Limnoria quadripunctata (Crustacea: Isopoda) tunnelling in CCA treated and untreated wood in laboratory cultures
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10257
Digestive tract tissues of Limnoria quadripunctata Holthuis and Limnoria tripunctata Menzies, tunnelling untreated and CCA treated Scot's pine sapwood under laboratory conditions were examined using X-ray microanalysis and transmission electron microscopy. Populations of both Limnoria species tunnelling treated and untreated wood stored copper within their digestive caecae in the form of spherical and irregular granules. The number of storage granules was found to be higher in those organisms tunnelling CCA treated wood. This study also demonstrated copper was stored in gut tissues at certain stages of Limnoria's moult cycle, although the highest levels were always observed in organisms tunnelling CCA. Chromium and arsenic were not stored in the midgut cells. The current study demonstrates a possible mechanism by which Limnoria may colonise CCA treated wood in service.
C Wykes, A J Pitman, S M Cragg


A survey of the incidence of decay in copper-chrome-arsenate treated trellis support posts used in horticulture in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1225
Copper-chrom-arsenate treated softwood posts used as trellis support structures in 5 major horticultural districts of New Zealand were systematically examined for presence of decay. Principal crops on properties examined were grapes and kiwifruit; a minority of properties grew hops, boysenberries, and dwarf apples. Occurrence and severity of decay were variable within specific age classes of posts on individual properties and also between properties in the same region which had posts of similar age. Incidence of decay was higher in posts set in soils which were highly moisture retentive than in posts in drier areas or set in freely draining soils. Cross-sectional size and age of posts showed little correlation with frequency of severe decay, although the percentage of posts free of decay increased with decreasing age.
M E Hedley, J A Drysdale


Methods of culturing Lyctidae
1980 - IRG/WP 1126
Members of the tropical countries in the IRG Sub-Group "Insects in dry wood" requested a paper on the breeding of lyctids. Compared with other wood boring insects, such as cerambycids and anobiids, the breeding of lyctids is not as difficult and time consuming. Nevertheless some basic principles have to be observed in the laboratory to obtain successful cu·ltures. It is the intention of this report to give some guidelines for breeding powder-post beetles although I am aware of the fact that a lot has been published in this field.
H Kühne


Relationship between degradation of wood, cellulose or lignin-related compounds and production of hydroxyl radical or accumulation of oxalic acid in cultures of brown-rot fungi
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10062
The degradation activities of brown rot fungi against wood, cellulose, and lignin-related compounds were measured in cultures containing glucose or wood as a carbon source. Also the activities of one-electron oxidation and hydroxyl radical production and the amount of oxalic acid present in the cultures were measured. The degradation activities of the fungi against wood, crystalline cellulose and the lignin model compounds were in direct proportion to the activities of one-electron oxidaton and hydroxyl radical production. The amount of oxalic acid win the cultures was inversely proportional to those activities and oxalic acid was almost not detectable in the cultures in which wood was actively degraded. On the basis of these results it is concluded that one-electron systems including hydroxyl radicals play important roles in the initial stage of wood decay by brown rot fungi and degrade oxalic acid produced by the fungi to trace amounts.
S Itakura, T Hirano, H Tanaka, A Enoki


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