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The applicability of life cyle analysis and alternative methods in the wood preservation industry
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50023
In the Netherlands, several case studies have been performed using the life cycle analysis method (LCA). This type of research is aimed at an inventory and classification (sometimes including also evaluation) of the environmental impacts of a product, from the raw material to waste stage ("cradle to grave" approach). In a LCA each environmental impact is assessed in terms of, for example, mass of raw material use (kg), energy consumption (MJ), emissions (COx, NOX, SOx, etc.) and final waste (in kg). The critical point in an LCA is the definition of comparable "functional units" for similar products made of different materials with different service lifes. As the LCA method has often proved to be very complex, lime-consuming, expensive and difficult to interpret and translate into practically usefull results, alternative methods are developed. Three methods are described and compared on the basis of various examples. It is hoped that this may be of use as a starting point for further discussion on the suitability of applying the LCA on (preservative treated) timber products.
P Esser, J Cramer


A bibliography of organic solvent-based wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 322
H Alliot


Report of activity of CEN/TC 38: Test Methods for Wood Preservatives
1987 - IRG/WP 2287
G Castan


A bibliography of organic solvent-based wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 313 E
H Alliot


Chemical analysis for TBTN in LOSP-treated wood and preservative fluids
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20027
Tributyltin napthenate (TBTN) is being substituted for tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in LOSP preservative formulations because its lower reactivity/better stability allows co-formulation with synthetic pyrethroids. Better stability may reduce molecular degradation both in-service and during analysis. It was considered necessary to check whether TBTO analysis methods were suitable for use on TBTN treated wood. Five analytical methods for TBTO in wood were applied to TBTN-treated pine sapwood, and evaluated for recovery, accuracy and precision. It was found that treated wood could be oven-dried before analysis, eliminating the need to run parallel moisture content determinations. The best performing method involved extraction of TBTN from oven-dry treated wood with acidified ethanol followed by AAS determination of tin. Performance was checked on freshly-treated and aged material.
D P Wraight, M J Kennedy


Applications of immunological methods to the analysis and detection of Lentinus lepideus Fr
1989 - IRG/WP 1422
Polyclonal antisera have been raised against the brown rot fungus Lentinus lepideus, a major cause of rot induced pole failure in the UK. Specificity studies have indicated that the antisera cross-react with a number of basidiomycetes but to much lesser extent with other fungi. The antigenicity of Lentinus lepideus and hence its molecular composition shows some alteration with culture age and change of substrate. Wood block decay experiments have indicated that dot-immunobinding assays based on the antisera can detect the presence of Lentinus lepideus in conditions of minimal weight loss, an initial field trial has indicated that cross-reacting antigens can be detected in artificially inoculated distribution pole stubs. These and other aspecta of the antigenicity and immunodetection of Lentinus lepideus are discussed in this paper.
H Glancy, A Bruce, D Button, J W Palfreyman, B King


Bibliographie sur les produits organiques en solvant pour la préservation du bois
1972 - IRG/WP 313
Le présent travail exécuté dans le cadre do la Section III du Groupe International de la Préservation du bois a pour but de rassembler, en vue d'éventuelles études plus approfondies sur le sujet ou sur l'un de ses aspects, les principales et relativement récentes références sur les produits de protection des bois en solvant, souvent appelés, et parfois improprement, produits huileux ou encore produits organiques de protection des bois. Il n'a pas la prétention de faire la bibliographie complète des publications mondiales traitant de ce type de produits, ce qui aurait conduit extrêmement loin. Il a donc été nécessaire d'essayer de définir des limites. Ainsi ce travail porte sur une période ne dépassant en principe pas les dix dernières années, ce qui a paru d'autant plus raisonnable que la plupart des auteurs cites donnent une bibliographie sur le sujet particulier qu'ils ont traite, ce qui permet de se reporter aux références antérieures. Il était plus difficile de circonscrire le domaine traite. D'une part les auteurs ont aborde leur sujet sous des angles et suivant des plans très diversifies. D'autre part certains traitent du problème des produits organiques en solvant proprement dit, certains en traitent conjointement avec des produits d'autres types, alors que d'autres encore n'y font mention que de façon épisodique ou accessoire. De même il arrive que des publications traitent d'aspect ayant un rapport moins direct avec le sujet, mais dont l'incidence est parfois du plus grand intérêt. Nous nous sommes efforces d'en tenir compte sans trop déborder toutefois le cadre que nous nous étions fixés. Enfin il n'est pas possible dans un tel répertoire de séparer les travaux originaux des compilations, les uns et les autres pouvant d'ailleurs présenter un intérêt. Un certain nombre de références nous ont certainement échappé et nous nous en excusons auprès des auteurs, ainsi qu'auprès de ceux dont la langue ne nous a pas permis de lire et d'analyser leurs articles. Quelques utilisateurs de notre travail auraient probablement souhaité, à défaut d'une analyse détaillée, un résume pour chaque publication comme le font les Abstracts. C'est là un travail de documentaliste qui depasssit le cadre de nos possibilités. Nous aurions souhaité pouvoir présenter une synthèse magistrale très complète citant tous les auteurs, donnant et comparant leurs conclusions; le temps dont nous disposions nous a imposé une présentation plus modeste.
H Alliot


Bibliography on the use of boron compounds for the preservation of wood
1973 - IRG/WP 315
This bibliography is based on an earlier literature survey prepared by J. Thornton and Wm. E. Bruce (O.E.C.D. Document No. 27/DAS/CSI/M/91) which was enlarged and revised for a meeting in Paris in October 1968 (Document 27/DAS/CSI/M554) by Professor W. Bavendamm of Reinbek. The latter (1968) document with its 166 references has now been extended and brought up to date. Acknowledgments are due to Borax Consolidated Ltd. and to the New Zealand Forest Research Institute who have both helped by providing us with further compilations of their own. Boron compounds have been in use in the past and are still found useful in medicine in the form of boric acid solutions and boracic ointment. They have also been used for the conservation of foodstuffs. In the treatment of wood they were first mostly used as fire retardants. Since the Second World War they have become increasingly important in the field of wood preservation.
R Cockcroft, J F Levy


A comparison of analytical techniques
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20061
This paper compares carefully-controlled weight retentions and analysis by XRF, ICP, combustion methods and a new extraction procedure for the new preservative, Copper(II) Dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDDC). Various experimental parameters such as particle size and drying conditions were investigated. In general, the correlations between and among the procedures are very high. The extraction-colorimetric procedure developed for assay of CDDC was verified by comparison to AWPA Standard analytical techniques.
A C Gallacher, C R McIntyre, M H Freeman, D K Stokes, W B Smith


Leaching from field test stakes. Results from two different methods of analysis
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50013
Field test stakes treated with Boliden K33 containing copper, chromium and arsenic exposed at three different fields in Sweden and rejected due to decay, have in two studies been analysed regarding leaching and remaining preservatives. The stakes have been exposed during 20 to 43 years. The density of the stakes and content of copper, chromium and arsenic have been determined in the top part of the stakes (above ground) and bottom part (in ground) separately. The density of the stakes after exposure were similar in the top and in the bottom of the stakes while it was lower in the middle, ground line part. Leaching from small sections of the stakes indicate that 23% of copper, 19% of chromium and 25% of arsenic leached from the wood during exposure. Leaching from stakes to the environment, including the preservative in the totally lost decayed part, is, according to the analyses, 50% for copper, -4% for chromium and 36% for arsenic as an average for all stakes. The results from the two studies give different results. This focuses on the importance of sampling and methods of analyses as well as the necessity of being careful when evaluating the results.
F G Evans, M-L Edlund


Assessment of mould growth on coated wood - methods and application
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20423
Discolouring fungi reduce the service life of coated wooden claddings in façades and increase the total cost of ownership due to shorter maintenance intervals. The project “Enhanced service life on coated wooden facades” has as its main objective to develop new methods for early prediction of durability and longer aesthetic service life of coated wooden cladding related to consumer needs and new building and environmental regulations. Different methods for mould growth assessment on the surface of coated wood exposed outdoors will be looked in to and Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) will be developed as tools for objective quantification. In this paper four methods for assessment of mould growth on the surface of coated wood are presented; visual assessment, digital image analysis, QRT-PCR and FTIR, and the application of the different methods are discussed. Further, a comparative study was done using visual assessment and digital image analysis when measuring mould growth coverage on coated wood. 7 coatings with different typology and fungicide were tested according to EN927-3 outdoors for 2 years at Sogn test station, Oslo, Norway. Results obtained from visual assessment by using the rating scale in EN927-3 and a chosen algorithm for digital image processing was compared and the methods showed conformity. Alkyd modified acrylic coatings were found to perform significantly better than pure acrylic and modified alkyd coatings.
L Ross Gobakken, C M Whist, O Høibø, P J Hovde, E Larnøy


A comparative study and evaluation of methodologies used for determining wood preservative penetration
2011 - IRG/WP 11-20475
A series of methods for determining penetration of wood preservatives into the wood structure have been developed for either quality control (QC) or research and development purposes. QC methods range from monitoring the solution uptake, applying colour indicators or sampling specific wood samples followed by wood acid digestion/atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or solvent extraction/chromatography analysis. Several standard methods for penetration analysis were developed by various standardization groups (e.g. AWPA, CEN). They are mostly used in correlation with a specific wood preservative system. Additional analytical tools are necessary for detailed penetration studies, especially during product development of a new wood preservative. Sufficient penetration of the active components into the wood structure plays an essential role in determining the service life of treated wood. Depending on the desired end use (use class) of the treated wood component, different penetration requirements apply. Therefore studying and optimizing the penetration characteristics of new wood preservatives must be an integral part during their development. Furthermore monitoring that the penetration requirements are fulfilled in the wood treatment process is an important aspect to ensure the quality of treated wood products. The aim of this study was to review several methods currently employed to determine the penetration of the wood preservative actives e.g. colour indicators, solution uptake of treated wood, direct gradient studies by wood acid digestion/atomic absorption spectroscopy or solvent extraction/chromatography analysis, and microbiological studies using different types of fungi. Factors which can impact on the outcome from these methods are being discussed based on some “model” wood preservative systems.
R Craciun, R Moeller, J Wittenzellner, T Jakob, J Habicht


Extraction and analysis of DNA from green and seasoned timber as basic methods for determination of wood species and origin
2013 - IRG/WP 13-20523
Against the background of the European timber trade regulation EUTR, commenced to law by March 2013, the determination of wood species and tracing of its origin is getting a great importance. A promising approach for establishing fast and reliable tracking systems for wood products is DNA analysis. A critical point is the extraction of analysable DNA from the wood and its lignified cell walls. Thus, aim of the work was the analysis of DNA content in different areas of the cross section of green and dry, well-seasoned wood from pine, spruce and beech, using quantitative, real-time PCR analysis. DNA from green timber was successfully extracted and amplified with primer set ycf3hm at all three wood species and zones of cross-section. Whereas the results with pine and spruce confirmed the expectation, that the DNA content decreases from cambium to pith, this was not observed with beech. DNA detection with 20 year old well-seasoned wood was successful only with beech. Further systematic studies are necessary to get better information about the influence of wood processing and ageing on DNA quantity and quality.
K Jacobs, H Mende, W Scheiding


Modern Instrumental Methods to Investigate the Mechanism of Biological Decay in Wood Plastic Composites
2014 - IRG/WP 14-40674
Various instrumental techniques were used to study the fungal decay process in wood plastic composite (WPC) boards. Commercial boards exposed near Hilo, Hawaii (HI) for eight years in both sun and shadow locations were inspected and tested periodically. After eight years of exposure, both boards were evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while a selected area of the board exposed in shadow was additionally tested using microscopy and micro x-ray computed tomography (CT). Experimental boards exposed to either exterior conditions in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) or a laboratory decay process were used for verification of MRI and CT results obtained from the commercial board. MRI detected the presence of free water and its distribution in the exposed commercial board samples tested. Fibre saturation in the experimental board was found to be about 22%, in comparison to 27 – 30% present in most wood species. There was good correlation between the detection of free water by MRI and by destructive testing. Reconstructed volumes from CT scans of the tested boards allowed for the WPC microstructure to be observed in various planes of view and for void analysis of the material to be conducted. A significantly higher average percentage volume of voids was detected in the exposed sample compared to its reference unexposed counterpart. CT scans and subsequent void analysis of the experimental soil block culture test samples of known weight loss in wood demonstrated this technique to be reasonably accurate in the detection of voids created due to biological decay. No obvious relationship was established between the presence of free water detected by MRI and the average volume of voids detected by CT. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed the presence of fungal mycelia in the exposed commercial board cross-section imaged by both MRI and CT. It was confirmed that both MRI and micro CT could be used for non-destructive evaluations of WPC materials, including their decay process. This work also found that many different decay fungi species could colonize and internally damage WPC, and that fungal decay in WPC seems to be a self-propagating process requiring an initiation time period where no obvious decay damage is observed.
G Sun, R Ibach, M Gnatowski, J Glaeser, M Leung, J Haight


New methods for estimating the volume of shipworm tunnels supported by image analysis
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20668
In marine environment, the main threat for wood is the bioerosion by woodborers, both peracarid crustaceans (such as gribbles Limnoria and pincher scuds Chelura) and bivalve molluscs (shipworms, Teredinidae). The damage caused by gribbles on wood structure is surficial and easy identifiable, whereas the damage caused by shipworms is internal, therefore not evident, inducing unexpected crashes with consequence for navigation safety. To give an estimation of the volume eroded by shipworms from conventional X-ray pictures, a model was elaborated from shell size measured on radiographs. A simple method to compare wood poles of different shapes and dimensions is also presented based on image analysis. The methods here presented can be used to study shipworm attack and give new tools for implementing the current standard EN275, avoiding subjective visual assessments and to speed-up the analysis.
I Guarneri, M Sigovini, E Keppel, D Tagliapietra


Monitoring of wood preservatives exposed to weathering: Extraction and analysis methods of organic biocides from treated wood and collected rain runoff
2020 - IRG/WP 20-30753
Weathering is the cause of numerous damages for outdoor joineries. Protection of wood using a preservative treatment covered with a coating is a process widely used to limit these damages. However, biocides from preservative treated wood are prone to degradation and leaching, having a direct influence on the joinery service life. This document deals with extraction and analytical methods for biocide characterization from Use Class 3 treated woods and collected rain runoffs. Analysis by gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) showed limits of quantification (LOQs) in the order of microgram per litre of injected solution, equivalent to hundreds of nanograms per gram of treated wood. Accelerated Solvent Extractions (ASE) using acetone, and final extract re-concentrated in ethyl acetate were performed with wood powder spiked at three levels of concentration, resulting in satisfying extraction efficiencies between 70% and 130%, except for fenpropimorph which exhibited a low extraction efficiency close to 20%. Another series of extraction with methanol led to good extraction efficiency including fenpropimorph (83% ± 7%). Online Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) coupled to a GC-MS/MS method developed for water analysis led to LOQs in the order of nanogram per litre of extracted water. This water analysis method was used to study wood preservatives depletion from the first rain runoff samples collected during a weathering test. Three wood preservative products were selected for a surface treatment of Scots pine sapwood panels. Samples were exposed outdoors on stainless exposure racks connected to jerrycans for rain runoff collection. Severe exposure settings, with uncoated panels and a 45° inclination, were deliberately chosen in order to maximise climatic factor responsible for wood preservatives depletion. Quick losses were observed in runoffs from uncoated panels, while leaching from coated panels was reduced and more stable. Significant differences in preservative compound leaching were noticed among biocides, from concentrations in the range of mg/L for propiconazole in first rain events, to concentrations close to LOQs for pyrethroids.
O Ouali, K Le Ménach, E Raphalen, L Podgorski, S Legay, H Budzinski


Green approach in wood mineralization for improvement of fire properties
2022 - IRG/WP 22-30769
Various treatments have been developed in order to improve fire properties of wood. Because the use of some flame retardants can release toxic compounds in the event of a fire, leading to poisoning or even death of people from smoke inhalation, the use of no-toxic and more ecologically acceptable flame retardants is preferable. Mineralization of wood with the incorporation of carbonates has proven to be a promising method for improving fire properties. The paper presents fire properties of two wood species (spruce and beech) modified using recently proposed eco-friendly mineralization process. Method is based on vacuum pressure impregnation using water solution of calcium acetoacetate which transforms to CaCO3 deep inside the wood structure. The parameters for determining the classification of reaction to fire were investigated. The increase in time ignition, decrease in the total heat release and the fire growth rate index were observed for mineralized wood. Moreover, reduced weight loss in different pyrolysis process of mineralized wood determined by thermogravimetric analysis indicates improved fire performance of such material.
A Pondelak, R Repič, L Škrlep, N Knez, F Knez, A S Škapin


Biological screening assays of wood samples treated with creosote plus chemical additives exposed to Limnoria tripunctata
1980 - IRG/WP 408
Laboratory methods for exposure of treated wood coupons to Limnoria tripunctata are described. Chemical additions to creosote were screened using this method. Three pesticides, Endrin, Kepone, and Malathion proved particularly effective. The addition of varying percentages of naphthalene to creosote using several treatment methods are currently being assayed. Results to date show that the coupons treated by the empty cell method have better performance than those prepared by the toluene dilution method. The naphthalene coupons treated by the full cell method show no attack after six months' exposure.
B R Richards, D A Webb


Field test evaluation of preservatives and treatment methods for fence posts
1985 - IRG/WP 3347
This work presents the field test results after fifteen years exposure of Eucalyptus saligna fence posts treated with six different preservatives and five treatment methods. All the combinations with oil-borne preservatives presented the best results and among the waterborne preservatives, the fence posts treated by immersion method were with the lowest performance in the field test.
G A C Lopez, E S Lepage


Analysis of tebuconazole in wood treated with Tanalith™ E
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20158
A simple gas chromatographic method for determining tebuconazole in Tanalith™ E treated wood is described. A two step sequential extraction procedure with methanol was used. Sample extracts were analysed without cleanup or concentration using capillary column GC with thermionic specific detection. The performance of the method was assessed using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sapwood, radiata pine heartwood, and spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora) sapwood as substrates. Recoveries from fortified samples ranged from 97% to 103%. The precision of the method was assessed by analysing a number of actual treated wood samples over a range of retention levels, which produced relative standard deviations in the range of 3% to 8%.
D E Ferlazzo


Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi
M-L Edlund


Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of commercially important copper-based wood preservatives were used as model formulations, namely copper/copper-HDO, ammoniacal copper/quat and CCA. The most important factors determining the extent of copper leaching in the different lab trials were the sample size (volume/surface ratio) and the fixation conditions prior to leaching. On the other hand, the wood species and the leaching protocol itself were found to have only minor influence on the copper leaching rate in the test methods included in this study.
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner


Testing of wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 1). Method of testing wood preservatives against marine borers (Part 2)
1971 - IRG/WP 37
P C Trussell, C C Walden


Report on the activities of the European Standardization Committee CEN/TC 38 'Methods of Testing wood preservatives'
1980 - IRG/WP 279 E
G Castan


Comparison of the agar-block and soil-block methods used for evaluation of fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA wood preservatives
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20039
The modyfied agar-block and soil-block methods were used for comparing the fungitoxic value of QAC and CCA type preservatives against Coniophora puteana and Coniophora olivacea The mass loss and moisture contents of wood were analysed.
J Wazny, L J Cookson


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