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Proposed standard laboratory method for testing fungicides for controlling sapstain and mould on unseasoned lumber
1977 - IRG/WP 292
This laboratory method is for determining the effective concentration, or concentration for zero growth (CGo), for fungicides or preparations of fungicides which are potentially useful in protecting packaged or unseasoned lumber in storage and shipment from biodeterioration by sapstain fungi and moulds. The test is rapid and may be completed in three weeks and gives a good indication of the toxicity of a chemical against sapstain fungi and moulds.
A J Cserjesi

Mould resistance of lignocellulosic material treated with some protective chemicals
1984 - IRG/WP 3294
Effectiveness of preserving lignocellulosic material against moulding by treatement with water solutions of commercial wood preservatives and mixtures of various inorganic salts was investigated and compared with the effectivenes of sodium pentachlorophenoxide and boric acid.
K Lutomski

Field trials of anti-sapstain products. Part 1
1991 - IRG/WP 3675
The results obtained in two field tests of anti-sapatain products, carried out in four locations in Portugal, are presented. Boards from freshly cut logs were hand-dipped, close staked and left to dry for periods from four to six months. The results obtained seem to indicate that some of the products tested performed at least as well and sometimes better, than a 3% NaPCP solution which was used as control product.
L Nunes, F Peixoto, M M Pedroso, J A Santos

Evaluation of the effectiveness of three microbiocides in the control of sapstains
1982 - IRG/WP 3212
Results of field test on the effectiveness of BUSAN 30, CAPTAN, FOLPET against mould and sapstain in Pinus elliottii are presented. The viability of use of FOLPET in Brazil as an alternative to sodium pentachlorophenate is also discussed.
S Milano, J A A Vianna Neto

Working Group II: Sub-group: Methods of testing anti-stain chemicals for protecting sawn lumber during storage, transit
1978 - IRG/WP 2121
R Smith

Observations on the penetration of preservatives into green timber
1985 - IRG/WP 3335
Differences in the rate and extent of diffusion of MBT and NaPCP-based preservatives following a short dip treatment were observed. The importance of preservative distribution as well as toxicity to the target organisms in governing the ultimate performance of any anti-sapstain compound is discussed.
G R Williams, R A Eaton, D A Lewis

Anti-stain field trials in British Columbia
1981 - IRG/WP 3174
Four alternative anti-sap stain chemicals were subjected to a four month field evaluation during the summer of 1980. The test, established at a Vancouver Island sawmill, was designed to evaluate the potential long-term effectiveness of sodium tribromophenate (Velsicol Ltd.), Biocom XX (Bramco Industries) containing methylene bis-thiocyanate, Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers Ltd.) containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butyl carbamate and Mitrol 48 (Kenogard) containing guazatine acetate and quaternary ammonium chlorides, on hemfir and Douglas fir. Sodium tribromophenate was found to give surface protection equivalent to that of chlorophenate treated controls. Biocom XX was also effective, although the active ingredient came out of solution at the required treating solution concentration. Woodbrite NTX and Mitrol 48 were found to be ineffective on either species group under the test conditions.
D V Plackett

The preliminary evaluation of selected sulfonium salts for use in wood preservation
1984 - IRG/WP 3278
Five sulfonium compounds, including two sulfonium methosulfates, one sulfonium bromide and two amphoteric sulfonium propanesulfonates, were prepared in crude form and subjected to various biocidal screening tests. A rapid screening test in which treated Pinus radiata pulp pellets were exposed to one of three wood-decaying fungi growing on malt agar revealed that dodecyl dimethyl sulfonium methosulfate had an inhibiting effect comparable to that of lauryl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (benzalkonium chloride). The remaining sulfonium salts gave no fungal inhibition in this test. Both dodecyl- and decyl dimethyl sulfonium methosulfate gave a positive response in a screening test for insecticidal activity. However, rapid insect recovery indicated detoxification or excretion of the test chemicals. Dodecyl dimethyl sulfonium methosulfate was also screened as an anti-sapstain treatment with encouraging results. Further work is now in progress to explore the potential wood preservative capability of certain sulfonium and sulfoxonium salts.
D V Plackett

Preliminary note on the fungal problem of rubber wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3246
Susceptibility of rubber wood to fungal attack limits its wider utilisation. Fungal problems encountered in treating rubber wood with boron compounds by diffusion process have been discussed. Sodium pentachlorophenoxide and 2-thiocyanomethylthio benzothioazole (TCMTB) were investigated for possible control of fungal growth during diffusion storage and their performance has been reported.
R Gnanaharan

Field and laboratory studies on anti-sapstain preservatives
1982 - IRG/WP 3205
The field tests included 11 different anti-sapstain preservatives and were carried out at different sawmills in southern Sweden. Drying conditions, climate and the local fungus flora were not identical for the different preservatives and comparisons between the preservatives should therefore be made with caution. Results obtained in the field tests are, however, in relatively good agreement with those found in the laboratory tests carried out with the pure preservatives. Especially Cuzol, a methylen-bis-thiocyanate/boric acid-product, showed a good effect against sapstain both in field and laboratory tests. However, Mykocid BS and Improsol 1 (two bifluoride products) as well as Mitrol 48 (benzalkonium chloride/guazatine) were also effective against sapstain. Hager Blue (boric acid/caprylic acid) was also fairly effective even if the untreated control material in this test was only moderately stained. Acceptable protection was obtained with the two Benomyl-containing preservatives and Thiobor (dimethyldithiocarbamate + borax). Mixtures of the various preservatives were tested in the laboratory as regards protective effect against sapstain, mould, thermotolerant mould and decay as well as chemical reactions that could be observed visually (precipitation, change in colour etc.). There was no absolute correlation between observed chemical reactions and changes in the biological effect. Mixtures resulting in reduced biological activity and which should be regarded less suitable are; Mykocid BS/ DuPont Benomyl, Cuzol/Thiobor, DuPont Benomyl/ Thiobor, Fennotox/Mitrol 48, Fennotox/Thiobor, Hager Blue/Sadolin Woodgard, Improsol 1/Mertect, Mitrol 48/Thiobor, Mitrol 48/Sadolin Woodgard and Mykocid BS/Thiobor. When mixing Hager Blue/Mykocid BS, Mitrol 48/Mykocid BS, Improsol 1/Cuzol and Mykocid BS/Cuzol precipitations occurred, which is a factor to be considered in practice since stirring may be necessary in the dipping tank. The preservatives based on bifluorides, Improsol 1 and Mykocid BS, penetrated about 1 cm into the wood after dipping and seasoning. A certain yellowish chemical staining was observed. Bifluorides are corrosive and attack steel and to a certain extent also concrete. Products containing boric acid and borates (Hager Blue, Thiobor, Benomyl + boric acid) also penetrated the timber to a certain extent. Thiobor reacted with certain parts of the heartwood which became slightly stained a reddish tone. The diffusion from the surface of the timber and inwards, which takes place when preservatives containing bifluorides, boric acid or borates are used, results in decreasing concentration of active components near the surface of the timber. This has to be considered when choosing the concentration of the treatment solution. Four of the preservatives included in the tests required stirring in the dipping tank. These are DuPont Benomyl 50, Sadolin Woodgard, Fennotox S2 and Mertect.
M-L Edlund, B Henningsson

A summary of work carried out to compare natural and artificial weathering for preconditioning test specimens in testing anti-stain chemicals for wood in service
1976 - IRG/WP 266
Since 1972 work has been in progress within CEN to establish a European standard for the testing of wood preservatives designed to prevent blue-staining of wood in service. The method is based on the Butin test and involves pre-weathering of the samples prior to biological testing. The weathering regime employed is 6 months outside exposure from March to October. This imposes severe limitations on the number of tests that can be carried out each year and has prompted considerable interest in an artificial weathering procedure which can be used instead of natural weathering. Recently four European laboratories (EMPA, BAM, IC, PRL) have been involved in assessing artificial systems (Xenotest, Marr, Gardener wheel, weathering tunnel) and this report has been prepared at the request of CEN in order to assess the accumulated data and make recommendations back to the CEN. This document presents only a brief account of the work and fuller details can be obtained directly from the laboratories concerned.
D J Dickinson, A F Bravery

Evaluation of an alkyl ammonium compound as a fungicide to control sapstain and mould during diffusion storage
1984 - IRG/WP 3282
An alkyl ammonium compound ('Akzo' ES 255) was evaluated for its effectiveness against mould and sapstain during diffusion storage of boron-treated rubber wood. Though ES 255 at 1.0% concentration was effective against mould (71%) and sapstain (89%) it is less satisfactory compared to 0.5% sodium pentachlorophenoxide against mould (92%) and sapstain (98%).
R Gnanaharan

Long-term protection of stored lumber against mould, stain, and specifically decay: A comparative field test of fungicidal formulations
1984 - IRG/WP 3281
The problem of decay in packaged, unseasoned lumber stored for many months has become of major importance in recent years. Large financial claims have resulted from decay in Canadian lumber stored at length in seaports and storage yards of distributors. For decades acceptable protection from moulds and sapstain was readily achieved with chlorinated phenols applied at appropriate treating levels. However, in recent years, the use of chlorinated phenols in sawmills has become controversial, out of concern for its persistance in the environment and because of its broad spectrum of toxicity to practically all organisms. Although it was realized that this toxicity to humans had been over-emphasized, the discovery of traces of chlorinated dibenzodioxins as a minor impurity of some chlorinated phenols has generated further pressure to abandon the use of the latter. Forintek Canada Corp. has done extensive laboratory and field testing of fungicides for the lumber industry. Most of the field experiments were four-month studies (1) although one dealt with a two year evaluation of preservative retention and protection (2). In June 1981, under contract to Agriculture Canada, we began a field test of five new fungicidal formulations, comparing them with sodium tetra- and pentachlorpheates (NaTCP).
A J Cserjesi, A Byrne, E L Johnson

Which fungi should be included in the laboratory evaluation of anti-stain chemicals?
2001 - IRG/WP 01-20236
Test fungi for efficacy tests of anti-stain formulations were selected based on the assumptions that test fungi should be fungicide-tolerant antagonists and fungi resistant to both fungicides and fungicide- tolerant antagonists, and such fungi should be re-isolated from treated samples with the highest fungicidal concentration used for laboratory evaluation of fungicides. This paper discusses the results of the study performed to assess the above assumptions using the fungi re-isolated from treated samples used for the laboratory efficacy tests of NP-1 Plus against all fungal isolates from green radiata pine logs.
Hyung-Jun Kim, Jae-Jin Kim, Gyu-Hyeok Kim

Comparison between two laboratory test methods for determining the effectiveness on wood preservatives against blue stain in fresh wood
1987 - IRG/WP 2289
Most of the work done on determination of the effectiveness of new formulae for treating fresh wood against blue stain have been focussed on their use in the manufacture of saw timber. This work explains two laboratory methods, one which simulates the working and climatological conditions of factories making packages for fruit and vegetables in the Spanish Levante, showing that contamination of wood is caused naturally, and another method causing blue stain by innoculation with pure cultures. Both methods were applied to eight preservatives, and the results were compared.
A M Navarrete, M T De Troya

Effectiveness of some microbiocides against the development of molds and sapstain in Pinus elliottii
1981 - IRG/WP 3169
Eleven commercial biocidal formulations were tested in the field to determine their effectiveness in protecting logs and lumber of Pinus elliottii sapwood from sap stain and molds. Among these formulations 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole showed the best performance in controlling both types of fungi. Potassium N-hydroxymethyl-N-methyl dithiocarbamate and the mixture potassium N-methyl dithiocarbamate plus ethylenediamine plus disodium cyanodithioymide-carbonate showed good effectiveness against sap stain fungi but failed to prevent mold growth.
S Milano

A field test with anti-stain chemicals on sawn pine timber in Brazil
1989 - IRG/WP 3513
Field tests were carried out in São Paulo State - Brazil, to evaluate pre-treatment formulations of O-Phenyl-Phenol (OPP) based products. The Sodium Pentachlorophenate solution was used as a reference formulation. The treated test blocks were stacked in a covered shed, and in an uncovered place for air drying. The evaluation was done by measuring the percentage of stained surface on each test block, and the effect of the sodium tetraborate on the OPP fixation was also tested. Statistics analyses allowed to correlate the factors exposition, treatment, among others, indicating that the OPP 2.1% plus sodium tetraborate, showed the best performance.
M B B Monteiro, S Brazolin

Evaluation of the effectiveness of defence anti-stain in the control of sapstain in laboratory and field tests
1990 - IRG/WP 3593
The anti-sapstain product Defence Anti-stain (DAS) has been evaluated internationally in laboratory and field tests during the years 1988 and 1989. Results of tests carried out by institutes and by own companies in countries like Indonesia, Ivory Coast, Japan, Portugal, Belgium, The Netherlands and Spain will be presented. In the several tests Defence Anti-stain showed a high fungicidal activity to sapstain and mould fungi on wood. The product is a promising alternative to sodium pentachlorophenoxide from biological and other product characteristics point of view.
G Rustenburg, C J Klaver

An appraisal of anti-sapstain chemicals in Queensland, Australia
1985 - IRG/WP 3331
Eleven formulations were tested in the field for effectiveness against sapstain, mould and fungi on Pinus elliottii in Queensland. The commercially used sodium pentachlorophenoxide (0.5% a.i.) and Captafol (0.2% a.i.) performed well. Busan 1009 (0.3% a.i.), Protek T (5.0% a.i.), Woodgard E.S. and E.C. (0.8% a.i.), together with sodium tetrachlorophenoxide (0.5% a.i.) offer potential as anti-sapstain treatments. Protek S (up to 0.6% a.i.), Azaconazole (up to 0.2% a.i.) and copper-8-quinolinolate (up to 0.06% a.i.) were ineffective in protecting against mould and sapstain fungi.
L E Leightley

Field evaluation of alternative antisapstain chemicals
1982 - IRG/WP 3198
Seven alternative antisapstain formulations containing four different active ingredients were field tested during the summer and fall of 1981. The test was designed to evaluate the potential long term effectiveness of PQ-8 (Chapman Chemical Co.) containing copper-8-quinolinolate, Busan 30 (Buckman Laboratories) containing 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole, BL2398 (Buckman Laboratories) containing a mixture of 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)benzothiazole and methylene bis-thiocyanate, Xyligen K30F (BASF) containing the potassium salt of N-nitroso-N-cyclohexyl hydroxylamine and three formulations, Polyphase (Troy Chemical Corp.), Woodbrite NTX (Van Waters & Rogers) and Argosy (Aero-Pak Ltd.) containing 3-iodo-2-propynyl butyl carbamate as active ingredient. The tests were evaluated after three months and again after five months. Protection of hemfir lumber comparable to a 0.65% w/w chlorophenoxide treatment was achieved with 0.8% active PQ-8, 2.0% active Busan 30, 0.8% active BL2398, 1.0% active Polyphase, 1.0% active Woodbrite NTX and 1.0% active Argosy treatments. Xyligen K30F treatment at the 1.0% active level was ineffective.
D V Plackett

Methods of testing anti-stain chemicals for protecting sawn timber during storage and transport
1976 - IRG/WP 273
No international standard method for testing anti-stain chemicals for protecting fresh sawn timber exists. The methods used can be divided into three types: a) Rapid screening tests for finding chemicals effective against blue-stain and mould fungi. The chemicals are tested in agar medium, in pieces of filter paper or on small pieces of wood using pure cultures. b) Laboratory tests for evaluating the effectiveness of a preservative and estimating the minimum concentration for the treating solution. Wooden test pieces of different size and artificial infection are used. c) Field tests for evaluating the effectiveness and performance of a preservative under practical conditions. The fungal infection is mostly natural. There is a need for standardisation of the method especially for the tests of type b, to be able to repeat the tests and have comparable results. The results from field tests are always dependant upon the natural conditions that vary between places and even in the same place. Besides, a field test often tries to simulate the local service conditions. However, standardisation of the techniques and of the principle of evaluation might faoilitate the conduction of tests, and the comparison of the results. In this paper, a short summary is made on the variables in the present tests, that should be subject to unification. The summary is based on literature, that is not complete. The differences in the present methods are so numerous that they cannot be discussed here in detail.
T Vihavainen

Screening potential preservatives against stain and mould fungi on pine timber in Zimbabwe
1995 - IRG/WP 95-30063
The search for environmentally and toxicologically safer chemicals for use in the timber preservative industry against stain and mould fungi has been intensified during the past few years. Results of field tests with two chemicals previously evaluated in the laboratory are presented. The conventional sodium pentachlorophenate was the more efficacious chemical against stain and mould fungi, providing up 90% control at a concentration of 2.5%. A potential alternative, Stopstain a borate-based chemical, gave results only slightly better than the untreated control timber, at a concentration of 5%. Unless the environmental cost and toxicological hazards of traditional chemicals are highlighted the newer and safer chemicals will be reluctantly accepted by industry as they are regarded as being prohibitively expensive.
A J Masuka

Commercially available anti-sapstain chemicals in New Zealand - An update
1987 - IRG/WP 3416
Six anti-sapstain chemicals or mixtures (NaPCP plus borax, Haipen 5F, Mitrol PQ375, Busan 1009, Protek S, Pinefol 50W) are available as commercial treatments in New Zealand. A further two (Hylite 20F and Isothon-35) have shown potential in field and mill trials and will be available for use. A number of other formulations are under evaluation.
J A Drysdale

In search of alternative antisapstain chemicals for use in Papua New Guinea
1988 - IRG/WP 3472
The paper presents results of antisapstain field trials from three locations in Papua New Guinea as part of the Research Centre's programme to find suitable antisapstains to replace the hazardous sodium pentachlorophenate. Effectiveness of seven tested chemicals varied between indigenous pines (Araucaria cunninghamii, Araucaria husteinii) and white coloured hardwoods (Alstonia scholaris, Pterocymbium beccarii) but not between sites. The indigenous pines required lower chemical concentration for same level and period of protection than white coloured hardwoods like amberoi and white cheesewood. Period of protection ranged from four weeks to a maximum of 16 weeks depending on chemical concentration and species of timber. Potential chemicals recommended for use as antisapstain include Celbrite T, Busan 1009, Penacide and Woodguard E.S. and Woodguard E.C.
A Oteng-Amoako

Observations on the colonization of freshly-felled timber treated with prophylactic chemicals by mould and sapstain fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1394
Field tests using freshly felled pine sapwood were set up to determine the effectiveness of a range of antisapstain compounds and to study the problems of colonization by mould and sapstain fungi. Differences were recorded both in the overall performance of the compounds and also their selectivity in controlling specific fungal types. These results were found to be useful in gaining a better understanding of biocide - fungal interactions.
G R Williams, D A Lewis

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