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Application Package - IRG Travel Award for short-term scientific missions
2003 - IRG/WP 03-60175
IRG Secretariat

Application of radio frequency heating to accelerate fixation of CCA in treated round-wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-40133
The potential of radio frequency heating to accelerate the fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in treated round-wood was assessed. Pre-dried Douglas-fir and western red cedar round-wood sections were pressure treated with CCA in a pilot plant retort, after which they were placed individually in a pilot radio frequency (RF) chamber. Based upon the color reaction of chromotropic acid with hexavalent chromium and the quantitative assessment using diphenyl carbazide, fixation was achieved in less than 6 hours. During heating, the temperature at various locations inside the pole sections was monitored by fiber-optic thermocouples. The moisture profiles before, and after fixation, were also recorded. Further studies will examine other benefit of RF heating, including a) sterilization, and b) rapid drying of round-wood with minimum check formation.
Fang Fang, J N R Ruddick

Improved resistance of Scots pine and Spruce by application of an oil-heat treatment
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40162
Spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) were subject to a heat treatment which was carried out in an oil-bath. The aim was to improve the dimensional stability of the treated wood and its resistance against fungi. The bath of vegetable oil provides a uniform heat transfer at temperatures of 180°C, 200°C and 220°C and protects the submersed wood from oxygen. Heat treatment in air atmosphere was also carried out at the same temperatures for comparison. Wood treated in hot oil was more equal in its appearance than wood heated in hot air. The treatment of spruce and pine in the oil-bath resulted in a better resistance against Coniophora puteana in a lab test according to EN 113 compared to the treatment in air atmosphere. In order to achieve the wanted upgrading effect, certain changes of mechanical properties and colour must be accepted. However, the strength loss caused by the heat-treatment in oil was less severe than in air atmosphere. Since all materials and the energy used in the process originate from renewable resources, the oil-heat-treatment appears to be environmentally friendly. All in all, the heat treatment in oil might be a promising approach to upgrade wood for outdoor use.
M Sailer, A O Rapp, H Leithoff

Timber Preservation and Sustainable Construction in Australia
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-14
Sustainable development has been described as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meeting their own needs. (Bruntland 1987) To achieve the sustainable development goal therefore, the maximum performance has to be obtained from existing resources (timber) so that the remaining resource is protected from over-exploitation. Clearly, wood preservation has an important role to play in achieving the longest life from timber and timber products currently going in to service. Australia has a large number of naturally durable timbers and wood preservation systems have evolved to mimic and complement the natural durability of the heartwood of the material being treated. Whilst Australian wood preservative specifications have targeted the biological hazard and not the commodity, recent innovations with organic solvent preservatives have seen new products entering the market for very specific commodities. Consumer and specifier education remain a major issue for the wood preservation industry, even though specification and identification systems have been simplified as much as possible.
J Norton

Application form for membership
1975 - IRG/WP 542
IRG Secretariat

A method to evaluate the effeetiveness of bait application using a transferred nest of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20161
Although a survey of monitoring stations can tell us the decline of termite activity after application of baits, it seems questionable to conclude an eradication of a Whole colony of subterranean termites if the termites move out their foraging territory. Only reliable method to ensure the success of bait application is to determine the absence of living termites in their nest in accordance with a survey of monitoring stations. A nest of Coptotermes formosanus was first collected from the field and buried back into the soil with some wooden blocks in a test site. Monitoring stations were installed around the nest to examine termite activity. After termites settled down well, mark-release-recapture was applied to estimate foraging population and then bait application was initiated. When foraging activity ceased, the nest was dug out to find any live termites present. This technique allowed us to draw out a conclusion that baiting eliminated a whole colony of C. formosanus.
K Tsunoda, T Yoshimura, H Matsuoka, Y Hikawa

Application package for Short- Term Scientific Missions
1999 - IRG/WP 99-60120
IRG Secretariat

On the possibilities of the use of juvenile hormone analogues (JHAs) in termite control. (A preliminary note for information)
1983 - IRG/WP 1214
A T De Lelis

Brochure Membership 1993
1993 -
IRG Secretariat

Application package. IRG Travel Award for Short-term scientific missions
2007 - IRG/WP 07-60242
IRG Secretariat

2014 - IRG/WP 14-60374
IRG Secretariat

Safe application of copper-chrome-arsenate preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 377
All wood preservatives contain biologically active substances and must, by design, be in some measure toxic to man. There is nothing fundamentally difficult, however, about using a wood preservative with complete safety. It depends on knowing the risks to health and/or the environment, which the preservative may present, and planning application accordingly. In this paper we examine these and other factors for copper-chrome-arsenate (CCA) preservatives applied in vacuum/pressure plants. We review briefly the toxicological properties of the components and their joint action; the contribution which design and the operation of plant make to safe treatment; also the training of plant operators, to ensure that the potential risks in applying CCAs are fully understood. We shall consider the functions of product labelling; to advisc others - concerned with transport - of the nature of preservatives, especially concentrates. The importance is emphasised of being able, by prior planning, to act swiftly and effectively to deal with any unforeseen emergencies, however infrequent these may be. This paper is not concerned with any risks to man and other animals arising from use of CCA-treated wood. After treatment, fixation leaves the preservative components less readily available as contaminants of the environment.
I N Stalker, P B Cornwell

Application of roller-pressing method to the novel liquid impregnation treatment of green timber
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40198
A transverse compression technique enabled us to impregnate liquid into green timber through replacement of the free water in the timber with a treatment liquid without any critical physical damage to the timber by the roller-pressing method. The roller-pressing is supposed to remove free water the cell cavities and to concurrently introduce the treatment solution into green timber in the treatment vessel. This process seems applicable to the preservative treatment of timber without drying prior to the treatment, and definitely contributes to both the reduction of production costs and the greater yield of the products due to the occurrence of the fewer undesirable checks. When Cryptomeria japonica D. Don was treated with an aqueous solution of phenolic-resin according to this process, weight gain exceeded 40% and anti-swelling efficiency went up to over 60% even for 1 min immersion period after pressing. Further trials are planned to evaluate biological resistance of the treated timber when fungicide(s) and/or termiticide(s) are incorporated into the treatment solution(s).
M Inoue, K Adachi, K Tsunoda, Y Imamura, S Kawai

Modified Wood – Methods, testing and applications: Outcomes of the EU-Thematic Network
2003 - IRG/WP 03-40268
In the last decade, interest in the development of wood modification systems has increased in Europe. Alongside several industrial initiatives for heat treatments, there have also been scaling up and pilot plant projects for chemical wood modification. Between 2000 and 2003, the European Commission funded the "Thematic Network on Wood Modification". This paper will feature the modification processes available and indicate their route to commercialisation to date. One of the key decisions of the Network was that modified wood should be regarded as a new wood species, and tested accordingly, with particular emphasis on biological durability and dimensional stability. Suggested ways to test and analyze modified wood are presented, along with some of the key findings of the Network.
D Jones, W Homan, J Van Acker

Application of (n-a)-radiography for determination of boron in wood impregnated with boron-containing antispetics
1975 - IRG/WP 351
The method of (n-a)-radiography for quantitative determination of boron is based on creation of defective regions (tracks) in a polymer (the detector), which form during passage of a particles through the detector, these particles being produced in the reaction 10B(n, a)7Li when the test specimen in contact with the detector is irradiated with neutrons. Etching of the detector with an appropriate reagent after irradiation reveals defective regions, permitting optical recording of the tracks and subsequent calculation of the concentration of boron in the specimen. Determination of boron inclusions using cellulose acetate was effected in Nb3Al and V3Si, and in glasses. It has been shown that quantitative determination of boron and its spatial distribution in austentic steels is possible with the aid of cellulose acetate and nitrate. The spatial distribution of boron in minerals and rocks has been investigated using cellulose nitrate. In the present work we investigated the possibility of employing (n-a)-radiography for quantitative determination of boron in wood impregnated with boron-containing antiseptics. One of the most important features characterizing the application of this method to wood is that mineralization of the specimens is unnecessary. The specimens analyzed were specimens of birch and aspen, impregnated with BBK-2 solution. The nitro base of AM-1 cine film was employed as the track detector.
N A Dubinskaya, M Ya Tsel'millere

Application of a novel strength evaluation technique during screening of wood preservatives
1986 - IRG/WP 2262
The effectiveness of CCA and ACA in treated aspen mini stakes tested using a novel bag procedure, with unsterile soil fortified with Chaetomium globosum and Ceratocystis albida, is reported. Good agreement between toxic limits determined using the standard weight loss procedure, and those determined by the strength technique were found, with some indication that the strength loss method is more sensitive. The investigation also showed that the toxic limits for CCA (4.0-8.0 kg/m³) were twice those of ACA (2.0-4.0 kg/m³). In addition, based upon the strength loss, a CCA retention greater than 8.1 kg/m³ was required to prevent decay by Ceratocystis albida in this laboratory screening method.
J N R Ruddick

Evaluation of chlorpyrifos and fungicides alone and in combination for control of insects and fungi in wood and wood composites
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30187
Wood composites are rapidly being adapted for use in exterior applications. The incorporation of a preservative system to prevent fungus and insect attack is necessary with most exterior composites. Research studies were reviewed pertaining to organic preservative systems based on Lentrek* insecticide wood treatment which contains the active ingredient chlorpyrifos alone and in combination with tebuconazole and propiconazole (fungicides) for use as a combination treatment preservative system for solid wood and wood composites. Effective retentions for chlorpyrifos for protection of wood from termite and beetle attack was determined to be 0.2 kg/m3 set by the high retentions needed for field control of Coptotermes formosanus. In addition, this retention also provides effective control of the termites; Coptotermes lacteus, Reticulitermes flavipes, and Nasutitermes exitiosus, and the Lyctiid powderpost beetle, Lyctus brunneus. Retentions needed for control of Gloeophyllum trabeum (brown rot) and Trametes versicolor (white rot) were determined to be 0.11 kg/m3 and 0.06 kg/m3 for tebuconazole and propiconazole, respectively. Discussions with the manufacturers of tebuconazole and propiconazole indicated that the two fungicides work best together when in a 1:1 ratio. Given the need for the 1:1 ratio then, retentions needed for the tebuconazole and the propiconazole for treatment of wood composites are therefore 0.1 and 0.1 kg/m3, respectively, using tebuconazole as the benchmark. Tebuconazole and propiconazole retentions of 0.08 and 0.08 kg/m3, respectively, afforded moderate stain and mold protection of treated wood with a 64% reduction in stain and mold coverage by 3 weeks; thereafter, protection diminishes with time to a 40% reduction in coverage by 8 weeks. Overall, the retentions needed for a mixture of tebuconazole/propiconazole/chlorpyrifos (T/P/C) for use in wood composites are 0.1/0.1/0.2 kg/m3, respectively, to protect the wood from attack by insects and decay fungi while at the same time providing some moderate reduction of stain/mold coverage. Also, in order to compensate for the anticipated long term degradation of the two fungicides under field conditions, the fungicide retentions were increased by 50% thereby resulting in final recommended retentions for use of T/P/C in wood composites as 0.15/0.15/0.2 kg/m3, respectively.
M P Tolley, P E Laks, R Fears

Application of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to the quantitative analysis of organotin preservative solutions and treated wood
1978 - IRG/WP 3125
One technique frequently used for the quantitative analysis of material containing inorganic compounds is energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. It has been shown previously that this technique can be readily used to determine the retentions of chromated copper arsenate and ammoniacal copper arsenate treated wood. This paper reports the results of a preliminary study to determine whether energy dispersive spectrometry may be used to assay both organotin treated wood and also the preservative in solution. Five objectives were established for the study and they were (i) Assessment of the instrumental error; (ii) Determination of the error due to sample preparation; (iii) Selection of a suitable live data accumulation time; (iv) Preparation of a calibration graph using tributyltin acetate; and (v) To initate studies on interelement interference effects.
J N R Ruddick

Borate diffusion in wood from rods and liquid product. Application to laminated beams
1988 - IRG/WP 3482
In the aim to use borate preservatives (fused rods and boracol) in fields of building construction other than external joineries, tests of diffusion of borate rods and secondary boracol, were carried out on different species of woods exposed to different moisture conditions. Tests were also applied on laminated beams very often subjected to high moisture contents and thus decay of rot fungi. Diffusion was tested in different conditions and in relation, the action of these products was tried with stains and resins for improving strength properties. Diffusion tests on several species of wood confirm the proportionality already observed between moisture content and diffusion of borates in wood for all species. In a short time, test of diffusion on laminated wood showed a good diffusion in two lamella along the glue line leading to another way of boring. There is no problems between these borate products and stains or resins.
D Dirol

Treatment application method and CCA efficacy in Corsican pine - Assessment by serial exposure and soil burial tests
1993 - IRG/WP 93-40006
A previous report on this research (Newman and Murphy, 1992) identified possible variation in the efficacy of a CCA preservative applied to Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima) dependant upon the treatment application method (Bethel, Lowry or Steam/Bethel). This paper presents further data from biological testing of CCA treated Corsican pine using serial exposure and unsterile soil techniques. After 3 serial exposures to Coniophora puteana FPRL 11E and Coriolus versicolor FPRL 28A the treated wood performed in the order Bethel > Steam/Bethel > Lowry and Lowry > Bethel > Steam/Bethel respectively. Weight losses in the order of 40% and 30% were generated by Coniophora puteana and Coriolus versicolor at retentions of 3.9 kg/m³ and 1.0 kg/m³ CCA respectively. After 12 and 26 weeks unsterile soil burial the order was Lowry > Bethel > Steam/Bethel with weight losses of up to 30% at 1.0 kg/m³ CCA. The data are considered in relation to the decay mechanisms of the various biological agents used.
P R Newman, R J Murphy

Field evaluation determining the toxic effect and diffusion properties of Impel, Improsol and TBTO-capsules in L-joints (spruce) for pretreatment application
1991 - IRG/WP 3641
Bonded joints (L-joints and T-joints) are especially at risk from water absorption (rain, condensation) over bare, unprotected radial wood surfaces (joggle joints). It is therefore quite certain that lasting protection against fungi attack cannot be guaranteed in the long term if the surface of coating is damaged. Therefore, in a field investigation, using L-joints (spruce) over a total period of 44 weeks, an attempt should be made to provide "inner protection" or "preventative protection" by using fungicides in the form of protective capsules (Impel-Rods; Improsol-Fluorin-Woodpil and TBTO-glass ampulle) additionally to the customary surface protection of the wood. Moisture distribution, diffusion and effectiveness of chemicals to protect the wood against bluestain, mould and decay fungi was evaluated. Although the products showed both completely different diffusion qualities and a wide difference in the property of hindering fungus growth, the use as preventive protection would possibly represent a completely new method of prolonging the service life of wooden window frames.
R Gründlinger, K Messner, O Janotta

The effect of rate of pressure application on preservative uptake along and across the grain of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) at different ramp and constant pressure times
2004 - IRG/WP 04-20292
This study was particularly design to determine the preservative uptake at different ramp (rate of increase in pressure) and constant pressure times on longitudinal, tangential and radial penetrations of fir (Abies bornmulleriana Mattf.) which grown indigeneously in Turkey. The samples of 2 cm cubes of kiln-dried wood (nominated to 12% moisture content) were treated at different ramp times varied from very fast to very slow rates of pressure (bar) per time (seconds) at 5, 15, 30, 60, and 90 sec. and the maximum pressure of 4 bars -in the treating vessel to refusal- was applied at the constant pressure time for 5 min. The preservative uptake was determined as the percentage of void volume filled (VVF%) for either flow directions at each ramp time. The results showed that the VVF% was, as expected, markedly greater in the longitudinal flow direction than both in the tangential and radial flow directions. In comparison to the VVF% laterally, it was greater in tangential direction than in radial direction in either treatment schedules. In this issue, although the trend seemed to be the similar between the flow directions, quite different patterns were observed within each direction for penetration and ramp times. Accordingly, conclusions were listed separately for each flow direction.
I Usta

Reduction of preservatives leaching from wood by the application of animal proteins
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30387
The investigations consisted in the estimation of the effectiveness of protein borates and protein propionates in wood preservation against Coniophora puteana. The estimation was made on the basis of mass losses caused by the test fungus action against treated wood which was subjected to leaching with water. The investigations were performed for Scots pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.) treated with preservatives containing solutein, albumin or casein and subjected to appropriate thermal or chemical treatment in order to protein denaturation. The objective of the investigations was to develop the method for fixing in wood boric acid or propionic acid. On the basis of the mycological tests as well as boron content in water extracts it was found that the retreatment with tannic acid was the most effective method in respect to active substance leaching. The method let to fix up to 95% of boric acid in treated wood despite the intensive leaching.
B Mazela, I Ratajczak, M Bartkowiak

Remedial treatment of creosoted railway sleepers of redwood by selective application of boric acid
1980 - IRG/WP 3134
An ideal preservative for remedial treatment must primarily be characterized by two requirements. First, it must have an ability to diffuse and distribut evenly into the wood and secondly, it must be fixed properly so that it does not leach out too fast. However, these two characteristics conflict with each other, and the choice of preservative must of necessity be a compromise. Wood preservatives based on boric acid have excellent diffusibility but like the fluorides they are not appreciably fixed in the wood. It was therefore considered important to study the progress of the boric acid diffusion in creosoted sleepers in full scale tests. Impregnation equipment and technique were of course also of interest in the study. The tests started in September 1970, when approximately 100 creosoted sleepers, after being in service for 13 years, were treated with a boric acid paste and installed in a test track at the marshalling yard at Nässjö (the Nässjö test). To obtain an indication of the effect of the treatment for a track in use and to study the developed method and equipment, in April 1974, approximately 1000 seventeen years old creosoted sleepers on the main line south of Kungsbacka (the Kungsbacka test) were treated. Samples of timber have been extracted from the sleepers on the two sites and analysed after different times of exposure in order to follow the progress of diffusion of the boric acid. In total, more than 2000 chemical analyses have been carried out by Borax Holdings Ltd in England. In order to establish whether the boric acid treatment adversely affected the electrical resistance of a sleeper, a small scale trial was carried out with 11 sleepers from the Nässjö test. In May 1971 they were installed in a test track near the SJ Civil Engineering Laboratory in Stockholm. As the study progressed, a large amount of data from the chemical analyses was obtained, and to evaluate the fungicidal effect of the boric acid in the sleepers a series of biological tests was carried out at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala. The Swedish Wood Preservation Institute has been responsible for the final revision and editing of the results as well as compiling this report.
C Bechgaard, L Borup, B Henningsson, J Jermer

Application of DNA fingerprinting methods to identify biocontrol strains of fungi imperfecti
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10068
We have analyzed a number of biocontrol strains of Trichoderma harzianum and other Trichoderma strains with the methods DNA fingerprinting and PCR fingerprinting to differentiate and identify these strain which is not possible with morphological or biochemical methods. We could differentiate even gamma-ray induced mutants from each other as well as different strains form the same and different species. The gamma-ray induced mutants are patented strains of Trichoderma harzianum and are used for biocontrol of wood-decaying fungi. The ability to differentiate the mutants is very important to identify the patent strain in nature because its "fingerprint" is unique and different of wildtypes of the same strain. Furthermore the two methods can be used to follow the path of a strain genotype in nature which could be of importance for ecological questions. We found that "DNA fingerprinting" as well as "PCR fingerprinting" are powerful methods for this task although PCR fingerprinting is faster.
A Schlick, K Kuhls, W Meyer, E Lieckfeld, T Börner, K Messner

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