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Danish wood preservatives approval system with special focus on assessment of the environmental risks associated with industrial wood preservatives
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-01
The following is a description of the procedure used by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency to assess the environmental risks associated with preservatives used in the pressure impregnation of wood. The risk assessment covers issues considered to be of significance for the environment and which are adequately documented so as to allow an assessment. Such issues are persistence and mobility in soils, bioaccumulation and the impact on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Unless required in special circumstances, the assessment does not apply to birds and mammals as the normal use of preservative treated wood is not expected to involve any noteworthy exposure of these groups. Approval of wood preservatives will be based on a general assessment of the environmental risk associated with the normal use of wood treated with the preservative in a realistic worst case situation. The assessment may address other aspects such as disposal and total life cycle.
J Larsen

Registration and approval of wood preservatives in Australia and New Zealand
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-06
Wood preservatives are treated as agricultural chemicals in Australia and, at the time of writing, as pesticides in New Zealand. Antisapstain products are currently considered to be agricultural chemicals in New Zealand while wood preservatives in the future will be considered as hazardous substances under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act when this Act is fully implemented. They are regulated and approved for use by Government Departments under Ministers with responsibilities for agriculture and forestry and the environment: in Australia this is the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry; in New Zealand it is the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and, in the future, the Ministry for the Environment. Specific authorities within these Government instrumentalities control the registration and approvals procedures - the National Registration Authority (NRA) in Australia and, currently, the Pesticides Board in New Zealand. The latter situation is in a transition phase, with the Environment Risk Management Authority (ERMA) New Zealand expected to take over from the Pesticides Board by mid-2001. The NRA and the Pesticides Board require data packages that must include details of the preservative's application, chemistry, manufacture, toxicology, environmental credentials, and efficacy. The NRA administers the Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals Code, which provides the Authority with the power to evaluate, register for use, and regulate the point of sale of a preservative. The evaluation procedure may involve Environment Australia in focusing on exposure and environmental toxicity data, the Department of Health and Aged Care in assessing toxicity to humans and the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission considering user safety aspects. Efficacy data can be obtained through testing to the Australasian Wood Preservation Committee (AWPC) Protocols. AWPC members may also act as experts in the assessment process and may also be involved in the development of national Standards. Thus, there is a ready conduit from registration and approval of a potential preservative to its incorporation for end use into day-to-day working standards.
H Greaves

Protocols for assessment and approval of wood preservatives in the Nordic countries
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20046
This paper reviews the protocols presently in use in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) for assessment and approval of wood preservatives with respect to their biocidal efficacy.
J Jermer, B Henningsson

Risk assessment and the approval of wood preservatives in the United Kingdom
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-23
An approval system operates in the United Kingdom (UK) for the regulation of wood preservatives. The regulatory authority uses a risk assessment approach to evaluate how far the potential for harm to people and the environment from wood preservatives is likely to be realised in practise, and hence the controls required for products to be, used safely. The evaluation for approval purposes also takes into account the effectiveness of wood preservatives. A tiered approach is adopted to data requirements, and likely exposures are considered under the proposed conditions of use so that testing is minimised and controls are commensurate with risk.
R M Turner

Evaluation and approval of wood preservatives in the Nordic countries
1988 - IRG/WP 2311
This paper reviews the system for evaluating and approving the efficacy of wood preservatives for industrial use currently in force in the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.
B Henningsson, J Jermer

The use, approval and waste management of industrial wood preservatives. A preliminary report
1994 - IRG/WP 94-50033
The structure on the wood preservation through the world is heterogenous. Environmental legislation, approval policy and application practices differ in each geographical region and in individual countries. This preliminary report gives a rough estimation of the production of treated timber, the use of wood preservatives and a bief summary of environmental status of wood impregnation in selected countries.
A J Nurmi

Evaluation and approval of wood preservatives. Unification of European requirements
1988 - IRG/WP 2310
This paper reviews the current activities within the European Homologation Committee for Wood Preservatives (EHC) towards unification of the requirements on evaluation and approval of wood preservatives in Western European countries.
J Jermer

Evaluation and approval of wood preservatives in Japan
1988 - IRG/WP 2303
Japanese standardized decay test methods, performance requirements and approving system are briefly described. JIS (Japanese Industrial Standard) A 9302, which is related to a testing method for evaluating effectiveness of wood preservatives when applied to pressure treatment, is fundamentally a sand-block laboratory test method. According to performance requirements in JIS A 9201, mean percentage weight of treated wood specimens should be less than 10% and 20% of that of untreated specimens against Tyromyces palustris and Coriolus versicolor respectively. JWPA (Japan Wood Preserving Association) Standard 1 covers a testing method for assessing efficacy of wood preservatives for superficial treatment. Test procedure is basically the same as JIS A 9302, although some major modifications are adopted with regard to shape and size of wood specimens, weathering cycles and the length of forced decay. Qualitative standards require that a candidate chemical should inhibit decay keeping mean percentage weight loss of treated wood specimens less than 20% of that of untreated ones in any case as prescribed in JWPA Standard 7. Results obtained by the above methods are well discussed together with other information by Japanese Examining Board of Wood Preservatives to approve a candidate chemical as a wood preservative when an application form is submitted to the board. And then the final decision will be made by JWPA [or JTCA (Japan Termite Control Association)] if the applied chemical is acceptable for approval or not.
K Tsunoda

Test methods used for approval of wood preservatives in Indonesia
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20045
Indonesian regulation stipulates that all pesticides, including wood preservatives, must be registered and obtain legal permit from the Minister of Agriculture, c.q. the Pesticide Committee before they are eligible for public use. For that purpose they have to meet safety and efficacy requirements approved by the Pesticide Committee. To meet the efficacy requirements, wood preservatives must be tested by a qualified laboratory, such as the Forest Products Research and Development Centre (FPRDC) in Bogor. For that purpose this institute has established various test methods, laboratory as well as field tests, to determine the efficacy of wood preservatives against domestic wood-destroying organisms. Laboratory test methods so far applied by the FPRDC include efficacy tests against wood-destroying fungi, subterranean termites, dry-wood termites, and dry-wood borers, while field test methods include ambrosia beetle test on logs, blue stain on logs and sawn timber, graveyard test, as well as treatment test. Some illustrations of performance of above mentioned test methods are briefly presented in the paper.
A Martawijaya

Wood preservative development: Have we learnt anything, and where will it take us?
1994 - IRG/WP 94-30054
This paper addresses the disparate approaches to the development and approval of wood preservatives used in a number of regions, and the implications of the test requirements, or lack thereof, on the likely performance of the subsequent treated wood in service. The test methodologies and performance criteria used in various regions will have long term consequences for the future of the wood preservation industry in the affected areas. Potential positive and negative impacts of such influences and change are also addressed.
A F Preston

Towards harmonisation of regional approaches for an International Standard for the approval of wood preservatives
1997 - IRG/WP 97-20122
Recent proposals from the European Standards body (CEN) for an ISO Standard on wood preservatives has initiated debate on whether there is any prospect of an acceptable common approach among ISO member countries, to a harmonised framework of hazard classes, with agreed supporting biological tests, leading to a unified rationale for demonstrating compliance with minimum performance standards for specific preservatives in specific end-uses. This paper discusses a potential framework for developing an International Standard prescribing hazard classes and the biological test methods capable of supporting a common approach to the approval or standardisation of a wood preservative system. An approach is proposed which incorporates elements of existing standards or protocols used in Europe, Japan, Australasia, South Africa and North America based on the framework of European Standard EN599 but adopting regional variants with incorporation of field testing for the suggested Hazard Classes 2, 3, 4a, 4b and 5. The proposals are intended to initiate development of a consensus process rather than to suggest a solution in itself. However, it is hoped that the framework provided will allow the discussion process to advance more effectively and harmoniously.
A F Preston, A F Bravery

Revised South African standards for wood preservation: Protocols for approval of wood preservatives
1995 - IRG/WP 95-20072
In 1994 the South African timber treatment industry completed its revision of the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) Code of Practice for the preservative treatment of timber. These revisions were undertaken in parallel with changes to the SABS specifications for preservative treated timber. As a result of shortcomings in the previous wood preservative classification system which was based on exposure conditions for treated timber, the hazard classification for wood preservatives in force in South Africa has changed. The paper details the newly adopted classification system and its role within the current legislation requirements. Specific reference is made to the performance and toxicological data required for registration of a wood preservative in South Africa. Requirements in terms of an industry-approved South African Bureau of Standards (SABS) standard "product" specification and compliance with the SABS standard "treatment" specification are also discussed in more detail. Existing test requirements, protocols and procedures for approval of new wood preservatives are summarised. In addition, the paper identifies possible changes that could lead to more appropriate testing and acceptance procedures which reflect the real preservative needs of the various hazard classes.
D Conradie, P Turner, W E Conradie, A D Currie, I S J Burger

Benzalkonium chloride (an AAC preservative): Criteria for approval, performance in service, and implications for the future
1985 - IRG/WP 3328
The data base generated for benzalkonium chloride was considered adequate for commercial approvals, particularly after revision in late 1982. Field trials, although not part of the approval criteria, generally supported commercial use; decay observed in one test (post and rails) after 6 years' exposure would have resulted in some caution in setting retentions. No laboratory trial, nor field trial, could have predicted the problems experienced during commercial operations. Substandard treatment was interpreted as being responsible for most of the insect attack and decay problems. The remainder were caused by misuse in service, depletion (by chemical or, less likely, by biological mechanisms) during long-term wet storage, or attack by apparently highly AAC-tolerant Coniophora spp. A strict protocol for preservative approvals is now being drawn up which will reflect a higher degree of conservatism and much more reliance on long-term field trials, even of above-ground commodities.
J A Butcher

Building solid foundations to support market growth of preserved wood in the UK – treatment quality, product approval and the largest national field trial of preservative treated wood in 50 years
2015 - IRG/WP 15-30662
The Wood Protection Association (WPA) has just commissioned Britain’s largest ever durability trial of home grown timber, having contracted Building Research Establishment (BRE) to conduct a long term controlled field trial of sawn and pressure treated British Softwood posts at two sites with differing soil conditions. This large scale Field Trial is the last of an innovative and substantial three part response by the WPA to emerging concerns over the quality of treated wood being placed into the UK fencing market. This paper presents a summary of the technical, regulatory and market developments in the UK wood protection sector which led to the WPA’s decision to implement this programme of change.
E Suttie, G Ewbank

New Standards for Approval of Modified Wood within the Nordic Wood Preservation Council (NWPC)
2017 - IRG/WP 17-20624
In the Nordic countries, there is a long tradition for quality labelling of preservative treated wood. Until now the labelling has been restricted to pine and other easy to treat wood species, but with the introduction of a new set of standards it is now possible to obtain the Nordic Wood Preservation Council’s (NWPC) quality labelling also for modified wood. In this paper, we will introduce the background and criteria for approval according to NWPC for modified wood.
N Morsing, E Engelund Thybring, M Klamer