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Report on the treated piles and fenders in the wharves in Port Moresby harbour, and the Huon Gulf, Lae
1977 - IRG/WP 433
To investigate the resistance of Papua New Guinea timber, vacuum pressure impregnated with Copper-Chrome-Arsenic salts, to marine borer attack in the waters of Papua New Guinea.
S M Rayner, C R Levy


Susceptibility of softwood bait stakes to attack by subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20037
Sapwood stakes of Australian-grown Araucaria cunninghamii (hoop pine), Pinus elliotii (slash pine), Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and North American-grown Pinus sp. (southern yellow pine) were exposed to subterranean termite attack in an in-ground bioassay. Stakes in bait containers and bare stakes were attacked by Coptotermes acinaciformis and Schedorhinotermes intermedius. Basic susceptibility of these timbers was evaluated with regard to potential as termite monitoring devices. Variation between timbers and variation between termite species are described. The relevence of these data to suppressing foraging populations of subterranean termites, in Australia, using insect growth regulators, is discussed.
B C Peters, R T Murray, C J Fitzgerald


Safer alternative reagents for colour differentiation of heartwood and sapwood
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20028
Benzidine and dimethyl yellow reagents have been used for distinguishing heartwood from sapwood in the Pinaceae and Araucariacae families, and in Eucalypt species. Both have been classified as carcinogenic by European and United States authoritites, yet the need for effective heartwood/sapwood differentiation remains, not only in the laboratory but also out in the timber processing chain. Safer alternative reagents have been proposed over the past twenty years, but some of these have since been linked with health problems, and most of the rest lack the specificity and general usefulness of those traditionally used. Recent research has investigated various azo, diazo, and other nitrated reagents. Safe but useful alternative methods of sapwood/heartwood differentiation are being established, and recommendations are made for several timber species.
A Zosars, M J Kennedy


Chemical analysis for TBTN in LOSP-treated wood and preservative fluids
1994 - IRG/WP 94-20027
Tributyltin napthenate (TBTN) is being substituted for tributyltin oxide (TBTO) in LOSP preservative formulations because its lower reactivity/better stability allows co-formulation with synthetic pyrethroids. Better stability may reduce molecular degradation both in-service and during analysis. It was considered necessary to check whether TBTO analysis methods were suitable for use on TBTN treated wood. Five analytical methods for TBTO in wood were applied to TBTN-treated pine sapwood, and evaluated for recovery, accuracy and precision. It was found that treated wood could be oven-dried before analysis, eliminating the need to run parallel moisture content determinations. The best performing method involved extraction of TBTN from oven-dry treated wood with acidified ethanol followed by AAS determination of tin. Performance was checked on freshly-treated and aged material.
D P Wraight, M J Kennedy


Field evaluation of the above-ground susceptibility of Pinus heartwood and untreated or treated sapwood to two species of Australian subterranean termites
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10147
Plantation-grown Pinus elliottii, Pinus caribaea and Pinus radiata specimens containing heartwood and untreated or preservative-treated sapwood were exposed above ground to the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis or Mastotermes darwiniensis near Sydney (NSW), Brisbane and Townsville (Qld), and Darwin (NT), using a variety of exposure techniques. Heartwood of Pinus elliottii and Pinus caribaea was consistently less susceptible than that of Pinus radiata. The latter was similar to susceptible Araucaria cunninghamii sapwood. CCA (at 0.23% m/m Cu+Cr+As) or permethrin (at 0.024% m/m a.i.) treatment in sapwood reduced feeding on adjacent Pinus radiata heartwood, but boron (at 0.082% m/m B) did not have the same effect. CCA and permethrin treatments protected sapwood; boron did not. Limitations on unpenetrated heartwood in H2 (non-decay hazard) treatments of Pinus elliottii and Pinus caribaea are being removed from Australian Standard and State regulations.
M J Kennedy, J W Creffield, R H Eldridge, B C Peters


A field test with Benzotar, an industrial residue, as a wood preservative
1985 - IRG/WP 3349
Benzotar, a residue of production of benzoic acid, was tested in field as a wood preservative. Results, after 6.5 years of exposure, showed that this product presents properties that improve the performance of wood in ground contact. This paper describes these results and presents a discussion an some aspects of its potential utilization in Brazil.
S Milano, L R Silva


Damage by wood-attacking insects in buildings in Sao Paulo State - Brazil. (including errata slip)
1978 - IRG/WP 175
From 1974 to 1978 up to 602 buildings attacked by wood-boring insects were inspected by Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas in Sao Paulo State - Brazil. Damage was caused mainly by subterranean termites, dry-wood termites and wood-attacking beetles. Up to US $ 1000,000 is the amount needed to control such insects in the buildings inspected
A T De Lelis


Durability of exterior natural wood finishes in Brazil
1985 - IRG/WP 3343
Wood finishes systems were evaluated in natural weathering conditions during 5 (five) years, over "Parana-pine" (Araucaria angustifolia). Test samples results show that: - Semitransparent wood preservative stains, based on polimerized linseed oil, provided very good protection to the wood, compared with the one based on alkyd varnish; - Solid color wood preservative stains provided good durability. However, film degrading process was identical to the one of conventional finishes; - Conventional paint and varnish showed decomposition caused by cracking, checking and flaking (scaling).
D R Macedo


Compatibility of deltamethrin with wood-finishing and construction materials
1993 - IRG/WP 93-30010
Under normal use conditions, treated wood comes to close contact with the structural components of a buiLding, and/or receives finishing, forming a new interface, which can affect the performance of a new product such as deltamethrin. To study this possibility, block-tests of Parana-Pine (Araucaria angustifolia), measuring 12 x 24 x 0.5 cm³ (with the largest dimension parallel to the wood-grain), received brushing treatment with deltamethrin and kerosene in two different concentrations: 0.02% (w/w) and 0.04% (w/w). After 20 days under laboratory conditions, the block-tests received a superficial finishing with poliurethan varnish, enamel paint, oil paint (alkidic) and latex paint and were fastened in close contact, through rubber band, with bricks, building cement, concrete blocks and plaster. A set of pieces made up of these construction materials was treated with deltamethrin in the same concentration as mentioned above, forming a reference series. The test against dry-wood termites (Cryptotermes brevis) was carried out 21 months after the treatment. The deltamethrin proved to be very effective in wood protection, independently of the finish used and the type of construction material in contact with the wood.
E S Lepage