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An Australian test of wood preservatives. - Part IV: The condition, after 35 years' exposure, of stakes treated with creosote oils and oilborne preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30241
This paper contains the first results dealing with creosote oils and oilborne preservatives from this in-ground field trial in Australia. The substrates impregnated with preservative were Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. heartwood and sapwood. Data are reported from stakes exposed for 35 years at three Australian sites (Innisfail, Sydney, Walpeup). Comparisons were made between preservatives impregnated into P. radiata at 128 kg/m³ and exposed at Sydney. After 35 years, the mean condition of stakes treated with British standard, Australian K.55 (blend) and brown coal tar (high residue) creosote oils were serviceable. The mean condition of stakes treated with USA standard (AWPA P.1), Australian K.55 (ii, old Timbrol) and brown coal tar (distillate) creosote oils was unserviceable (ie. rated 3 or less out of 8). When a proportion of Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil was replaced by furnace oil, vertical retort tar or 2.5% pentachlorophenol (PCP) in furnace oil, the new combinations did not, on average, rate as highly as the Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil by itself. PCP was compared at 6.4 kg/m³ in P. radiata at Sydney. 5% PCP in furnace oil (128 kg/m³) performed as well as Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil and much better than 5% PCP in diesel fuel oil (128 kg/m³). 2.5% PCP in furnace oil (256 kg/m³) rated the highest of any treatment containing 6.4 kg/m³ of PCP. The addition of dieldrin or chlordane improved the efficacy of 2.5% PCP in furnace oil (128 kg/m³) at Sydney, but not at Innisfail. The addition of benzene hexachloride showed greater protection than dieldrin or chlordane.
G C Johnson, J D Thornton

The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of badly-ventilated, masonry buildings are highlighted as being better suited than are the subfloor spaces of, for example, Japanese buildings for the activity of this fungus. Hence Serpula lacrymans is very restricted in its distribution in Australia, yet where it is active it does grow rapidly and causes rapid flooring failures.
J D Thornton

On the occurrence of the Australian Lyctus parallelocollis Blackburn in Israel and how to distinguish from Lyctus brunneus (Steph.)
1978 - IRG/WP 194
In June 1976 attacked plywood was sent from Tel Aviv for determination of the insects concerned. An unknown Lyctus species and the asiatic Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse) were responsible for the damage. Further material sent by Dr. J. Halperin, Forestry Division, Ilanoth, in September 1976 and beetles of his field collection in 1977 revealed this Lyctus sp. to be a rather widely distributed and important wood-destroying insect in Israel. By isolating larvae from the plywood and breeding a sufficient number of insects could be obtained for further investigations. By cooperation with Ing. Agr. F.H. Santoro, Buenos Aires, and Dr. R. Demoiseau, Brussels, the Lyctus was compared and identified. By the help of Dr. Demoiseau and Mr. C.D. Howick, C.S.I.R.O., Melbourne, the original literature became available.
S Cymorek

An in-ground natural durability field test of Australian timbers and exotic reference species. Part 2: Progress report after approximately 13 years' exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 1189
The condition of heartwood specimens of Australian and exotic timber species after approximately 13 years' in-ground exposure is given. Four of the 5 test sites have a termite hazard in addition to the hazard from a range of decay fungi. Values for specimen life are given only where all replicates of a timber species have become unserviceable. Results give evidence leading to doubt about the accuracy of the tentative durability ratings previously ascribed to at least some of the species under test.
J D Thornton, G C Johnson, I W Saunders

AAC preservatives: Recent New Zealand and Australian experience
1982 - IRG/WP 3188
This paper outlines the present commercial situation in New Zealand, presents results of current research undertaken at FRI and CSIRO, Division of Building Research (DBR), and comments on parallel research carried out elsewhere. Finally, some general comments are made on the limitations of present technology.
J A Butcher, H Greaves

Wood preservation in the Australian beekeeping industry
1988 - IRG/WP 3473
This paper reports the results of a survey of Australian commercial beekeepers working 200 or more hives in June/July 1985. Nine hundred and forty seven apiarists were asked to participate and to provide information on their wood preservation methods, painting procedures and maintenance of bee boxes. Three hundred and eighty-four apiarists returned completed questionnaires (41%). The main wood preservatives used are copper naphthenate solutions (45%), linseed oil (8%), copper chromated arsenate (3%), hot wax (9%), copper naphthenate solution in linseed oil (3%), linseed oil/wax mixtures (3%) and paint (23%). The majority of apiarists (96%) paint treated bee hives, but there is considerable variation in wood preservative treatment procedures and paint application. Most wood preservative treatments (95%) are of the 'do-it-yourself' variety, radiata pine being the most utilized timber. The bottom boards of bee hives are considered the most susceptible to wood decay and subterranean termite damage, as are cleats, stands or any wood in ground contact.
P J Robinson, J R J French

An Overview of the Status of the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service Cargo Container Booklet
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20420
Abstract Missing
H Greaves, J W Creffield

In-ground evaluation of a copper azole wood preservative (Tanalithâ E) at a tropical Australian test site
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30100
A field trial to determine the in-ground termite and decay resistance of Pinus radiata D. Don impregnated with a copper azole formulation, TANALITHâ E, has been established at a tropical site in the Northern Territory of Australia. Four retentions of TANALITHâ E, containing 1.54, 2.08, 2.92 and 4.30 kg/m³ of Cu, are being evaluated. For comparison, Pinus radiata specimens treated to two retentions (0.56 and 1.18 kg/m³ of Cu) of the benchmark CCA preservative TANALITHâ C, have also been included in the test. Treated specimens (including controls) have been assessed for degrade by subterranean termites and fungal decay, after 4, 7, 16 and 27 months of exposure, using a scale ranging from 4 (sound) down to 0 (failed). Over the duration of the trial, specimens have been contacted by the economically important species of termites Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt), Schedorhinotermes spp. and Heterotermes spp. After 27 months of exposure, the mean termite and decay scores for replicate test specimens indicate that the performance of TANALITH â E is comparable to CCA.
J W Creffield, J A Drysdale, N Chew

Fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative in Australian hardwoods: A comparison of three Eucalyptus species
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30107
New environmental guidelines for the management of CCA treatment plants were released in Australia in 1995. This has stimulated interest in techniques for controlling or accelerating the fixation of CCA in freshly treated timber products. The ability to understand, then effectively control and/or accelerate fixation of CCA in treated timber products can be an economic, technical and environmental advantage. Data available on fixation of CCA in timber commodities however, is mainly on softwood not hardwood species. In this paper, the rate of fixation of CCA Type C Oxide in poles of three species of Australian Eucalyptus was monitored over a six week period following treatment. These results will assist in the design of adequate drip pad and undercover storage area for pole treaters in South East Queensland.
J Holmes

Leaching results of shower test on L-joints with boric acid, bifluoride and TBTO rods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50051
As part of the EC-project "Improvement of a local preservation process for wood products with reduced environmental impact", TNO has performed a leaching test on L-joints treated with pills with boric acid (Defence corner), bifluorides (Woodpil 55) and TBTO (Woodcap). The L-joints were exposed in an adapted shower test during 10 days, using 70 liters of water per day. The experiment is designed to measure leaching under extreme service conditions. Spruce and pine, painted and unpainted L-joints were compared. In general leaching was the highest in spruce. The L-joints treated with boric acid pills showed the highest leaching, with very small differences between painted and unpainted L-joints. Leaching from fluoride and TBTO treated L-joints was even slightly higher than in painted L-joints. From these results it is suggested, that the active ingredients predominantly leach from the end grains in the open joint area of the timber. A higher water run off rate from longitudinal surfaces in painted L-joints could explain for the higher leaching rate in these samples
P Esser, M J Boonstra, W L D Suitela, A J Pendlebury

An in-ground natural durability field test of Australian timbers and exotic reference species. Part 5: Extensive data from a site where both decay and termites are active. Results from a full-replicated set of heartwood specimens from each of ten myrtaceous hardwoods after 18, 19 and 20 years' exposure - A discussion paper
1988 - IRG/WP 2324
Extensive data are presented on the decay situation, the termite situation and the decay-termite associations; all gathered from a fully-replicated set of heartwood specimens of 10 hardwood timbers after 18, 19 and 20 years' exposure in the ground at a single test site, i.e. a semi-arid steppe site. Sixteen tables are presented in addition to the one table providing the rating data; the latter representation of specimen condition being essentially all the data normally being recorded from field tests, whether these be of natural durability or preservative treated specimens. The authors give this "extra" data to show the type of information obtainable as a result of applying both mycological and entomological expertise to field assessments. Instead of discussing these results. the authors wish to generate some discussion by asking questions such as - is some of all of this information of value? - What additional/alternative information would interested scientists wish to see with respect to the most durable timbers in a test such as that examined in this report?
J D Thornton, G C Johnson, J W Creffield

The growth and behaviour of Australian isolates of dry rot fungi, mainly Serpula lacrymans (Schum. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray. A comparision with the world literature
1983 - IRG/WP 1190
In Australia Serpula lacrymans occupies a rather unique environment, being restricted to growth within basal regions of buildings containing masonry. Its rate of timber attack in these situations appears to be far faster than that experienced in other parts of the world. Therefore the question arises as to how Australian isolates (particularly 16508 which has become a "standard" test fungus for soil jar tests carried out in recent years in this laboratory) compared with other isolates. This paper reports data on growth rates, decay rates and wood moisture contents. Though one isolate shows temperature effects on growth which are inconsistent with Serpula lacrymans, the others do conform to Serpula lacrymans in terms of the effect of different growth media, optimal growth temperatures, rates of growth, haploid versus diploid decay rates, moisture contents of decaying wood and survival after exposure to unfavourable conditions.
J D Thornton, O Collett

How predictive are laboratory experiments for assessing the effects of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) on field colonies of terrnites? - A comparison of laboratory and field data from Australian mound-building species of termit
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10143
A singular advantage of using mound building species of termite is their directly accessible nest. This allows evaluation of control methods by accurate assessment of the effects at the colony level. The mound building species Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) and Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill) were used to test the CSI, hexaflumuron, in laboratory and field trials. Laboratory results showed that hexaflumuron was not repellent and it eliminated four gram groups of C. acinaciformis at a dose of 125 ppm and above within eight weeks. Groups of N. exitiosus were not affected by hexaflumuron: survival and wood consumption at doses of 0.25 to 1000 ppm were no different to those at zero ppm. Similar responses were obtained with the CSI triflumuron. These results would predict elimination of colonies for C. acinaciformis but not for N. exitiosus. However, field colonies of C. acinaciformis and also of N. exitiosus could be eradicated when exposed to hexaflumuron. Larvae and earlier stages of workers and nymphs died first, most likely during moulting, whereas the older foragers, which are the stages most often used in laboratory experiments, lived the longest. The latter was most pronounced in N. exitiosus. These results are the first to show the effects of a CSI on an entire colony, and demonstrated unambiguously the elimination of colonies after foragers had fed on bait matrix treated with hexaflumuron. Laboratory evaluations, using groups of older workers and soldiers, can fail to accurately predict the impact of these products at the level of most concern, the colony.
M Lenz, P V Gleeson, L R Miller, H M Abbey

An Australian test of wood preservatives. Part 1: Preservatives, principles and practices
1978 - IRG/WP 2123
Between November, 1963, and July, 1964, a graveyard test of some 6000 preservative-treated stakes was installed at 8 sites equally distributed between Papua New Guinea in the tropics, through Queensland and New South Wales to Victoria. More than 40 different preservatives and preservative mixtures, mostly at several different levels of retention, were used to impregnate sawn specimens of Pinus radiata and of Eucalyptus regnans sapwood. Many of the treatments were also duplicated in natural rounds of Eucalyptus regnans of small diameter consisting almost entirely of sapwood. The preservatives included in the test are listed together with sufficient details of preservative retention, treatment procedures and specimen preparation for a full understanding of the comprehensive nature of the test. In addition, a description of the test sites, of the method of inspection and of the manner in which the inspection results are handled has been set down so that the store of data available from this test might be more widely known.
J Beesley

The rôle of lignin in the nutrition of several Australian termites
1983 - IRG/WP 1191
The ability of Nasutitermes exitiosus (Hill), Coptotermes acinaciformis (Frogatt), Coptotermes lacteus (Froggatt) and Mastotermes darwiniensis (Froggatt) to degrade 14C-lignin preparations was examined. The lower termites were unable to degrade lignin. Nasutitermes exitiosus was able to cause a 5-8% degradation of hardwood lignins and a synthetic lignin. It failed to degrade the lignin of Pinus radiata D.Don.
L J Cookson

Occurrence of termite species on decaying heartwood specimens exposed 18 to 23 years at an Australian site
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10270
The occurrence of species of subterranean termites on hardwood and softwood specimens (including preservative-treated), exposed in-ground at a semi-arid site at Walpeup (north-western Victoria), 18 to 23 years after installation, is reported. This paper presents maps of the cumulative occurrence on specimens, after six annual inspections, of the following species: Coptotermes acinaciformis, Heterotermes ferox, Schedorhinotermes reticulatus (Rhinotermitidae), Amitermes spp., Ephelotermes argutus, Microcerotermes cavus and Nasutitermes exitiosus (Termitidae). The recorded occurrence of these termite species across the test plot is discussed.
J W Creffield, J-D Thornton, G C Johnson

A preliminary assessment of the costs of termite activity in Australia: A discussion paper
1983 - IRG/WP 1207
A preliminary assessment has been made of the economic importance of termite activity in Australia and this paper is intended to serve as a starting point in discussing this topic. Damage to timber in service represents their greatest area of economic importance in urban and rural environments. Costs resulting from termite activity include timber replacements in buildings, railway sleepers, transmission poles, termite surveys, insecticides and wood preservatives. Indirect costs are briefly discussed, as are the beneficial roles of termites in our environment.
J R J French

Field evaluation of the above-ground susceptibility of Pinus heartwood and untreated or treated sapwood to two species of Australian subterranean termites
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10147
Plantation-grown Pinus elliottii, Pinus caribaea and Pinus radiata specimens containing heartwood and untreated or preservative-treated sapwood were exposed above ground to the subterranean termites Coptotermes acinaciformis or Mastotermes darwiniensis near Sydney (NSW), Brisbane and Townsville (Qld), and Darwin (NT), using a variety of exposure techniques. Heartwood of Pinus elliottii and Pinus caribaea was consistently less susceptible than that of Pinus radiata. The latter was similar to susceptible Araucaria cunninghamii sapwood. CCA (at 0.23% m/m Cu+Cr+As) or permethrin (at 0.024% m/m a.i.) treatment in sapwood reduced feeding on adjacent Pinus radiata heartwood, but boron (at 0.082% m/m B) did not have the same effect. CCA and permethrin treatments protected sapwood; boron did not. Limitations on unpenetrated heartwood in H2 (non-decay hazard) treatments of Pinus elliottii and Pinus caribaea are being removed from Australian Standard and State regulations.
M J Kennedy, J W Creffield, R H Eldridge, B C Peters

Comparison of permethrin and fenvalerate as termiticides and their significance to Australian Quarantine Regulations
1984 - IRG/WP 1230
This paper reports detailed laboratory evaluations of the termiticidal efficacy of permethrin and fenvalerate-treated wood blocks. Comparison between artificially wheathered permethrin-treated blocks and unweathered blocks is given. The effect of a 6-week soil burial period on pyrethroid-treated blocks at a retention of 0.08 kg/m³ is also reported. Toxic or protection threshold values for the two pyrethoids are summarised. The significance of these is discussed with reference to their acceptance by the Australian Department of Health (Plant Quarantine) for the treatment of timber components in shipping containers.
J W Creffield, C D Howick

Pollution in wood preservation - Aspects and problems
1973 - IRG/WP 55
In the field of wood preservation too, pollution problems have to be considered. They originate with the wood preservatives used. The extent of pollution differs widely with the type of preservative and the treatment process used. Per unit of impregnated timber, pollution will be lower if treatment is performed in treating plants than in distributed places. It will be highest for the old type Boucherie process. Considering impregnated timber, only freshly treated material may do some harm, while pollution by timber in use mostly is negligible. In comparison with large problems such as carbonmonoxide or radioactivity, however, pollution by wood preservatives is of relatively little importance. In addition, wood preservation has various positive aspects too. Nevertheless it is essential to minimize pollution by wood preservatives as much as possible by developing new preservatives and improving the ways in which they are handled.
H Willeitner

Comparative performance of copper azole and copper-chrome-arsenate treated rubber wood in Australian, Malaysian and New Zealand tests sites
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30213
Rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis) has been used for non-structural products where appearance is important. It has rarely been used for structural uses where preservative treatment is required. In order to evaluate the in-ground durability of preservative-treated rubberwood, test stakes (20 x 20 x 500 mm3) were treated to four retentions of CCA and copper azole (Tanalith® E) and installed in test sites in Australia, Malaysia and New Zealand . After 2- 4 years exposure, copper azole is out-performing CCA at equivalent retentions where a fungal hazard dominates. At the Malaysian test site, CCA proved the more effective preservative in a severe termite hazard. Neither preservative is likely to adequately protect rubberwood in critical in-ground situations.
J A Drysdale, M E Hedley, E Loh, L T Hong

Re-sealing cut ends of envelope-treated softwood framing timber to protect against damage by the Australian subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis: A revisitation
2006 - IRG/WP 06-20335
The claim that Australian Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt) do not appear to initiate damage on timber from the end grain, thereby negating the need for treating exposed cut ends of softwood framing material (35 ? 90 mm) which has a repellent Tanalith? T envelope, was further investigated. Specimens of commercial Pinus radiata D.Don framing timber (untreated) and Pinus elliottii Englem. (untreated and envelope-treated) were partially clad in fine stainless steel mesh. Clad and unclad specimens were exposed to C. acinaciformis near Townsville, Australia, for four months. Results showed that this species of termite can damage timber from the end grain, including exposed cut ends of envelope-treated material. Differences between these and other test conditions (where C. acinaciformis did not damage timber from the end grain) are discussed. Clearly, outcomes from laboratory and field studies with preservative-treated materials are dependent upon experimental conditions. The amount of feeder material offered in a given method can strongly influence the termite response. Further investigation is required to standardise this aspect of conditions in protocols for assessment of wood preservatives.
B C Peters, M Lenz, J W Creffield

The uses of Molecular techniques in studying Australian subterranean termites Genus Coptotermes
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10669
This study focuses on applying molecular tools in studying the phylogeny of the Coptotermes, especially from the Australian region, by using a combined data set of three mitochondrial genes, viz. 16S, COII, COI, comprising a total of about 2000 base pairs. This study will address these following specific questions: i. Does molecular phylogenetics reveal any new species and show any previously unknown inter-country introductions of Coptotermes? ii. Do the Australian Coptotermes from a monophyletic group? iii. How did Coptotermes radiate in Australia (geographically and ecologically)? In order to achieve these objectives, phylogenetic studies will be developed using phylogenetic models implemented in different analyses, employ sequences of several genes to be analysed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis. The study provided a well resolved toplogy of Australian species and the relation of Australian Coptotermes within the global Coptotermes view, moreover the study reveals interesting aspects of the geographic distribution of this genus in Australia, especially the species C. acinaciformis.
H M Badawi, B M Ahmed (Shiday), J R J French, M P Schwarz

Above and Below-Ground Copper-Azole and Copper, Chrome Arsenate Depletion from Pinus radiata and Fagus sylvatica at Thirteen New Zealand & Australian Sites
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30460
The objective was to determine the significance of site on preservative depletion from Pinus radiata D. Don and Fagus sylvatica L. 20 x 20 x 500 mm field test stakes treated with a ground contact retention of copper amine plus tebuconazole (CuAz) and copper chrome arsenate (CCA) after approximately 5 years exposure to widely different soil and climate conditions. Site, wood species and their interactions had a dramatic and statistically significant effect on CCA and CuAz-treated pine and beach. Mean Cu depletion for radiata pine treated with 0.72% m/m a.i. CCA after 5.5 years, across 13 sites was less than 1% for above ground portions of stakes compared to 30% for below ground. However, below ground depletions at acidic sites located at a peat bog and a Nothofagus (southern hemisphere beech) forest were 43 and 73% respectively. Mean below ground chromium and arsenic depletions were 9 and 21% respectively but were 22 and 41% at the most severe depletion site (Nothofagus forest). Across all sites, mean above ground depletion of Cu and tebuconazole from radiata pine treated with 0.59% m/m a.i. CuAz, was 19 and 42% compared to 47 and 55% for below ground. Substantially greater loss of copper from CuAz treated wood compared to CCA treated wood, especially for above ground exposure, across all sites, may be significant for wood in service situations where aquatic toxicity of copper is an issue. Beech was more susceptible than pine to loss of copper for both CCA and CuAz. This may have been attributable to less efficient fixation reactions and preservative distribution (macro- and micro-) in beech. The finding that waterlogged sites, and/or sites with low pH caused greatest loss to all treatments irrespective of wood species, in the light of low loss at horticultural sites suggested that the influence of extremes of water availability and of low pH was more important than other mechanisms such as cationic exchange reactions with soil. Particularly high loss occurred at sites where soil was likely to have contained a high organic acid concentration.
R Wakeling

Australian trials on the efficacy of micronized copper
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30480
Alkaline copper quat (ACQ) is an established wood preservative that is formulated with solubilised copper in amine solvent. This paper describes three separate trials in Australia that investigated whether substituting soluble copper with micronized copper affects performance. ACQ and micronized copper quat (MCQ) gave similar performance in Pinus radiata against four brown-rotting fungi in a soil-block bioassay, while MCQ gave slightly better performance against two white-rotting fungi in Eucalyptus delegatensis. An in-ground stake trial in the wet tropics at Innisfail also found that ACQ and MCQ performed comparably in P. radiata and Corymbia maculata. This was a severe test site with attack caused by soft-rotting fungi, white-rotting fungi and termites. At the site, hardwood stakes treated with half retention of hazard level 4 (H4) CCA were heavily attacked after 1.4 years. An H3 (outside, above-ground) field test against termites in Darwin showed that ACQ- or MCQ-treated P. radiata and C. maculata performed comparably against Coptotermes acinaciformis and Mastotermes darwiniensis. These extensive trials demonstrated that MCQ gives performance comparable to ACQ.
L J Cookson, J W Creffield, K J McCarthy, D K Scown

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