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Comparison of permethrin and fenvalerate as termiticides and their significance to Australian Quarantine Regulations
1984 - IRG/WP 1230
This paper reports detailed laboratory evaluations of the termiticidal efficacy of permethrin and fenvalerate-treated wood blocks. Comparison between artificially wheathered permethrin-treated blocks and unweathered blocks is given. The effect of a 6-week soil burial period on pyrethroid-treated blocks at a retention of 0.08 kg/m³ is also reported. Toxic or protection threshold values for the two pyrethoids are summarised. The significance of these is discussed with reference to their acceptance by the Australian Department of Health (Plant Quarantine) for the treatment of timber components in shipping containers.
J W Creffield, C D Howick


An Overview of the Status of the Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service Cargo Container Booklet
2009 - IRG/WP 09-20420
Abstract Missing
H Greaves, J W Creffield


The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of badly-ventilated, masonry buildings are highlighted as being better suited than are the subfloor spaces of, for example, Japanese buildings for the activity of this fungus. Hence Serpula lacrymans is very restricted in its distribution in Australia, yet where it is active it does grow rapidly and causes rapid flooring failures.
J D Thornton


Possible regulatory status of treated wood waste and implications
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-07
In relation to the European Community or the French regulations, treated wood waste can get two different regulatory status: <<recycled product or fuel>> or <<waste>>. Then, into the waste status, two categories are possible for these residues: <<domestic waste and assimilated>> or <<hazardous waste>>. These different status and categories are important for the environmental issue of treated wood waste management. But they also can have strong economical implications, linked to the waste management cost on one hand and on the materials image on the other hand. On the basis of the EC regulations, up to now, no treated wood waste is namely quoted as <<hazardous waste>>. However, through the classification criteria defined by different EC directives, creosote or heavy metals treated wood waste could be to considered that way. The technical arguments for such a classification and the practical implications are discussed.
G Deroubaix


On the occurrence of the Australian Lyctus parallelocollis Blackburn in Israel and how to distinguish from Lyctus brunneus (Steph.)
1978 - IRG/WP 194
In June 1976 attacked plywood was sent from Tel Aviv for determination of the insects concerned. An unknown Lyctus species and the asiatic Heterobostrychus aequalis (Waterhouse) were responsible for the damage. Further material sent by Dr. J. Halperin, Forestry Division, Ilanoth, in September 1976 and beetles of his field collection in 1977 revealed this Lyctus sp. to be a rather widely distributed and important wood-destroying insect in Israel. By isolating larvae from the plywood and breeding a sufficient number of insects could be obtained for further investigations. By cooperation with Ing. Agr. F.H. Santoro, Buenos Aires, and Dr. R. Demoiseau, Brussels, the Lyctus was compared and identified. By the help of Dr. Demoiseau and Mr. C.D. Howick, C.S.I.R.O., Melbourne, the original literature became available.
S Cymorek


An in-ground natural durability field test of Australian timbers and exotic reference species. Part 2: Progress report after approximately 13 years' exposure
1983 - IRG/WP 1189
The condition of heartwood specimens of Australian and exotic timber species after approximately 13 years&apos; in-ground exposure is given. Four of the 5 test sites have a termite hazard in addition to the hazard from a range of decay fungi. Values for specimen life are given only where all replicates of a timber species have become unserviceable. Results give evidence leading to doubt about the accuracy of the tentative durability ratings previously ascribed to at least some of the species under test.
J D Thornton, G C Johnson, I W Saunders


AAC preservatives: Recent New Zealand and Australian experience
1982 - IRG/WP 3188
This paper outlines the present commercial situation in New Zealand, presents results of current research undertaken at FRI and CSIRO, Division of Building Research (DBR), and comments on parallel research carried out elsewhere. Finally, some general comments are made on the limitations of present technology.
J A Butcher, H Greaves


Supplement to Document No: IRG/WP/56. Health and safety aspects of the use of wood preservatives
1975 - IRG/WP 356
H Willeitner


Regulations of pesticides (including wood preservatives) in the United States
1977 - IRG/WP 397
G B Fahlstrom


Fiji wood preservation regulations
1980 - IRG/WP 3138
A S Alston


Environmental issues: Messages for the wood preservation industry
1985 - IRG/WP 3353
A review of the origins and structure of environmental legislation throughout those territories of the world where wood preservation is a major industry is given. The implications of media, industry and legislation interaction is discussed and suggestions made as to the key issues the wood preservation industry should concentrate its attentions on in the immediate future.
D G Anderson, P Waldie


The biocides directive
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-25
G Wilson


Preservative-treated wood as a component in the recovered wood stream in Europe – A quantitative and qualitative review
2004 - IRG/WP 04-50218
Wood preservatives have been used for the protection of timber products in the European market in appreciable quantities for about 100 years. Between the 1960s up to the present day this usage has been particularly noticeable. The aim of this paper is to present quantitative and qualitative data on the volumes of preservative treated wood placed on the market in the UK and Sweden and to evaluate the expected quantities of preservative treated wood coming out of service and into the ‘recovered’ wood stream in the future. Data are presented from a case-study in the UK on CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) treated timber and projections on likely amounts of this entering the recovery stream up to 2061. It is estimated that in the UK in 2001 approximately 62,000m3 of CCA-treated wood required disposal and that this could rise to about 870,000m3 by 2061. The proportion of CCA-treated timber in all post consumer waste wood in the UK is predicted to rise from about 0.9% in 2001, to about 12.3% in 2061 representing a substantial component of the post-consumer wood stream. In Sweden statistics have been compiled for production of preservative treated wood for many years. The preservatives used for waterborne treatments have also changed significantly over the last 10 years from a dominant role for CCA to alternative, As-free systems. It is estimated that preservative treated wood will represent on average about 5% of the recovered wood flow in Sweden over the next 25-30 years and that this will represent an appearance of about 8000 tonnes of As, 7000 tonnes of Cu and 6500 tonnes of Cr. These data and the possible disposal options for CCA and similar treated wood are considered in a life-cycle thinking context.
R J Murphy, P Mc Quillan, J Jermer, R-D Peek


Wood preservation in the Australian beekeeping industry
1988 - IRG/WP 3473
This paper reports the results of a survey of Australian commercial beekeepers working 200 or more hives in June/July 1985. Nine hundred and forty seven apiarists were asked to participate and to provide information on their wood preservation methods, painting procedures and maintenance of bee boxes. Three hundred and eighty-four apiarists returned completed questionnaires (41%). The main wood preservatives used are copper naphthenate solutions (45%), linseed oil (8%), copper chromated arsenate (3%), hot wax (9%), copper naphthenate solution in linseed oil (3%), linseed oil/wax mixtures (3%) and paint (23%). The majority of apiarists (96%) paint treated bee hives, but there is considerable variation in wood preservative treatment procedures and paint application. Most wood preservative treatments (95%) are of the &apos;do-it-yourself&apos; variety, radiata pine being the most utilized timber. The bottom boards of bee hives are considered the most susceptible to wood decay and subterranean termite damage, as are cleats, stands or any wood in ground contact.
P J Robinson, J R J French


An Australian test of wood preservatives. - Part IV: The condition, after 35 years' exposure, of stakes treated with creosote oils and oilborne preservatives
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30241
This paper contains the first results dealing with creosote oils and oilborne preservatives from this in-ground field trial in Australia. The substrates impregnated with preservative were Pinus radiata D. Don sapwood and Eucalyptus regnans F. Muell. heartwood and sapwood. Data are reported from stakes exposed for 35 years at three Australian sites (Innisfail, Sydney, Walpeup). Comparisons were made between preservatives impregnated into P. radiata at 128 kg/m³ and exposed at Sydney. After 35 years, the mean condition of stakes treated with British standard, Australian K.55 (blend) and brown coal tar (high residue) creosote oils were serviceable. The mean condition of stakes treated with USA standard (AWPA P.1), Australian K.55 (ii, old Timbrol) and brown coal tar (distillate) creosote oils was unserviceable (ie. rated 3 or less out of 8). When a proportion of Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil was replaced by furnace oil, vertical retort tar or 2.5% pentachlorophenol (PCP) in furnace oil, the new combinations did not, on average, rate as highly as the Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil by itself. PCP was compared at 6.4 kg/m³ in P. radiata at Sydney. 5% PCP in furnace oil (128 kg/m³) performed as well as Australian K.55 (blend) creosote oil and much better than 5% PCP in diesel fuel oil (128 kg/m³). 2.5% PCP in furnace oil (256 kg/m³) rated the highest of any treatment containing 6.4 kg/m³ of PCP. The addition of dieldrin or chlordane improved the efficacy of 2.5% PCP in furnace oil (128 kg/m³) at Sydney, but not at Innisfail. The addition of benzene hexachloride showed greater protection than dieldrin or chlordane.
G C Johnson, J D Thornton


2nd IRGWP - Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation (Introductory letter)
1981 - IRG/WP 3184
H Willeitner


2nd IRGWP - Questionnaire on the state of pollution control in the field of wood preservation
1981 - IRG/WP 3185
H Willeitner


Traitement curatif des bois en place. Hygiène et sécurité
1990 - IRG/WP 3585
P Huré


Regulatory and Consumer Challenges Facing Timber Preservation and Durability Interests in New Zealand and Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20282
Timber preservation and durability interests in Australia and New Zealand are facing many challenges and threats arising from regulation and standards changes, to direct competition from competitive materials producers. Industry can address these challenges by pro-active initiation of sound, holistic, research, that addresses the performance needs of the regulators and specifiers and the expectations of consumers. Opportunities do exist for producers of treated timber particularly related to termite management, CCA alternatives and bushfire protection.
C MacKenzie


Safety clearance of wood preservatives in United Kingdom
1977 - IRG/WP 398
In the United Kingdom the principal route of control of pesticides is through the Pesticides Safety Precautions Scheme (PSPS) which is a non-statutory scheme agreed between government ministries and departments (referred to as "Departments") and associations representing the pesticide industries. The scheme formally began in 1957 covering those pesticides and related substances used in agriculture, horticulture and food storage practice. Certain specialised applications such as forestry were also included but in general industrial and other non-agricultural fields of usage such as wood preservatives were not. Following a paper published in 1972 by the Department of the Environment (Pollution Paper No 3 ) on the non-agricultural uses of pesticides the government extended the range of the scheme to include wood preservation among certain other industrial applications.
J M Baker


Generic code of good practices for wood protection facilities. Part 1: Wood protection (antisapstain) facilities
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50003
In general, the potential of high toxicity (aquatic and human) of wood protection (antisapstain) chemicals dictates the need to protect the environment and humans from its harmful effects. This document is a compendium of recommendations for the design and operating practices of wood protection facilities. The suggested recommendations focus on achieving the objectives of protecting the environment and workers in a wood protection facility from harmful exposure to wood protection chemicals.
G Das, V N P Mathur


In-ground evaluation of a copper azole wood preservative (Tanalithâ E) at a tropical Australian test site
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30100
A field trial to determine the in-ground termite and decay resistance of Pinus radiata D. Don impregnated with a copper azole formulation, TANALITHâ E, has been established at a tropical site in the Northern Territory of Australia. Four retentions of TANALITHâ E, containing 1.54, 2.08, 2.92 and 4.30 kg/m³ of Cu, are being evaluated. For comparison, Pinus radiata specimens treated to two retentions (0.56 and 1.18 kg/m³ of Cu) of the benchmark CCA preservative TANALITHâ C, have also been included in the test. Treated specimens (including controls) have been assessed for degrade by subterranean termites and fungal decay, after 4, 7, 16 and 27 months of exposure, using a scale ranging from 4 (sound) down to 0 (failed). Over the duration of the trial, specimens have been contacted by the economically important species of termites Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt), Schedorhinotermes spp. and Heterotermes spp. After 27 months of exposure, the mean termite and decay scores for replicate test specimens indicate that the performance of TANALITH â E is comparable to CCA.
J W Creffield, J A Drysdale, N Chew


Status of wood preservation in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30386
Wood, despite the advent of other modern materials, continues to play an important role in man’s day to day life. Usage of wood ranges from fuelwood to engineered wood products and demand for it is increasing which has resulted in depletion of forests and diminishing wood supplies. Future needs are required to be met from plantation timbers after adopting processing technologies for their life enhancement. Preservation treatment can reduce timber requirement because of enhancing wood service life that can help in managing forests on a sustainable basis to serve the dual purpose of providing a stable raw material supply and maintaining ecological balance. India has given to the world two of the most effectives and widely used wood preservatives viz. CCA and CCB. However, the present level of wood treatment in the country is very low with negligible contribution to the wood economy. Different institutions have made significant research contributions and generated tremendous data on wood preservation but because of lack of general awareness and enabling legislative support, usage of wood preservation has not taken off in the country. Compounding the problem is extremely weak industry - user group-research linkages. In this paper, the overall status of wood preservation e.g. wood preservation research, treatment technology, industry perspective, regulatory and policy frameworks in the country is discussed is detail and recommendations made.
S C Gairola, P K Aggarwal


Canadian code of good practices - Recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities
1990 - IRG/WP 3582
The rationale and procedures for the development of a set of recommendations for design and operation of wood preservation facilities in Canada are discussed. Multi stake holders involvement in problem identification, problem assessment, state of the art knowledge database, implementation and periodic assessment procedures are important considerations for the successful development of a Code of Good Practices for wood preservation facilities.
V N P Mathur, G Das


Fixation of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative in Australian hardwoods: A comparison of three Eucalyptus species
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30107
New environmental guidelines for the management of CCA treatment plants were released in Australia in 1995. This has stimulated interest in techniques for controlling or accelerating the fixation of CCA in freshly treated timber products. The ability to understand, then effectively control and/or accelerate fixation of CCA in treated timber products can be an economic, technical and environmental advantage. Data available on fixation of CCA in timber commodities however, is mainly on softwood not hardwood species. In this paper, the rate of fixation of CCA Type C Oxide in poles of three species of Australian Eucalyptus was monitored over a six week period following treatment. These results will assist in the design of adequate drip pad and undercover storage area for pole treaters in South East Queensland.
J Holmes


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