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Ultrastructure of the attack of a naturally durable timber by tunnelling bacteria
1990 - IRG/WP 1462
The attack of the wood of Eusideroxylon zwageri, a naturally durable species, by tunnelling bacteria (TB) was examined by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Observations were made primarily on fibres. Parenchyma were included in some cases. Both fibres and parenchyma are rich in extractives. In fibres, extractives are primarily present in the lumen. The amber colouration of fib...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Degradation features of waterlogged archaeological compression wood
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10258
The degradation characteristics of waterlogged archaeological compression wood excavated in South Korea were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Degradation of Pinus compression wood occurred mainly in the inner part of S2 layer. In contrast, the outer part of S2 layer remained relatively intact. CLSM and TEM showed the erosion type of ...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


Bacterial degradation of Pinus radiata compression wood
1996 - IRG/WP 96-10153
An inspection of twelve year old, CCA-treated Pinus radiata wood from an industrial cooling tower showed extensive surface decay of wood. Electron microscopic examination of decaying compression wood indicated that compression wood cells were attacked exclusively by bacteria, which were of erosion and tunnelling types. As compared to the normal wood, compression wood appeared to be more resistance...
A P Singh, R N Wakeling


Occurrence and importance of various types of fungal and bacterial decay in CCA-treated horticultural pine posts in New Zealand
1984 - IRG/WP 1234
A detailed microscopical examination has been carried out on samples taken from CCA-treated pine posts exposed in horticultural soils. The following decay types were observed: white rot, brown rot, soft rot, tunnelling bacteria, cavitation bacteria, and bacterial erosion. The occurrence and importance of the various decay types between different regions, and plots within a specific region, varied ...
T Nilsson


Bacterial degradation of wood cell wall: A review of degradation patterns
1990 - IRG/WP 1460
Information from bacterial degradation studies of 60's and 70's was reviewed by Nilsson in 1982. The application of electron microscopy to this area in recent years has provided much useful information and has eliminated earlier scepticism among workers about the ability of bacteria to degrade lignified wood cell walls. Studies using transmission electron microscopy together with...
A P Singh, J A Butcher


Microbiological degradation of wooden piles in building foundations
1988 - IRG/WP 1370
White rot, soft rot and bacterial attack have been detected in softwood piles under buildings. In some cases bacteria were found to be the main degradation organisms in the studied piles. The water content of degraded piles was very high. The compression strength was quite low also in the piles deteriorated by bacteria. The density of wood was very variable, and the degree of degradation could not...
L Paajanen, H Viitanen


Confocal laser scanning microscopy of a novel decay in preservative treated radiata pine in wet acidic soils
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10215
Light microscopy of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) field test stakes (20x20x500mm3) exposed in wet acidic (pH 3-4) soil for 12 - 24 months showed predominance of an unusual type of decay characte-rised by tunnelling attack of wood cell walls. After two years decay was moderate to severe in wood treated to ground contact CCA specifications and also equivalent retentions of creosote, and a numb...
R N Wakeling, Ying Xiao, A P Singh


Fungal and bacterial attack of CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from a water-cooling tower
1991 - IRG/WP 1488
Transmission electron microscopy of decaying CCA-treated Pinus radiata timbers from an industrial water cooling tower showed presence of a thick biofilm covering some areas of the wood. The biofilm contained various morphologically distinct forms of microorganisms embedded in a slime. The study provided evidence of the activity of soft rot fungi and tunnelling and erosion bacteria in wood cells. T...
A P Singh, M E Hedley, D R Page, C S Han, K Atisongkroh


Resistance of Alstonia scholaris vestures to degradation by tunnelling bacteria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1547
Electron microscopic examination of vessels and fibre-tracheids in the wood of Alstonia scholaris exposed to tunnelling bacteria (TB) in a liquid culture showed degradation of all areas of the secondary wall. The highly lignified middle lamella was also degraded in advanced stages of TB attack. However, vestured pit membranes and vestures appeared to be resistant to degradation by TB even when oth...
A P Singh, T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Ultrastructural and TEM-EDAX studies on the degradation of CCA treated radiata pine by tunnelling bacteria
1985 - IRG/WP 1260
An ultrastructural study was carried out on bacterial attacked Pinus radiata stakes treated with a high level (24.7 kg/m³) of Tanalith NCA preservative. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the organism possessed intracellular and/or extracellular detoxification mechanisms in order to overcome the high levels of copper, chrome and arsenic present within the wood fibre walls. ...
G F Daniel, T Nilsson


Soft rot and bacterial decay in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1982 - IRG/WP 1155
Bacterial type decay was observed in CCA and PCP treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Detailed observations made with the SEM revealed bacterial colonisation and decay, especially in fibres. Plug samples taken from poles throughout Queensland were examined for preservative retention and presence of soft-rot decay. The severity of decay was different according to location, retention and speci...
L E Leightley


Bacterial wood degradation by a pure culture
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10093
A single-celled bacterium isolated from lake water yielded cell wall degradation in Scots pine sapwood samples. The bacterium attacked all cell wall layers in one month of laboratory culture. It was identified as Aureobacterium luteolum....
O Schmidt


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water: Final report
1987 - IRG/WP 4133
Three timbers chosen as reference species were treated with 3, 6 and 10% solutions of CCA and CCB preservatives and exposed for up to 93 months at 8 tropical and temperate marine sites. Eleven local species treated in the same way were exposed at 4 of the 8 sites. There was no apparent difference in performance between CCA and CCB treated specimens. The severest test site was Panama Canal but mari...
R A Eaton


The Role of Coformulants in Preventing Bacterial Biotransformation of IPBC
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10436
The inhibitory effects of disodium tetraborate decahydrate and benzalkonium chloride (BAC), two common coformulants of IPBC in antisapstain treatments, on an IPBC-transforming enterobacterial isolate ‘W1’ were determined by their effect on the specific growth rate constant in vitro. The IC50s of IPBC, BAC and borate were found to be 0.46, 0.026 and 5.7 mM respectively. The IC50 of the Arch ant...
S R Cook, D J Dickinson


Copper based water-borne preservatives: The use of a thin section technique to compare the protection of wood by copper based preservatives against soft-rot and bacterial decay
1987 - IRG/WP 2286
This paper describes the techniques developed and gives examples of results obtained for the performance of copper based wood preservatives against both the bacterial and fungal hazards....
A M Wyles, D J Dickinson


Bacterial staining of samba (Triplochiton scleroxylon)
1988 - IRG/WP 1362
Red- and green-stained areas on Samba wood have been tested by IR, X-ray and Neutron Activation Multielement Analysis. No difference could be seen between stained and unstained areas. The red- and green-staining seem to be related to the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa which were isolated from both red- and green-stained areas on the wood surfaces....
K Hansen


Examination of timbers from the Mary Rose in storage
1988 - IRG/WP 4149
Timbers from the Tudor ship, Mary Rose, have been examined for the presence of fungal fruiting structures. Wood specimens were also examined for the presence of microbial decay patterns using light and scanning electron microscopy. Structural timbers were surveyed using the Pilodyn for an overall picture of the extent of decay. Mary Rose timbers were predominantly inhabited by marine fungi. Fourte...
R Mouzouras


Tunneling ability of subterranean termites through termiticide-treated soil
1988 - IRG/WP 1375
A test apparatus was designed to facilitate accurate measurement of termite penetration into termiticide-treated soil; three termiticides at 500 ppm were evaluated. Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki workers tunneled significantly farther into chlordane-treated soil than did Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). Both species only slightly penetrated chlorpyrifos-treated soil. Neither species penetrated so...
S C Jones


Patterns of bacterial attack in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles
1984 - IRG/WP 1223
Patterns of bacterial decay have been examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Two morphologically distinct patterns have been recognised in preservative treated eucalypt power transmission poles. Bacterial Decay I (BDI) involves the removal of the secondary wall layers initiating with erosion of the S3 layer from the cell lumen. As decay progresses the S2 layer and S1 layer are degr...
G A Willoughby, L E Leightley


Importance of bacteria in the deterioration of archaeological woods
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10122
An electron microscopic study of archaeological woods from different sites and of different ages revealed that the woods had been attacked by erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and soft rot fungi. Bacterial erosion appeared to be most widespread, and was present independently as well as together with tunnelling and soft rot attacks. Thus, in many instances bacterial erosion was the only type of...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh, T Nilsson


Ultrastructural aspects of bacterial attacks on an archaeological wood
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10007
Transmission electron microscopy of wood from a Chinese ship submerged in the mud for over 900 years showed bacteria to be the main factor for its deterioration. The micromorphology of degraded wood cell walls was similar to that observed during the attacks of wood by erosion bacteria. Other bacterial forms, previously considered lo be scavenging bacteria, were also abundant in degraded areas of t...
Yoon Soo Kim, A P Singh


Examining environmental conditions and the biodeterioration of historic waterlogged wood: the Kolding Cog
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10441
Survival of waterlogged wood from thousands and in rare cases millions of years presents scientists with a unique opportunity to examine wood specimens which, due to select properties of the wood itself and/or the depositional environment, have not been completely degraded. This paper discusses the biodeterioration of a submerged shipwreck buried in Kolding Fjord, Denmark for the past 1000 years....
B A Jordan, D J Gregory, E L Schmidt


Decay types observed in small stakes of pine and Alstonia scholaris inserted in different types of unsterile soil
1990 - IRG/WP 1443
The attack of various wood-degrading microorganisms occurring in mini-stakes of pine and Alstonia scholaris buried in various types of unsterile soil was studied. Attacks by white rot, brown rot, soft rot, erosion bacteria, tunnelling bacteria and actinomycetes were found. Soft rot occurred in all soils, whereas attack by white rot and especially brown rot and erosion bacteria was rare. The type o...
T Nilsson, G F Daniel


Chelura terebrans (Crustacea: Amphipoda) is capable of degrading wood independently of its associate, Limnoria
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4180
Chelura terebans has been reported to be dependent on the tunnelling activities of Limmmoria. However, this study has shown that Chelura is capable of excavating its own grooves in the surface of blocks of the low density hardwood, balsa (Ochroma lagopus). When reared on blocks of balsa, Chelura ingests small wood particles. These particles often show evidence of degradation due to tunnelling bact...
S M Cragg, G F Daniel


A study of decay type variability in variously treated Fagus sylvatica and Pinus radiata field test stakes exposed at a vineyard for 30 - 45 months
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10271
Pinus radiata test stakes were treated with 10 kg/m3 of CCA plus 4 lower retentions in a geometric series of 1.5. Fagus sylvatica was treated with 15 kg/m3 and 2 lower retentions. Both timber species were also treated with equivalent retentions of various new generation preservatives (P. radiata was also treated with creosote). Whilst these stakes were exposed at 11 sites in New Zealand (NZ) and 2...
R N Wakeling, A P Singh


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