IRG Documents Database and Compendium


Search and Download IRG Documents:



Between and , sort by


Displaying your search results

Your search resulted in 8 documents.


Marine trials with ammoniacal wood preservatives
1980 - IRG/WP 423
Ammoniacal wood preservatives have been known for many years and are considered among the best water-borne systems for protecting wood in ground contact. In recent years attention has been increasingly focussed on these preservatives because of their ability to penetrate difficult-to-treat species better than most other fixed water-borne preservatives. This is particularly important for example, in eastern Canada, where there is an abundance of spruce and a relative shortage of easily treated woods such as pine. Besides being able to readily penetrate wood, the preservative must also be well fixed in the wood. We have concentrated in recent years on improving the already good fixation of ammoniacal copper arsenate and have paid particular attention to increasing the ratio of copper ions to arsenic ions, adding extra anions, and also substituting all or part of the copper by zinc. The preservatives thus formulated are termed copper arsenic additive (CAA), copper zinc arsenic additive (CZAA) and zinc arsenic additive (ZAA). Many of the properties of these preservatives have been reported elsewhere (Hulme, 1979). However, no reports have yet been prepared on their ability to protect wood in sea water. This first progress report indicates how well these preservatives protect wood against marine borer attack in Canadian coastal waters for at least 8 months.
M A Hulme, D P Ostaff


IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. '78 to 11 Oct. '79
J R De Palma


Tests on preservation of wood against marine borers
1976 - IRG/WP 417
The Instituto del Legno has carried out for some years a series of trials about the biodeterioration of wood in the sea. The investigations included the settlement and activity of marine borers, the natural durability of indigenous and tropical woods and the preservation of wood for marine use. This paper reports the trials on the effectiveness of some preservatives in protecting wood against marine borer attack. The trials were carried out at Follonica station, where some investigations had shown that untreated pine samples submerged in the sea were totally destroyed by marine borers within 1 year. Follonica station, latitude 42° 55' North and longitude 10° 45' East, is situated on the Tyrrhenian sea. The recorded temperature varies between 12°C (January to March) to 25°C (July to September), salinity between 37 to 38% and pH about 8. The borers observed in wood were: Nototeredo norvagica Spengler, Bankia carinata Gray, Limnoria tripunctata Menzies and Chelura terebrans Philippi.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi


Evaluation of polystyrene as a protective of wood in sea-water
1986 - IRG/WP 4129
A test is described on the biological protection of wood by treatment with polystyrene. The results, obtained in marine trials, after 18 months, show that the treatment with polystyrene is not all that effective in preventing the attack of marine borers.
A Gambetta


Marine trials with water-borne salts and organotin compound
1986 - IRG/WP 4128
Pinus sylvestris blocks treated with water-borne salts (CCA, CCB, CCF) and organotin compounds (TBTO, TBTCl) were submerged in the sea at Follonica station. The results obtained after 12 years of immersion are presented. The samples treated with CCA, CCB and CCF at the lowest concentration (2%) were destroyed after 7-9 years and the samples treated with CCB and CCF at the highest concentrations (4%, 6%), which were tested for a longer time than CCA treated samples, were destroyed after 11-12 years. The samples treated with organotin compounds did not show any attack by molluscan borers after 12 years with the exception of those treated with TBTCl at the lowest concentration (0.5%). The organotin compounds were less effective against crustacean borers.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi


Relative tolerance of CCA by larvae and adults of the common shipworm, Bankia gouldi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4174
Southern pine sapwood "2 x 4´s" were created by bolting together four panels 13 mm thick by 89 mm wide by 457 mm long. The two outer laminates were untreated and the two inner laminates were each treated to different CCA retentions, ranging from 8.0 to 43.2 kg/m³. Test specimens were exposed from May to October in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. Larvae were unable to settle on and burrow into the exposed edges of the treated laminates. However, shipworms that initially entered the "2 x 4´s" through untreated laminates were able to continue burrowing into the CCA-treated laminates. This experiment demonstrates the very great difference in tolerance of CCA by larval and adult Bankia gouldi, and illustrates the hazard of allowing even small openings, such as areas of untreated heartwood, for shipworms to enter otherwise well treated wood.
B R Johnson


Destruction of wood and mangrove vegetation by marine borers in Goutami-Godavari estuary, east coast of India
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10021
This paper deals with the nature and extent of destruction caused by marine boring organisms to wood and mangrove vegetation in the Goutami-Godavari estuary along the east coast of India. Fifteen species, comprising of 11 teredinids, 1 pholad and 3 sphaeromatids were recorded from the area. For the first time, seasonality of recruitment, abundance and growth were studied for important species occurring at 2 Stations in port Kakinada, a fast developing intermediate port located in the estuarine system. Bankia carinata (Gray) and Bankia campanellata, Moll and Roch are dominant species at Station I, where low and fluctuating salinity conditions prevail. At Station II, where more stable conditions exist, Teredo furcifera Von Martens, Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) and Martesia striata (Linne) are important. In the mangrove area (of approx. 30,000 ha), damage is mainly caused by Dicyathifer manni (Wright), Nototeredo edax (Hedley), Lyrodus pedicellatus; Bankia campanellata and Sphaeroma annandalei Stebbing. Factors, especially salinity, which play a significant role affecting abundance and distribution of these organisms are discussed.
K S Rao, L N Santhakumaran, M Balaji, V V Srinivasan


Resistance against marine borers: About the revision of EN 275 and the attempt for a new laboratory standard for Limnoria
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20669
Wood protection technology in the marine environment has changed over the last decades and will continue to do so. New active ingredients, newer formulations, and novel wood-based materials including physically- and chemically-modified wood, together with increasing concerns over environmental impacts of wood preservatives, urgently demand a major revision of EN 275 “Wood preservatives – Determination of the Protective Effectiveness against Marine Borers”, dated from 1992. This IRG document reports on the technical work in CEN TC 38 regarding the revision of this standard. A Task Group within WG 24 of CEN TC 38 was formed consisting of experts from different field of competence (e.g. wood preservatives industry, wood scientists, marine biologists, archaeologists and cultural heritage conservators). Starting by e-mail correspondence in 2014, and continuing with four physical meetings (Berlin 2x, Florence, Venice) with experts from Germany, Italy, Sweden, and UK were held so far. Significant items for revision in EN 275 were identified as: number of replicates, duration of the test, dimension of specimens, number of test sites, number of reference species, reference material including reference preservative, re-immersion of specimens after non-destructive periodical evaluation for longer periods of time vs higher number of replicates for successive destructive examinations without re-immersion, utilization of X- ray apparatus and specific software to ease evaluation, etc. Furthermore, the task group is working on a standardized lab test for time-saving evaluation of different wood qualities for their potential to resist attack by limnorids. The suitability of this lab test will be determined by round robin tests as soon as safe face-to-face collaboration permits. The outcome will be published as a CEN TR (Technical Report) document, with a view to eventual adoption within the revised standard.
S Palanti, S Cragg, R Plarre