IRG Documents Database and Compendium

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Incorporating insect behaviour in standard tests of wood preservatives - A possible way to reduce pesticide loadings
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20190
The application of wood preservatives to protect timber against insect infestation is common practice world wide. The effectiveness of wood protecting insecticides is usually determined in various standard tests. Depending on the target pest species and the test method, larvae of different developmental stages and sizes or adult insects are exposed artificially to the insecticide-treated commodity...
H Hertel, R Plarre

Upright capillary absorption behavior of five important timbers and one bamboo species of Bangladesh
2004 - IRG/WP 04-40273
The upright or vertical capillary absorption rate of five different timber and bamboo species namely mango (Mangifera indica), kalajam (Syzygium cumini), kanthal (Artocarpus heterophyllus), sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), mahagoni (Swietenia macrophylla) and mulibamboo (Melocana baccifera) were measured in relation to their specific gravity and duration of immersion. It has been observed that there was...
M A Islam, A K M A Bosunia, A K Saha, A K Lahiry

Thermal decomposition behavior of CCA-treated wood for safe disposal and the safe recovery of heavy metals through pyrolysis
2006 - IRG/WP 06-50238
If we could estimate the chemical changes in heavy metals by temperature in chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood during pyrolysis, it is expected that we could solve the environmental problems of heavy metals, which may occur during pyrolysis, and therefore, the thermal decomposition behavior of effective elements of CCA-treated wood was examined to find a safe disposal method. First, CCA-...
Dong Won Son, Dong-heub Lee, Sun-hae Cheon, Myung Jae Lee

Foraging Behavior of the Formosan Subterranean Termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in Response
2007 - IRG/WP 07-10605
Foragers of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were allowed to tunnel in two dimensional, sand filled arenas containing Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) wafers pressure treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) to an average retention of 1.77 % BAE on one side of each arena, and untreated wafers of Douglas-fir on the other side. Arenas w...
C E Campora, J K Grace

A hypothesis on a second non-biocidal property of wood extractives, in addition to toxicity, that affects termite behavior and mortality
2008 - IRG/WP 08-10638
While it is has long been recognized that heartwood extractives affect termite behavior, the exact cause and relationship between total extractives, extractive types, and termite resistance remains unclear. Generally, researchers have proposed that the extractives are toxic and/or repel termites. We propose, based on the well known fact that many extractives have excellent antioxidant properties...
T P Schultz, K Ragon, D D Nicholas

Thermal behavior of zinc borate-treated wood
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30511
The objective of this study was to investigate the thermal behavior of zinc borate (ZnB)-treated solid wood by thermal analysis (TA). Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curves obtained from TA showed that ZnB-treated wood specimens had higher char yields and lower maximum thermal decomposition temperature than untreated wood specimens. Reducing thermal decomposition temp...
E Terzi, H Sutcu, S N Kartal

Evaluation of an optimized industrial process aiming to improve the natural durability and mechanical behavior of bamboo for outdoor use
2011 - IRG/WP 11-40554
Mao Bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is characterized by high contents of sugar and starch and by high hygroscopicity, which makes it susceptible to biodegradation, and specifically to fungal decay. Still, many bamboo based products regularly enter the European wood construction market, competing with traditional solid wood products used for outdoor decking and cladding. The performance of a heat ...
F Simon, M Kutnik, I Le Bayon, G Moisset, V Gatimel

WOOD: its importance in our life
2012 - IRG/WP 12-40583
As it is described by Hoadley (1980) and Tsoumis (1991), wood is an organic material yielded by trees which increase in diameter by the formation of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem. Wood has served man since he appeared on Earth (as a fuel and/or as a construction material for making houses, tools, weapons, furniture, packaging, paper, and artworks). It is important to appreciate th...
I Usta

Effects of exposure time on detection of the behavior of white-rot fungi on Oriental beech wood properties
2017 - IRG/WP 17-10902
The comparison of fungal degradation of Orientalis beechwood by two white-rot fungi was evaluated in this study. Biological, mechanical, and chemical assessments of beech wood were carried out at 30 day interval for 120 days. The results demonstrated that both fungi have greater effects on beech wood during each exposure time. However, Trametes versicolor degraded beech wood more effectively than ...
E Bari, D D Nicholas, K M Ohno

Effect of a Water Repellent Treatment on Moisture Behavior of Three Australian Hardwoods: A Preliminary Report
2021 - IRG/WP 21-40921
Wood is inherently hygroscopic and will sorb moisture either directly from the atmosphere or via capillary action. Moisture can have marked effects on wood properties and repeated wetting and drying creates dimensional changes that lead to physical damage. Exposure to elevated moisture levels also increases the risk of fungal attack. Wood preservatives have long been used to minimize the risk of ...
B Hassan, J J Morrell, K Wood

Biological durability and wood-water interactions of sorbitol and citric acid modified wood – Effects on the expected service life
2023 - IRG/WP 23-40960
A high level of research activities on sorbitol and citric acid (SorCA) modified wood has been recognized in Europe over the last few years. As this treatment is close to entering an industrial-scale production, it is of interest to investigate how such treated wood performs upon long-term outdoor exposure. Hence, in this study Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood was modified with aqueous sol...
K Kurkowiak, L Emmerich, H Militz