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The fate of salt preservatives in facility yard soils and decontamination of soils and drainage waters
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-25
Extensive studies during the past 10 to 15 years revealed that noticeable amounts of preservative components may be released in the environment by dripping off or by rain prior to fixation unless adequate precautions are taken. Therefore, soil and groundwater contamination especially from chromium-VI compounds but also from other inorganic and organic constituents exist in impregnation plants, possibly endangering the soil and groundwater ecosystem. The actual risk potential originating from chromium-containing wood preservatives in a practical situation are to be studied in the frame of a comprehensive research programme sponsored by the German Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT). Accompanying laboratory investigations are performed with the aim of assessing the various types of water-soluble wood preservatives with respect to whether or possibly which compounds remain mobile und thus bio-available in the soil. Special attention is drawn to the question as to which effective constituents are adsorbed to soil particles depending on the mineralogical-geological composition of the soil, and at what situation the retention capacity for effective components of different soils would be exceeded. The results of the pilot study and of parallel running laboratory tests serve as a basis of deterioration analyses for grading and assessing the endangering potential in the ecosystem and shall provide a basis for the choice of adequate remedial concepts and measures to avoid such environmental impacts.
R-D Peek, H Klipp, K Brandt

Mobility and bioavailability of wood preservation chemicals in soil - actual field measurements
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-11
Wood material intended for outdoor use is often impregnated with chemicals to withstand attack from fungi and bacteria. Both inorganic and organic substances are used to protect the wood, and they are used in a toxic and bioavailable form. At wood preservation facilities severe soil contamination can be encountered due to spills and deposition of sludge, especially at old sites. Two sites, one where creosote and one where CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) were applied, were examined for toxicity and mobility of contaminants. Both the soil (solid phase) and soil-water (aqueous phase) were investigated with Microtox - Vibrio fischeri - inhibition of luminescence test. At both sites significant differences were observed between the solid and aqueous phase. Soil toxicity was generally related to degree of contamination, whereas soil-water toxicity was related to soluble compounds in the wood preservation chemicals. The toxic soluble compounds were also found to migrate from the sites.
S Andersen, G Rasmussen

Environmental impact of PCP and NaPCP in the aquatic and atmospheric compartment
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-06
PCP and NaPCP were studied for their aquatic toxicity on bacteria, microalgae and daphnids and for their behaviour in the atmospheric compartment with a climatic chamber. Results of aquatic toxicity bioassays showed that toxicity was higher at low pH. This can be explained by the pKa value of 4.7 of PCP and the higher concentration of the non dissociated form of the pesticide at more acidic pH. Volatilization of pentachlorophenol was studied with wood samples treated with PCP in organic solvent or aqueous solution of NaPCP. Test procedures were investigated in a first step. It appears that a period of three weeks minimum after impregnation must be respected before sampling the wood specimens and that the ratio m²/m³ has to be in good agreement with the saturated vapor pressure concentration. These recommandations would imply improvement of some conditions of the French norm NF X 41-566. The release of pentachlorophenol from wood samples treated with PCP was much higher than with wood treated with NaPCP. The different behaviours of PCP and NaPCP suggest that these substances should be considered distinctly.
P Marchal, P Vasseur, G Ozanne

Toward an assessment of copper bioavailability in treated wood
2010 - IRG/WP 10-20445
Many modern wood preservative systems rely on copper (Cu). Some oxalate-producing fungi detoxify Cu by immobilizing it in crystals, and this may decrease its physiological availability (bioavailability). Cu bioavailability may also decrease during wood treatment. Cu retention in wood, however, is typically measured as a weight-to-volume concentration without an estimate of its bioavailability and without assessment of its relative contribution to preservative efficacy. We have begun assessing bioavailability of Cu in treated wood, using oxalate to pretreat wood and exposing wood to colonization by a fungus moderately-tolerant of Cu. In our first efforts, we treated Cu-impregnated wood with gradients of sodium oxalate and exposed rinsed wood in soil-block microcosms to Serpula himantioides. Cu ethanolamine (C-EA)-treated wood effectively prevents decay by S. himantioides, but toxicity can be overcome above a threshold level of oxalate pretreatment. In agar microcosms, C-EA wood stimulates oxalate production by S. himantioides, but the concentration of induced oxalate remains below the threshold determined in the soil-block trial and decay is low. We are working to improve the sensitivity of this biologically-relevant assay, but wish to share the idea with treaters and others with applied aspirations so that any emerging approach might better serve the wood protection community.
J S Schilling, J J Inda

Bioavailability of Bifenthrin and Fipronil against subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in various soils
2013 - IRG/WP 13-10804
Present study was conducted to determine the toxicity and bioavailability of Biflex (Bifenthrin) and Fipronil (Phenyl pyrazole) termiticides against common termite species Heterotermes indicola (wasmann). Soil was collected from ten different areas of Lahore and was divided into sandy clay loamy (SLC) soil and sandy loamy (SL) soil after analysis. Laboratory bioassays (Topical application method and soil contact method) were conducted to determine bioavailability ratio of Biflex and Fipronil in each type of the soil. Based on calculated bioavailability ratios it was seen that Biflex was more bioavailable (0.888 in SCL soil and 0.765 in SL soil) to the target termites than Fipronil (0.459 and 0.302 in SCL and SL soil respectively). In topical treatment both termiticides showed highest mortality (25.0 ±0.00). In the same way in soil contact bioassay Biflex showed highest mortality rate (25.0 ±0.00 in SCL and 24.66±0.33 in SL soil) at 5ppm while Fipronil treatment showed moderate mortality (24.33±0.667 in SCL and 23.0±0.00 in SL soil) at same concentration. Regarding soil type both termiticides had more efficacies in sandy clay soil as compared to sandy soil. From statistical analysis it was observed that there was significant difference in the mortality as compared to control (P<0.005).
F Manzoor, P Mahnoor, B M Ahmed (Shiday)