Your search resulted in 33 documents. Displaying 25 entries per page.
A new concept of oxalic acid biosynthesis in physiology of copper-tolerant brown-rot fungi
2001 - IRG/WP 01-10394
Recently, a wide variety of roles of oxalic acid (oxalate) in wood decay systems have been receiving much attention. Copper tolerance of wood-rotting basidiomycetes has been believed to be due to the detoxification of copper wood preservatives by oxalate produced by these fungi. However, biochemical mechanism of oxalate biosynthesis in relation to physiology of wood-rotting fungi has not been eluc...
E Munir, T Hattori, M Shimada
Antifungal mechanism of dichloro-N-octylisothiazolone
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30183
4,5-dichloro-N-octylisothiazolin-3-one (DCOI) is a member of the isothiazolone class of preservatives, whose antimicrobial mechanism of action has been intensively studied over the last decade. DCOI has also been intensively studied for use in wood preservation. The isothiazolones are electrophilic molecules that rapidly react with thiol groups to form covalently bonded isothiazolone-thiol adducts. This ability to bond with thiol groups is crucial to their ability to act as preservatives. Thiol groups are present in proteins as part of the amino acid cysteine, where they play an important role in maintaining protein structure and function. A number of enzymes have thiol groups at the site where the enzyme function is performed, and these thiol groups may participate in the enzyme reaction. If the isothiazolone reacts with this thiol group, the activity of the enzyme is inhibited. Our studies have shown that there are several enzymes in the Krebs cycle that are inhibited by isothiazolones and these enzymes are required to generate energy and perform many biosynthetic functions. Reflective of this, DCOI has been shown to be a rapid inhibitor of cellular respiration, causing the cell to cease consuming oxygen almost immediately upon contact with DCOI. The multiplicity of targets and their central importance to the metabolism of the cell, as well as the fact that all microbes use at least parts of the Krebs cycle, can be related to the low use levels and broad spectrum of activity of DCOI. The antimicrobial mechanism of DCOI results in a potent rapid-acting preservative with a broad spectrum of antifungal and antibacterial activity that is effective at low levels.
J S Chapman, M A Diehl, K B Fearnside, L E Leightley
Vapour boron treatment of wood based panels: Mechanism for effect upon impact resistance
1994 - IRG/WP 94-40036
Samples of medium density fibreboard, chipboard and oriented strandboard (OSB) were treated to two retentions of boric acid by a vapour phase treatment. The results of a range of mechanical tests were reported by Hashim et al. (1992, 1993) in which a small reduction in impact resistance was observed. Several investigations were carried out to study how and where this loss in impact resistance occu...
R Hashim, R J Murphy, D J Dickinson, J Dinwoodie
Copper binding capacity of modified wood flour
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3709
Wood flour was modified by reaction with oxidising agents and CCA preservative. The copper chromium and arsenic were removed from the CCA treated wood flour by an acid leaching procedure. The modified wood flours were allowed to react with copper acetate solution and the level of copper fixation achieved was determined. The modified wood flours had greater affinity for copper ions present in solut...
N C Milowych, W B Banks, J A Cornfield
Practical consequences of the clarification of the chemical mechanism of CCA fixation to wood
1983 - IRG/WP 3220
Practical consequences derived from the chemical investigation of the mechanism of fixation of CCA to the wood constituents are discussed. Among these, formulas for the calculation of the time of hexavalent chrome fixation are presented. Furthermore, three parameters are shown to be important to the long-term effectiveness of CCA-treated timber: (i) the temperature of treatment, (ii) the initial p...
Preliminary studies of the decay mechanism of some brown-rot fungi
1989 - IRG/WP 1402
The importance of the enzymatic degradation of hemicellulose and cellulose by brown-rot fungi is still under discussion. Endo-ß-1,4-xylanase and endoglucanase activities of Coniophora puteana and Poria placenta cultures were measured by the increase in reducing groups. Enzymes were produced in liquid and solid sawdust based culture media. Enzyme activities were measured in two, four and eight wee...
A-C Ritschkoff, H Viitanen
Biochemical aspects of white-rot and brown-rot decay
1987 - IRG/WP 1319
This paper presents an overview of the decomposition of wood by white- and brown-rot fungi - the most important and potent of known wood-decay fungi. These organisms are unique among cellulose destroyers because of their strong capability to enzymatically degrade lignified material. Special emphasis is given to the following aspects of wood decomposition by white- and brown-rot fungi: (1) effects...
T L Highley
The probable mechanism of action of boric acid and borates as wood preservatives
1990 - IRG/WP 1450
The tetrahydroxyborate ion [B(OH)4-] acts by complexation with poly-ols and probably attacks decay fungi through extracellular substrate sequestration; intracellular substrate sequestration; enzyme inhibition; and change in membrane function. Work was carried out to investigate this further and to try to explain certain phenomena observed in the area of boron preservation. The effect of Na borate ...
J D Lloyd, D J Dickinson, R J Murphy
Biochemical relationships between biodegradation of cellulose and formation of oxalic acid in brown-rot wood decay
1991 - IRG/WP 1472
Non-enzymic hydrolysis of cellulose with low concentrations of oxalic acid was examined. The incubation of pine wood pulp with 1% oxalic acid (pH 1.3) at 35°C for 4 weeks reduced the original viscosity to 60%. Reducing sugars were liberated from various cellulosic samples by the oxalic acid treatment. However, crystallinities of cellulose in those samples did not change before and after the treat...
M Shimada, Y Akamatsu, A Ohta, M Takahashi
The mechanism of leaching of copper-chrome-arsenic preservatives from treated timber in saline waters
1976 - IRG/WP 374
A mechanism for the leaching of copper-chrome-arsenic preservatives is proposed on the basis of theoretical calculations and experimental studies using timber subjected to a range of water types of different ionic compositions. Complex formation by copper (II) and chromium (III) with chloride and hydroxide ions is shown to affect the leaching rate. Of even greater importance is the salt effect on ...
J Irvine, S-E Dahlgren
Kinetics and mechanism of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives. Part 5: Effect of wood species and preservative composition on the leaching during storage
1975 - IRG/WP 354
Conversion reactions during storage of CCA treated wood take place even at and below the fiber saturation point as long as ion transport is possible. Increase in drying temperature increases the final pH of the treated wood and the leachability of Cu and decreases slightly the leachability of Cr, while the leachability of As is not affected. This temperature effect is considered to be of no techni...
Kinetics and mechanism of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives. Part 6: The length of the primary precipitation period
1975 - IRG/WP 359
The end of the primary precipitation fixation period of CCA preservatives coincides with the first peak in pH versus time. This offers a simple way of estimating the duration of the period. The duration is determined by a number of factors and their interactions, the most important of which are: wood species (anatomy, natural pH, accessibility of reducing agents), preservative type, preservative c...
Effect of some resin treatments on fungal degradation reactions
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10318
The effect of impregnation of wood with vegetable oil, tall oil and two water soluble on fungal degradation reactions was assessed by hydrolysis and enzyme activity measurements. The experiments were carried out by using isolated enzyme preparations and a living brown-rot fungus Poria placenta. The results indicate that the inhibitory effect of treatments was clearly directec towards the enzymatic...
A-C Ritschkoff, M Rättö, A J Nurmi, H Kokko, A O Rapp, H Militz
Targeted inhibition of wood decay fungi: degradation of cotton cellulose
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10321
Brown-rot decay is responsible for 80% of the damage and replacement of wood in service. For nearly thirty years, researchers have postulated a one-electron oxidase system combining Fe+2 oxalic acid, and H2O2 in the production of hydroxy radicals which ultimately oxidize cellulose in situ. Recently, researchers have been investigating antioxicants, in combination with biocides (Schultz, et al.,199...
F Green III, T A Kuster
Studies of the mechanism of chromated-copper preservative. Fixation using electron spin resonance
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3701
Two softwoods and one hardwood species were treated with chromium trioxide, copper sulphate, chromated-copper wood preservative (CCA). The treated wood samples were analyzed during fixation by electron spin resonance (ESR). ESR spectra indicated that more than one Cr(V) species was generated from Cr(VI) soon after CCA treatment. The Cr(V) signal became strong within increased several hours followe...
K Yamamoto, J N R Ruddick
The lasting dehydration of wood treated by bifluorides worked up in Diffusec noticed by a continual drying of the wood
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30196
After an immersion of sound wood in a solution of Diffusec, in which a combination of acid potassium and ammonium bifluorides = FHF- in dissociated form is present, their potassium and ammonium fluoride ions together with the bifluoride ion = (FHF-) diffuse into the wood. They make use of the woodmoisture available as O-H-O bonds directly attached to the cellulose in the wood fibres to attract the...
H F M Nijman
Environmentally benign wood preservatives based on organic biocide antioxidant combinations: A brief review of laboratory and field exposure results and discussion of a proposed mechanism
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30335
The combination of various organic biocides with commercial antioxidants generally increased the biocides’ efficacy 2-3 fold against wood-destroying fungi in short-term laboratory decay tests, and some positive results have been obtained after 2-4 years of outdoor exposure. The two antioxidants principally examined, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene, are low cost and, since both are f...
T Schultz, D D Nicholas, W Henry, C Pittman, D Wipf, B Goodell
A biochemical explanation for the observed patterns of fungal decay in timber
1980 - IRG/WP 1111
Experiments designed to compare the degree of localization of the cellulase enzymes of some white, brown and soft rot organisms are described. The site and nature of binding of the enzymes is discussed. The technique is ellution of mycelium grown in liquid culture with a variety: of agents including acetate buffer, carboxymethyl cellulose solution, borate/glycerol buffer and urea. The mycelium was...
N B Green, D J Dickinson, J F Levy
Kinetics and mechanism of fixation of Cu-Cr-As wood preservatives. Part 4: Conversion reactions during storage
1974 - IRG/WP 332
Precipitates simulating those produced in wood by preservative fixation reactions were prepared by the reduction of Boliden K 33 and Celcure AP solutions with hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine. The pH changes on aging at 20 and 50°C were studied and related to the chemistry of fixation previously described. Hydrolysis of copper arsenates may render arsenic acid temporarily water soluble pending pre...
The bacterial transformation of organic biocides; a common mechanism?
2006 - IRG/WP 06-10585
It was found that a number of unformulated organic biocides showed a susceptibility to degradation by proteobacteria. Exposure of tebuconazole, a candidate biocide, chlorothalonil and IPBC to a Ralstonia strain was found to result in biocide detoxification, as demonstrated through HPLC and a bioassay. Exposure of the biocides to a previously identified extracellular factor was also found to resu...
D F Wallace, D J Dickinson
Arsenic removal by plant pumping mechanism from arsenic solution using activated aluminum oxide as adsorbent – a preliminary study
2006 - IRG/WP 06-50239
This study evaluated the performance of plant pumping mechanism for removal of arsenic from arsenic solution using activated aluminum oxide as adsorbent. Generally, plants absorb water from soil mainly by osmosis process and toxic elements present in soil also move along with water. To remove toxic elements present in contaminated soils/water, different chemical substances are widely used as ...
B Tarakanadha, H Koyanaka, T Hata, Y Imamura
The characteristics of biodegradation mechanism of gamma-irradiated wood
2007 - IRG/WP 07-20352
Gamma radiation, as an easy, fast and effective sterilisation method, changes molecular structure in pest’s living cells, but also in wooden cell walls. Radiation-induced depolymerisation causes significant changes in wood properties crucial for laboratory testing of wood-preservative effectiveness. Natural durability of wood against rot fungi in lab conditions dependency on different sterilisat...
R Despot, M Hasan, F Pohleven, M Humar, G Rep
Antinomic natural self-protection mechanism in long-lasting woods: a case study with three tropical species from French Guiana
2009 - IRG/WP 09-10696
We demonstrate in this work through 3 examples that Amazonian trees may specialize long-lasting woods by means of at least to different approaches. Wallaba impregnates its wood with large amounts of weakly antifungal compounds acting in synergy, while tatajuba and louro vermelho woods are naturally impregnated with antifungal agents. Comparison of biological activities in vitro and concentrations ...
A Rodrigues, M Royer, N Amusant, J Beauchêne, G Herbette, V Eparvier, A Thibaut, L Salmen Espíndola, B Thibaut, D Stien
A theoretical-industrial correlation and perspective on copper-based wood preservatives - a review of thermodynamic and kinetic aspects on copper-wood fixation mechanism
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30499
Copper was and it will continue to remain one of the key active component in wood protection industry. Over the past decades, a significant effort from R&D teams in industry, academia and research institutes was directed toward understanding the copper-wood fixation mechanism, optimising the copper retentions in the wood and reduce leaching in order to maximized performance, prolong the lifetime o...
R Craciun, M Maier, J Habicht
Characterization of wood modification prepared by in situ polymerization with pre-polymer and the mechanism of modification
2013 - IRG/WP 13-40633
Chemical modification of wood is a potential way to obtain high quality wood. In this study, the fast-growing poplar was impregnated with modifier using a pulse-dipping machine by in situ polymerization. Fungal decay analysis, mechanical properties and dimension stability of the natural and modified woods were investigated. The wood samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Therma...
Qian Lang, Zeng Bi, Junwen Pu