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Interaction mechanisms of F/Cr/As/B type preservative and wood
1981 - IRG/WP 3183
The paper reports results of investigations on the fixation of the components of a F/Cr/As/B preservative in wood and its lignin and cellulosic components....
N Ermush, I Andersone

Literature survey on the permanence and distribution of salt-type wood preservatives
1969 - IRG/WP III 1B
The objective of this survey is generally to review some of the more important published work dealing with the distribution and permanence of salt-type waterborne wood preservatives in treated timber. The survey is limited to the major chrome-containing formulations and the classification system proposed by Becker (1964) has been adopted throughout. CK - chromium, copper (copper, chrome); CKA - c...

Study on the treatment of construction timbers by diffusion methods
1983 - IRG/WP 3252
Several species of timber that could be used for constructional purposes have to be pressure impregnated before such use. Pressure impregnation requires expensive equipment, and needs specialized trained operators, etc, which is not possible in most parts of India. Some timbers cannot be pressure impregnated, but can be treated by diffusion. Diffusion treatments could protect these timbers with si...
V R Sonti, B Chatterjee

Applications of the shower test. Part B: Results from CC and CCB treated wood: influence of fixation process
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50010
This report outlines the results of shower tests conducted on CC and CCB treated wood. The results indicate the fairly good fixation of chromium and the reasonable fixation of copper in CC and CCB formulations, as judged by the leaching limits within the Environmental Regulations. In general boron leaches to a higher extent than chromium and copper. The shower test has proven to be a useful qualit...
W J Homan, H Militz

A suggestion for the improvement of the chemical protection of wooden poles
1987 - IRG/WP 3445
Insufficient drying of white poles in Sweden causes inadequate penetration of the impregnation compounds, CCA salts and creosote, in a varying proportion of the treated poles, and with pretreatment decay present, sooner or later, internal fungal attack in the ground-line zone of the standing poles is the result. The application of a diffusing fungicide in the ground-line zone in connection with th...
H Friis-Hansen

Effect of boron compounds-furfuryl alcohol treatment of wood on dimensional stability, termite resistance and boron leachability
2001 - IRG/WP 01-40195
Sapwood blocks of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Caribbean pitch pine (Pinus caribaea) measuring 20 (tangential) x 20 (radial) x 10 (longitudinal) mm were impregnated with furfuryl alcohol (FFA) by a vacuum-diffusion process followed by curing under heating. Boron compounds (boric acid, ammonium borate and ammonium biborate) were mixed in the impregnation solution of FFA. Anti- swelling...
S K Ozaki, M K Yalinkilic, Y Imamura, M F Souza

Leachabilty and efficacy of fatty acid derived boron esters as wood preservatives - leachability and efficacy of fatty acid derived boron esters as wood preservatives
2004 - IRG/WP 04-30351
Borates have many advantages as wood preservatives. However, boron is susceptible to depletion under humid conditions and this restricts its outdoor use. In order to reduce boron leachability in treated wood, one of the anticipative approaches is to use organic fixed boron-based preservatives. This study investigated the leachability of six boron ester compounds as potential preservatives. Scots p...
A Mohareb, J Van Acker, M Stevens

Bibliography on the use of boron compounds for the preservation of wood
1973 - IRG/WP 315
This bibliography is based on an earlier literature survey prepared by J. Thornton and Wm. E. Bruce (O.E.C.D. Document No. 27/DAS/CSI/M/91) which was enlarged and revised for a meeting in Paris in October 1968 (Document 27/DAS/CSI/M554) by Professor W. Bavendamm of Reinbek. The latter (1968) document with its 166 references has now been extended and brought up to date. Acknowledgments are due to B...
R Cockcroft, J F Levy

Borates as wood preserving compounds: The status of research in the United States
1989 - IRG/WP 3542
This paper describes the extensive, on-going cooperative research effort among government and university research laboratories and industry to fully evaluate the potential for borates as wood preservatives in the United States. Research is discussed in terms of laboratory evaluations, field testing and mill trials, pilot plant pressure treatment studies, and remedial treatments. Future research pl...
H M Barnes, T L Amburgey, L H Williams, J J Morrell

Investigation of copper fixation in timber by sodium nitrit
1992 - IRG/WP 92-3707
Solutions containing mixtures of water soluble copper salts and sodium nitrite have been shown to be capable of producing leach resistant copper treatments when impregnated into timber. A rapid leaching trial showed that copper fixation levels of 85-90% were possible which compared well with the fixation level obtained with conventional hexavelant chromium containing systems in the same test regim...
C Waldie, J A Cornfield

Addition of boron compounds and octanoic acid for improvement of biocidal properties and copper fixation at copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives
2006 - IRG/WP 06-30408
Copper-ethanolamine based wood preservatives became important active substance (formulation) for wood protection, novelty. As copper itself can not ensure sufficient protection against wood destroying organisms and fixation in wood we combine it with other biocides like ethanolamine, boron and octanoic acid. This investigates were performance on spruce wood impregnated with different combination o...
F Pohleven, M Humar

Development of boron/linseed oil combined treatment as a low-toxic wood protection. Evaluation of boron fixation and resistance to termites according to Japanese and European standards
2007 - IRG/WP 07-30448
Combinations of boric acid as a first step of treatment and linseed oil as a second step have been performed in order to enhance boron retention to leaching and wood resistance to termites. Classic leaching and termites resistance standards are inappropriate to evaluate this combination which can be considered as both a wood core preservation treatment and a coating. Japanese Industrial Standard...
F Lyon, M-F Thevenon, Y Imamura, J Gril, A Pizzi

Influence of Polyvinyl acetate emulsion (PVA) on boron leaching and fungicidal properties
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30451
Boron compounds are very effective fungicides, but unfortunately they leach from wood. In order to improve boron fixation, boric acid, borax were combined with polyvinyl acetate emulsion (PVA). For comparison copper salts were included into this research as well. Selected preservative solutions were chosen for impregnation of Norway spruce wood specimens (Picea abies). Wood blocks were exposed to ...
M Humar, B Lesar, P Kralj

The Comparison of Fixation and Leachability of Bark, Fruit and Leaf Tannin Extracts with Boron Minerals
2008 - IRG/WP 08-30473
Tannins extracted from several plants have natural durability properties. Due to these properties, some of the researchers have studied them for protecting wood. In this study, Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and beech (Fagus orientalis) wood samples were treated with bark, fruit, and leaf extracts as well as water-based wood preservative salts at various concentrations to increase fixation. The pen...
S Sen, C Tascioglu, K Tirak

Effects of new fixative additives on leachability of boron wood preservatives
2009 - IRG/WP 09-30507
Borates are well known with their protective capacity against both fungi and insects with low mammalian toxicity and environmental acceptable. However, boron itself does not ensure the appropriate protection for wood in the exterior applications because of their easily depletion from the treated wood under wet conditions. In this study, the potential use of monoglyceride and polyvinyl alcohol prod...
A Mohareb, J Henry, E Wozniak, P Gérardin

Effects of polyvinyl alcohol on leachability and efficacy of boron wood preservatives against fungal decay and termites attack
2010 - IRG/WP 10-30526
In this study, the use of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as boron fixative agent was investigated. Two levels of PVA (2.5 and 4%) were evaluated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate (DOT) at three concentrations (1, 2 and 4% boric acid equivalent (BAE) using a double vacuum impregnation processes on Scots pine sapwood specimens. Leaching was performed according to a laboratory leaching procedure. Boron ...
A Mohareb, M F Thévenon, E Wozniak, P Gérardin

Tannin resin-boron associations: Leaching and biological resistance
2012 - IRG/WP 12-30587
The easy leaching of boron in wood preservation formulations has allowed to use this fungicide only for short term applications. The recently discovered adduct with flavonoids allows boron to resist longer periods of time within wood and consequently extend its life. Two different leaching treatments were compared and the fungal and termite decay was examined. The biological tests have shown extre...
G Tondi, S Wieland, N Lemenager, A Petutschnigg, A Pizzi, M-F Thevenon

Preliminary testing of spiroborate esters as wood preservatives
2013 - IRG/WP 13-30614
Fungicide and insecticide properties of boric acid are known since 30’s of the last century, but high solubility and leachability of inorganic borates limit their use for only applications not directly exposed to liquid water. A number of attempts were made to fixate borate salts into the wood structure but this research topic is still up to date and undiscovered. Water insoluble organoboron est...
D Panov, N Terziev

Aspects of diffusion of boron through wood
1984 - IRG/WP 3298
Boron compounds have been shown to be toxic to a wide range of wood destroying insects and fungi. They are cheap, have low mammalian toxicity and their application in the treatment of wood does not demand specialized equipment. These attributes make them specially attractive to developing countries. Currently, however, little is known about the mechanism of diffusion of boron through wood. Effecti...
S Iddi

Utilization of curcumin for detection of presence of boron in wood
1982 - IRG/WP 3191
It has been shown that curcumin is not a reliable reagent for detecting boron in wood that has been attacked by fungi...
M-L Edlund

Influence of different fixation and ageing procedures on the leaching behaviour of copper from selected wood preservatives in laboratory trials
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20264
The paper focuses on the role of different parameters, such as fixation, sample size, wood species, and leaching in internationally standardized ageing procedures for wood preservatives from Europe, Japan and the United States. The leaching protocols used were EN 84, JIS K 1571 and AWPA E11 protocols. The wood species were Scots pine, Sugi and Southern Yellow Pine respectively. Three types of com...
J Habicht, D Häntzschel, J Wittenzellner

Proposed methodology for the assessment of safety indexes
1990 - IRG/WP 3562
Safety Indexes (SI)s are developped on the same concept as Efficacy Indexes (EI)s: EIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "efficacy") which are presumed efficient for a given biological class of risk. In the same way, SIs are retentions of wood preservatives (percentages of the critical values "safety") which are taken as acceptable for human health and the ge...
G Ozanne

Strength loss associated with steam conditioning and boron treatment of radiata pine framing
1987 - IRG/WP 3438
The combined effect of included defects and wood moisture content on the strength loss of second rotation radiata pine framing following conventional steam conditioning is investigated. The green Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) is reduced by approximately 13% after steaming. When dried after steaming, however, neither the MOE nor MOR is significantly different from unsteamed dried controls....
M J Collins, P Vinden

Synergistic effect of boron on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing conidial germination of sapstain and mold fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1565
We evaluated the synergistic effect of boron (4% BAE solution of Tim-Bor or 4% boric acid) on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi using plate bioassay, Southern yellow pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections: sapstain -- Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi -- Aspergillus nig...
S C Croan, T L Highley

Non-pressure treatability of plywood by CCA, CCB and boron
2005 - IRG/WP 05-40295
Study on diffusibility and absorbability of CCA, CCB and boric acid in 3 mm thick 3-ply hardwood plywood at water saturated and air-dry conditions and dipped at same concentration (5%) and same duration of time (12 hours) revealed complete diffusion of all the preservatives at water saturated condition. Only the CCA-C was found absorbed by the plywood at air-dry condition. The rate of absorption a...
A K Lahiry

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