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Granitgard used as a partial and perimeter barrier in the protection of buildings against subterranean termites
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10114
The graded granite subterranean termite physical barrier, commercially marketed as Granitgard, has a Certificate of National Accreditation issued by the Australian Building Codes Board, and is included in Australian Standards. After several years in developing the specifications and installation techniques for Granitgard, it may be used to protect almost all footing designs. Granitgard can be simply placed around slab penetrations and buildings perimeters to provide a durable, long-life subterranean termite barrier. This paper discusses the development of partial and perimeter applications of Granitgard around buildings, and the advantages of using a termite barrier that removes the need for costly and dangerous chemical retreatments.
D M Ewart, J R J French


The restricted distribution of Serpula lacrymans in Australian buildings
1989 - IRG/WP 1382
Temperature data has been gathered over a number of years, not only for flooring regions of various buildings in Melbourne, but also within roof spaces and external to the buildings. Findings are discussed in relation to the distribution of Serpula lacrymans within Australia, its restriction to certain types of building construction and its restriction to flooring regions. The subfloor spaces of badly-ventilated, masonry buildings are highlighted as being better suited than are the subfloor spaces of, for example, Japanese buildings for the activity of this fungus. Hence Serpula lacrymans is very restricted in its distribution in Australia, yet where it is active it does grow rapidly and causes rapid flooring failures.
J D Thornton


Problems caused by termites in buildings in the State of Sao Paulo
1976 - IRG/WP 150
Termites are the main insects attacking buildings in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Their attack occurs in wood and wooden materials as well as paper, textile, leather and so on.
M S Cavalcante


Physical barriers and bait toxicants: The Romeo and Juliet of future termite control
1991 - IRG/WP 1503
Soil chemical barriers are considered by some to be the most important technique for protecting buildings against subterranean termites in Australia (and elsewhere), providing a barrier against termite penetration. However, there is no such thing as a barrier that is 100 per cent +protective. And given the worldwide problems of using organochlorine termiticides, public awareness of chemical pollution and contamination to the environment, emphasis on physical barriers has been refocussed. In the event of such barriers being penetrated, the use of suitable bait systems and toxicants is considered a fruitful "back-up" strategy in future termite control measures. Such a system is environmentally friendly, has wide public acceptance, and readily marketable.
J R J French


The status of Anobium punctatum and Hylotrupes bajulus in buildings in the United Kingdom
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10039
Anobium punctatum and Hylotrupes bajulus are the two most significant insect pests of structural timber in the UK. This paper describes the results to date from two separate surveys in the UK carried out by the BRE in collaboration with remedial treatment companies, local authorities and building societies to establish the incidence and status of these insects with respect to geographical location, age and type of building. The results update those from previous BRE surveys published in 1965 and 1973. Results for Anobium punctatum show a general trend of increasing infestation with age of property but also suggest a reducing trend in incidence in properties built since the last major survey in 1965. Incidence of Hylotrupes bajulus is concentrated in the areas currently designated in Building Regulations. Houses constructed in the period 1920-1930 show a high level of incidence of Hylotrupes bajulus. Possible reasons for changes in incidence of Anobium punctatum include drier timber conditions due to increased heating levels in buildings and reduced use of highly susceptible panel products. The cause of the apparently high incidence of Hylotrupes bajulus in properties built in the period 1920-1940 is unknown. Possible explanations include increased natural incidence due to a series of particularly favourable annual climatic conditions in that period.
R W Berry, R G Lea, D Higham


The dry rot fungus and other fungi in houses. Part 2
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10001
J Bech-Andersen


An investigation concerning Camponotus spp. distribution and damage in buildings in Sweden
1985 - IRG/WP 1248
This is a report of an investigation by a Swedish insurance company on the occurrences of damage by Carpenter ants during 1974 to 1981. The distribution of damage in walls, roofs and floors of both permanent homes and summer-houses has been assessed. It is concluded that the increased frequency of attack is becoming economically serious.
V Butovitsch, K-J Hedqvist, C Tornberg


Wood-destroying insects found in the Eastern Black Sea sub-region of Turkey
1982 - IRG/WP 1153
The Eastern Black Sea subregion has important forest resources. The settlement areas are scattered at the countryside. That's why a good deal of wood and timber is used in the construction of buildings without sufficient protective measures in the rural areas. In the forests and rural buildings 52 wood-destroying insect species have been specified 35 of which are new in this subregion and 14 are new in Turkey.
O A Sekendiz


Controlling Coptotermes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) infestations in buildings with bait boxes
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10372
This paper describes the results of a commercial pest control operators use of the CSIRO bait box procedure in controlling infestations within buildings of subterranean termites ('termites') of the genus Coptotermes. Polystyrene bait boxes (480 x 330 x 210 mm3) were filled with alternate layers of corrugated cardboard and kiln-dried hardwood strips of Eucalyptus regnans F. Meull. (mountain ash). A viewing port at one end of each box allowed for the operator, or the clients, to check the presence of termites in the bait box. On discovering termite activity in the box, a dust toxicant (arsenic trioxide) was applied to the aggregated individuals, and the dusted termites returned to the box, thus spreading the toxin to other members of the nest colony, leading to it's collapse. On average, the time from installation to aggregating termites was about 4-6 weeks. Of the seventy-four boxes installed since 1994, sixty-six boxes were placed inside buildings, while eight boxes were positioned around buildings. Most were placed within buildings in the sub-floor areas, and alongside termite-infested skirting boards and architraves within slab-on-ground constructions. Other boxes were placed in cupboards, on top of termite-infested flooring, roof areas and on floors in garages. Eighty-five percent of the boxes lured termites, while 13% failed to lure any termites. Of those boxes with termites, there was a 82% success rate using arsenic trioxide as the dust toxicant. Eradication of termite colonies was recorded when no further termite activity was found after 6-12 months. These results are discussed in relation to present and future termite control.
J R J French, T Boschma


Description of the damage produced by xilophagus Curculionides in Spain
1989 - IRG/WP 1408
Cossoninae are a reduced subfamily of Curculionidae. These xilophagus insects produce significant damage in Spain, mainly affecting old buildings. Their activity is a real problem for the preservation of the country's historical-artistic heritage. The three Cossoninae species most widespread in Spain are described for the first time as well as the conditions under which they develop. The first results on their physiology and specific characteristics are also included. Finally, the interrelationship with other xilophagus agents (fungi and insects) which are common in Spain, is analyzed.
E L Rodríguez Trobajo


Report of an investigation of damage by wood ants in buildings in Sweden
1976 - IRG/WP 148
Wood ants in buildings occur everywhere in Sweden, particularly in maritime districts and in vicinity of larger lakes. The damage caused by Camponotus herculeanus does not differ from that caused by Camponotus ligniperda. The former occurs in all Sweden, the latter only in southern Sweden. The damage is to be found almost exclusively in dwelling houses (week-end cabins and "all-the-year round" houses) in or close to forests.·Buildings of all ages are liable to wood ants attacks. All wooden part of houses, particularly the walls, can be infested. Sound timber is much more desirable to the insects than wood that is infected with wood-rotting fungi. The construction of the building can sometimes affect the frequency of the damage. This is the case particularly with cabins which lack basements. The decisive part in wood ant migrations from forest to buildings is the distance from the edge of the wood: the shorter this distance the greater the danger of invasion.
V Butovitsch


Wood decay in Danish buildings
1985 - IRG/WP 1261
At Technological Institute identification of fungi and advisory activity concerning repair of damages has taken place since 1935. Statistical analyses based on material from 1982 and 1983 are compared to earlier investigations worked out by L. Harmsen. The material shows that building traditions influence the diversity and frequency of fungal species. Many fungal damages in the last decade have showed that it is very important to use timber in a suitable manner not forgetting old building traditions. The conditions of fungal attack must be analysed and followed up by improvement of constructive and chemical wood protection.
A P Koch


Some thoughts on the future strategy for eradicating Serpula lacrymans from a building
1989 - IRG/WP 1405
We now have a clear view of the mechanism of translocation of nutrients in the mycelium of Serpula lacrymans which is one of the physiological processes underlying the remarkable capacity of this fungus to spread through a building. Here the elements of the mechanism of translocation are dissected out to suggest avenues which might be followed in the search for new ways for eradicating the fungus from buildings.
D H Jennings


Geographical distribution of termites inside buildings in France
1991 - IRG/WP 1512
Since several years, data concerning infestations of buildings by termites are collected by CTBA. Most of them come from of the localizations communicated by the Pest Control Operators in the frame of the Approval. Maps were settled in 1975, 1981 and lastly in 1989. These maps show that the areas infested by termites are extending. Processing of data is described.
M-M Serment, A-M Pruvost


The more important wood-destroying insects found in buildings in Poland
1974 - IRG/WP 128
In the different regions (voievodships) of the country Anobium punctatum and Anobium pertinax were to be found in the range of 47.7 to 63.5%. These insects were the main pests in urban buildings. In the second place came Hylotrupes bajulus occurring in the range of 25.9 to 45.1%. The other insects were to be found within the limits of 0.1 to 10.0%; only in a single instance did the amount reach 24.1%.
J Dominik, J Wazny, M Czajnik


Regulatory and Consumer Challenges Facing Timber Preservation and Durability Interests in New Zealand and Australia
2003 - IRG/WP 03-20282
Timber preservation and durability interests in Australia and New Zealand are facing many challenges and threats arising from regulation and standards changes, to direct competition from competitive materials producers. Industry can address these challenges by pro-active initiation of sound, holistic, research, that addresses the performance needs of the regulators and specifiers and the expectations of consumers. Opportunities do exist for producers of treated timber particularly related to termite management, CCA alternatives and bushfire protection.
C MacKenzie


An overview of termite control in buildings in Kenya
1997 - IRG/WP 97-10242
Termites are well known pests of wooden products and structural timber and are responsible for considerable damage in the building sector in sub-Saharan Africa. A general diagnostic survey of damaging termite species in agriculture, forestry and buildings was carried out for the first time in Kenya (1991-1992). Termite species implicated in damage to wooden materials and structural timber in buildings included Ancistrotermes spp., Odontotermes spp., Allodontermes spp., Pseudacanthotermes spp., Macrotermes spp. and Cryptotermes leylandi ( imported). A pilot questionnaire survey of termite control in the building sector (January-June 1992) indicated that a wide range of timber products in buildings is prone to termite attack. Annual losses due to termites were estimated to be between US $ 8-20 million. Until 1993, aldrin, dieldrin, chlorpyrifos and lindane were the termiticides of choice in building protection and general termite control. However, there has been a general trend to discontinue organochlorine termiticides. Pre-site inspection and treatment is normally a requirement in the building sector. A detailed follow-up survey has been planned for early 1997 to update the data got from the earlier pilot survey. Future termite control research in Kenya should look into more environmentally sustainable chemical compounds and biopesticides such as Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae.
G R S Ochiel, W Gitonga, L Toft


Soft rot fungi as possible sources of odor in impregnated wood in buildings
1993 - IRG/WP 93-20013
Wood preservatives are frequently used inside houses. In several cases impregnated wood, particularly when used in crawlspaces or other near-ground constructions, has been found to be a source of odor. Mold fungi, soft rot fungi actinomycetes or bacteria growing on impregnated wood are possible producers of the odor. Analyses of volatile emissions from impregnated wood with odor and pure cultures of the soft rot fungus Phialophora fastigiata were made with diffusive sampling on Tenax TA, thermal desorption and capillary GC-MS. 2-methylbutanol was found among compounds emitted from impregnated wood with odor taken from a house with odor. Among compounds produced by Phialophora fastigiata octanoic acid and 2-methylbutanol were found.
J Bjurman, J Kristensson


Investigation of microwave as a means of eradicating dry rot attack in buildings
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1545
A microwave-apparatus developed for treatment of building-structures infested by dry rot was tested in the laboratory. The test-conditions simulated treatment of either infested timber or infested brickwork. Sawdust samples, both wet and dry, infested by viable mycelium of Serpula lacrymans were packed in glass-tubes. The tubes were then placed in the middle of either 20 cm thick wooden beams or 35 cm brickwork. The temperature during microwave-treatment was measured both in the tubes using toluene thermometers and in the "construction" using thermo-couples of the copper-constantine-type. The viability after treatment was tested by growth-ability on malt-agar, by ATP-content and by nucleus-staining. The lethal temperature with this specific apparatus was 37-39°C in brickwork and 40-50°C in wood. In comparison with more conventional methods of heat transfer microwaves seem to be more efficient. The variation in temperature within the treated area was undesirably high and in situ treatment above lethal temperature with this specific apparatus would lead to an unacceptably high risk of damage.
C Kjerulf-Jensen, A P Koch


Damage by wood-attacking insects in buildings in Sao Paulo State - Brazil. (including errata slip)
1978 - IRG/WP 175
From 1974 to 1978 up to 602 buildings attacked by wood-boring insects were inspected by Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas in Sao Paulo State - Brazil. Damage was caused mainly by subterranean termites, dry-wood termites and wood-attacking beetles. Up to US $ 1000,000 is the amount needed to control such insects in the buildings inspected
A T De Lelis


An Historical Roof Timber System in the Old Town of Berlin-Spandau
2019 - IRG/WP 19-10949
In Europe the “Charter of Venice” was enacted on the 31st of May 1964. It is the international directive for the preservation of historic buildings and monuments. All countries in Europe now involve professional wood scientists and engineers in maintaining and preserving historical buildings. Here we discuss a restoration project involving 17th century roof timbering. This project may be used as a model for the restoration of other wooden historical monuments.
M Luke, W Unger, D Nellessen


Termite physical barriers: Update on retrofitting Granitgard around 'mock-up' buildings after three years
1995 - IRG/WP 95-10118
This field experiment was installed three years ago (March 1992) to evaluate the effectiveness of Granitgard, the commercial name of a grade of crushed granite aggregate or "screenings", as a physical termite barrier when retrofitted around 'mock-up' buildings. The field site is located at Walpeup in the semi-arid mallee region of north-west Victoria (360 km from Melbourne), and there are at least eight common indigenous subterranean termite species at the site. This paper describes the results of the field evaluation after three years in test using Granitgard as a retrofitted termite physical barrier. We discuss these findings and their implications in the protection of timber structures in areas in which there are naturally foraging populations of subterranean termites.
B M Ahmed, J R J French


Issues Facing Wood Preservation in New Zealand Today
2003 - IRG/WP 03-30326
In New Zealand, the three major issues facing the wood preservation industry today are: Extension of use of LOSP preservatives, chiefly tributyltin naphthenate, for treatment of products in Hazard Class H3 exposed to the weather for which LOSP have not been traditionally used. Concerns have been expressed about the long-term durability of such products. Restrictions on the use of CCA preservatives in USA and Europe have prompted enquiry into public health issues over the use of CCA treated timber. An investigation by the NZ Environmental Risk Management Authority found that the risk to health from exposure to CCA-treated wood was negligible. Widespread failure through decay of untreated kiln-dried radiata pine framing in constructions with monolithic or face-sealed claddings caused by rain penetration through the claddings. As a result there is a considerable amount of research underway to identify types of preservative treatments to protect framing from decay when subjected to limited rain wetting. Results to date have lead to proposed revision of NZ wood preservation standards.
M E Hedley


Occurrence, prevention and repair of Dry Rot
1990 - IRG/WP 1439
Information about the frequency, detection, identification and repair of Dry Rot attacks (Serpula lacrymans) is summarized from 13 European countries. Based on 28 completed and returned questionnaires it appears that Dry Rot attacks are recognized in all countries participating, and that there is an appreciable similarity in the frequency of attacks and methods of detection and identification. However, the method of repair is often rather different between the countries and sometimes even within the same country. These differences are reflected in the methods of repair as well as in the chemical treatment to prevent further spread of the attack. Research concerning alternative methods of Dry Rot treatments is only performed in a few countries.
A P Koch


Experiences from a Danish large scale test by means of a new method of treatment by attack of true dry rot fungus (Serpula lacrymans) in buildings
1994 - IRG/WP 94-10064
Experiences from a new and epoch-making method of treatment in connection with the repair of attack of the true dry rot fungus, Serpula lacrymans (Fr.) S.F. Gray, are described. The paper presents the background of a large scale test comprising repair of more than 150 Danish buildings over a period of approximate 5 years. The method being both gentle to the building and presenting savings of at least 70% compared with the traditionally known repairing methods is based on thorough recording of the extent of attack and examination of the vitality of the fungal attack combined with a changed chemical and constructive treatment including treatment by means of a newly developed heat treatment based on high frequency radio waves. Continuous controls have confirmed the applicability in practice of the method. Beyond the method, the paper discusses the consequences as regards security, possibilities of insurance and obtaining a mortgage loan.
O Munck, H Sundberg


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