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Resistance against marine borers: About the revision of EN 275 and the attempt for a new laboratory standard for Limnoria
2020 - IRG/WP 20-20669
Wood protection technology in the marine environment has changed over the last decades and will continue to do so. New active ingredients, newer formulations, and novel wood-based materials including physically- and chemically-modified wood, together with increasing concerns over environmental impacts of wood preservatives, urgently demand a major revision of EN 275 “Wood preservatives – Determination of the Protective Effectiveness against Marine Borers”, dated from 1992. This IRG document reports on the technical work in CEN TC 38 regarding the revision of this standard. A Task Group within WG 24 of CEN TC 38 was formed consisting of experts from different field of competence (e.g. wood preservatives industry, wood scientists, marine biologists, archaeologists and cultural heritage conservators). Starting by e-mail correspondence in 2014, and continuing with four physical meetings (Berlin 2x, Florence, Venice) with experts from Germany, Italy, Sweden, and UK were held so far. Significant items for revision in EN 275 were identified as: number of replicates, duration of the test, dimension of specimens, number of test sites, number of reference species, reference material including reference preservative, re-immersion of specimens after non-destructive periodical evaluation for longer periods of time vs higher number of replicates for successive destructive examinations without re-immersion, utilization of X- ray apparatus and specific software to ease evaluation, etc. Furthermore, the task group is working on a standardized lab test for time-saving evaluation of different wood qualities for their potential to resist attack by limnorids. The suitability of this lab test will be determined by round robin tests as soon as safe face-to-face collaboration permits. The outcome will be published as a CEN TR (Technical Report) document, with a view to eventual adoption within the revised standard.
S Palanti, S Cragg, R Plarre

IRG/COIPM INTERNATIONAL MARINE TEST - to determine the effect of timber substrate on the effectiveness of water-borne salt preservatives in sea-water. Progress Report 8: Panama test results
1980 - IRG/WP 458
Summary of damage to ITRG test stakes by pholadidae and teredinidae at the Panama test site - 8 Mar. '78 to 11 Oct. '79
J R De Palma

The 1999-2000 annual report for the IRG - Wood Preservation in Egypt
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40188
The wood destroying insects in Egypt are belonging to several families of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Isoptera. Imported woods are treated by The Agricultural Quarantine or the authorized companies. The materials used for protection as pre-treatment are the same of the treatment. They are Bromide methyl, copper or fluoride salts, organo-phosphorus compounds, pyrethroides, creosote or creosodial. Any preservative should be evaluated by the Ministry of Agriculture before recommendation. Of the preserved woods are Lumbers, sleepers and poles, woods used in constructions and furniture as well. The woods used in furniture, constructions or woodworks are mostly imported from Sweden, Russia, Finland or Korea. Several kinds of woods are imported as Picea sp., Pinus sp., Phagus sp. Local woods used are limited in kinds and amount, as Casuarina sp., Eucalyptus sp., Ficus sp., Acacia sp. Treated woods are potentially increasing in use. There are neither restriction for the use of treated woods, not any regulation concerning the desposal of these woods.
S I M Moein

Tests on preservation of wood against marine borers
1976 - IRG/WP 417
The Instituto del Legno has carried out for some years a series of trials about the biodeterioration of wood in the sea. The investigations included the settlement and activity of marine borers, the natural durability of indigenous and tropical woods and the preservation of wood for marine use. This paper reports the trials on the effectiveness of some preservatives in protecting wood against marine borer attack. The trials were carried out at Follonica station, where some investigations had shown that untreated pine samples submerged in the sea were totally destroyed by marine borers within 1 year. Follonica station, latitude 42° 55' North and longitude 10° 45' East, is situated on the Tyrrhenian sea. The recorded temperature varies between 12°C (January to March) to 25°C (July to September), salinity between 37 to 38% and pH about 8. The borers observed in wood were: Nototeredo norvagica Spengler, Bankia carinata Gray, Limnoria tripunctata Menzies and Chelura terebrans Philippi.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi

Evaluation of polystyrene as a protective of wood in sea-water
1986 - IRG/WP 4129
A test is described on the biological protection of wood by treatment with polystyrene. The results, obtained in marine trials, after 18 months, show that the treatment with polystyrene is not all that effective in preventing the attack of marine borers.
A Gambetta

The leachability and specificity of the biological protection of timber using Scytalidium sp. and Trichoderma spp
1986 - IRG/WP 1302
The results of field experiments, using biological control against internal decay of creosoted poles, are briefly reviewed and the evidence concerning the leachability of the antibiotics produced by these species is presented. A pure culture miniblock decay test on biological control treated pine sapwood is described and the results compared to previously published data. The protection against Lentinus lepideus (Fr. ex Fr.) Fr. conferred on wood blocks by Scytalidium sp. and Trichoderma sp. was found to be completely removed by 24 hours Soxhlet leaching. Weight losses caused by Coniophora puteana (Schum ex Fr.) Karst were not reduced by prior colonisation of blocks with the potential biological control fungi. The significance of this finding is discussed in the light of the high frequency of isolation from poles of wood rotting basidiomycetes other than Lentinus lepideus and the latest results of a six year old field experiment.
P I Morris, N A Summers, D J Dickinson

Marine performance of preservative treated Southern pine panels. Part 2: Exposure at Mourilyan Harbour, Queensland, Australia
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10337
Southern yellow pine panels treated with ACQ type B, ACQ type A, CCA type C, creosote, and copper naphthenate have been exposed at Mourilyan Harbour, north Queensland, Australia for almost 6 years. These panels have been inspected and rated for fouling and attack by Teredinid, Limnoria, Martesia, and Sphaeroma during this exposure. After 70 months exposure, overall performance of ACQ type B was equivalent to CCA type C at similar loadings, while ACQ type A did not perform as well. CCA and ACQ at 40 and 20 kg/m3 are performing similar to creosote at 430 and 200 kg/m3, respectively. The copper naphthenate treated panels did not perform as well as the ACQ panels at similar total copper loadings. Fouling of panels treated with ACQ was less than that found on CCA and creosote treated panels, but similar to that found on copper naphthenate treated panels exhibiting the same level of performance.
A R Zahora, A F Preston, K J Archer, S Kleinschmidt

The yeast Pichia sp. As a short-term biological control agent to fungal spoilage of sawn softwood timber
2000 - IRG/WP 00-10362
Previous work has found isolates of the yeast Pichia to be a successful biological control agent toward moulding of fruits. An isolate was tested for the ability to protect sapwood of Pinus sylvestris timber against visual degrade by surface growth of moulds and staining fungi. Successful protection of autoclaved wood sprayed with a mixture of common wood moulding fungi was achieved when the yeast was applied at a rate of 6 x 10 8 cells/cm2. Yeast cells were sprayed onto the wood blocks at the same time as the fungi and blocks were incubated under conditions favourable to fungal development for 15 and 25 days before assessment using a visual scale. Limitation of the disfigurement of green wood required a similar cell application rate. Protection of blocks sprayed with Ophiostomatoid staining fungi following sterilisation required a lower concentration of yeast cells (2 x 10 6 cells/cm2). Survival and reproduction of Pichia cells on sterilised wood blocks was also determined across a range of relative humidity and temperature conditions previously found to support development of wood moulding and staining fungi. Following 16 weeks incubation at temperatures of 8-25°C at relative humidity 93-100%, between 46 and 473% of the number of colony forming units applied to the wood were recovered. Maximum increase in viable yeast cell count on wood blocks occurred at 100% relative humidity and 15°C.
C Payne, H J Staines, A Bruce

Laboratory evaluation of chlorothalonil formulation for stain and mold control on rubberwood and maple
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30175
We evaluated the efficacy of several chlorothalonil and carbendazim fungicides (F1 and F2), etc. in the control of mold and stain fungi on rubberwood and maple. The results showed that these formulations effectively inhibited the selected fungal species such as Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Trichoderma sp. (P71H), Aureobasidium pullulans, Ceratocystis minor (C-188), Ceratocystis pilifera (RWD 9472) in laboratory tests.
Mingliang Jiang, T L Highley, L Ferge, T L Woods

Laboratory tests on light organic solvent preservatives for use in Australia. - Part 6: Soft rot resistance of three fully formulated preservatives on different timber substrates
2000 - IRG/WP 00-30245
The above-ground soft rot resistance of substrates treated with three fully formulated light organic solvent preservatives (Cuprivac Green WR, Impresol WR 205 and Vacsol) was studied using a modified vermiculite burial method. The substrates were sapwood of Pinus elliottii and P. radiata and heartwood of Eucalyptus regnans, Pseudotsuga menziesii, Shorea sp. (a lower and a higher density source) and Thuja plicata. Following artificial weathering, replicate test blocks were exposed to either Chaetomium globosum or Lecythophora mutabilis. C. globosum caused 3% or more mass loss of the water and solvent (white spirit) impregnated controls of all three hardwoods and two of the four softwoods, whereas L. mutabilis caused similar attack in only E. regnans and P. radiata. The P. menziesii and T. plicata heartwoods were naturally durable to both soft rot fungi and, hence, no further conclusions can be drawn. None of the preservatives, at the highest retention tested, protected E. regnans from attack by C. globosum, whereas the highest retentions of both the Cuprivac Green WR and Impresol WR 205 protected all other timbers from this fungus. At the highest retention, the latter preservative was the only one to protect E. regnans from L. mutabilis.
G C Johnson, M A Tighe, J D Thornton

Marine trials with ammoniacal wood preservatives
1980 - IRG/WP 423
Ammoniacal wood preservatives have been known for many years and are considered among the best water-borne systems for protecting wood in ground contact. In recent years attention has been increasingly focussed on these preservatives because of their ability to penetrate difficult-to-treat species better than most other fixed water-borne preservatives. This is particularly important for example, in eastern Canada, where there is an abundance of spruce and a relative shortage of easily treated woods such as pine. Besides being able to readily penetrate wood, the preservative must also be well fixed in the wood. We have concentrated in recent years on improving the already good fixation of ammoniacal copper arsenate and have paid particular attention to increasing the ratio of copper ions to arsenic ions, adding extra anions, and also substituting all or part of the copper by zinc. The preservatives thus formulated are termed copper arsenic additive (CAA), copper zinc arsenic additive (CZAA) and zinc arsenic additive (ZAA). Many of the properties of these preservatives have been reported elsewhere (Hulme, 1979). However, no reports have yet been prepared on their ability to protect wood in sea water. This first progress report indicates how well these preservatives protect wood against marine borer attack in Canadian coastal waters for at least 8 months.
M A Hulme, D P Ostaff

Natural resistance of Bamboo (Bambusa sp.) to marine wood-borers in Goa waters (India)
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10032
The paper deals with the natural durability of Bambusa sp. against the attack of marine wood-borers in Goa waters. Test specimens of this species were completely destroyed within a short period of nine months due to severe attack of borers indicating its very low natural resistance. Wood-borers involved were Martesia striata (Linnaeus), Nausitora hedleyi Schepman and Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages). The need for improving the durability of bamboo by suitable preservation techniques for its effective utilisation under marine conditions has been highlighted in the paper.
L N Santhakumaran, S G Sawant

Natural durability of 4 different Larix species tested in soil contact
2002 - IRG/WP 02-10434
Importers of Siberian Larch claimed to have a material which can replace pressure treated wood in soil contact. This gave reason to investigate the durability of 4 different Larix species (L. decidua, L. sibirica, L. decidua x sibirica, L. gmelini var ologenis) coming from 7 different origins in comparison with sapwood of Pinus sylvestris untreated as well as pressure impregnated with retentions of 2 and 9 kg CCA per m³. 10 mini stakes of each material in the size of 200 x 20 x 8 mm were installed in 1997 in the soil of the BFH test site (altitude = 24 m above see level, latitude = 53.5028 North, longitude = 10.1982 East). Within the first 2 years all except one untreated specimen of the Scots pine sapwood had failed. Within the first 3 years all except one of the Scots pine with a retention of 2 kg of CCA had failed. Within 5 years all specimen of Larix spp., independent from the species, had failed, whereas the pressure impregnated Scots pine with a retention of 9 kg CCA / m³ was either not or only slightly attacked. Mean life time and the average life time - which were about the same - served to classify the natural durability of the tested materials according to EN 350-1 (1994). All tested material was in the range of the value given in EN 350-2 (1994): "moderately to little durable" (European durability class 3-4). This was also valid for Siberian larch with narrow grow rings. From this results can be concluded that the performance of Larix heartwood in ground contact is far below that of wood properly treated with 9 kg CCA / m³. The field results are compared with earlier lab results using the same source of Larix material (IRG/WP 97-10228; IRG/WP 98-10287; IRG/WP 00-10350).
A O Rapp, H Viitanen, T Nilsson

Marine trials with water-borne salts and organotin compound
1986 - IRG/WP 4128
Pinus sylvestris blocks treated with water-borne salts (CCA, CCB, CCF) and organotin compounds (TBTO, TBTCl) were submerged in the sea at Follonica station. The results obtained after 12 years of immersion are presented. The samples treated with CCA, CCB and CCF at the lowest concentration (2%) were destroyed after 7-9 years and the samples treated with CCB and CCF at the highest concentrations (4%, 6%), which were tested for a longer time than CCA treated samples, were destroyed after 11-12 years. The samples treated with organotin compounds did not show any attack by molluscan borers after 12 years with the exception of those treated with TBTCl at the lowest concentration (0.5%). The organotin compounds were less effective against crustacean borers.
A Gambetta, E Orlandi

Laboratory tests on the natural durability of timber methods and problems
1984 - IRG/WP 2217
In literature a large variety of test methods is mentioned to examine the natural resistance of timber against fungal attack. This concerns the kind of sampling as well as the test procedure, the test fungi, the duration of test, and the classification of the resistance according to the test results. These variations, however, are of great influence on the test result. Long term exposure will lead to a further differentiation of timber species to be generally known as "resistant".
H Willeitner

Differential susceptibility of living and dead timber to colonisation by sapstain and mould fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10288
Field studies have revealed that when timber is irradiated (i.e. killed) it is more susceptible to colonisation by mould fungi than sapstain fungi. By comparison, freshly sawn timber shows very little mould colonisation, tending to be colonised by sapstain fungi. It appears, therefore that the physiological state of the wood may influence the pattern of colonisation. A laboratory trial was undertaken to investigate in more detail the observations recorded in the field studies. A spore suspension of the mould Trichoderma was used to inoculate one set of living and one set of gamma irradiated (dead) wood blocks; similar sets of blocks were inoculated with a spore suspension of the sapstain fungus Ophiostoma piceae and a final treatment consisted of inoculating further sets of blocks with a mixed spore suspension of both fungi. Results clearly indicated that Trichoderma rapidly colonised and discoloured the irradiated blocks whereas there was very little defacement on the living blocks. The dead wood blocks inoculated with the mixed spore suspension were also rapidly colonised by the mould Trichoderma and 0. piceae was clearly out competed. However the living wood blocks were predominantly colonised by 0. piceae when they were inoculated either alone or in combination with Trichoderma. The factors controlling these patterns of colonisation are being investigated.
J R Williams, D J Dickinson, J F Webber

Relative tolerance of CCA by larvae and adults of the common shipworm, Bankia gouldi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-4174
Southern pine sapwood "2 x 4´s" were created by bolting together four panels 13 mm thick by 89 mm wide by 457 mm long. The two outer laminates were untreated and the two inner laminates were each treated to different CCA retentions, ranging from 8.0 to 43.2 kg/m³. Test specimens were exposed from May to October in a tributary of the Chesapeake Bay. Larvae were unable to settle on and burrow into the exposed edges of the treated laminates. However, shipworms that initially entered the "2 x 4´s" through untreated laminates were able to continue burrowing into the CCA-treated laminates. This experiment demonstrates the very great difference in tolerance of CCA by larval and adult Bankia gouldi, and illustrates the hazard of allowing even small openings, such as areas of untreated heartwood, for shipworms to enter otherwise well treated wood.
B R Johnson

Study of the degradation caused by micro-organisms in Pinus sp. waterlogged wood
1989 - IRG/WP 1411
So far, the different Centers are trying the restoration and the conservation of wood structures, coming from subaquatic archeological deposits, with interest from the historic - artistic point of view. The main objective of this paper has been the determination of the decay level of Pinus sp. wood coming from a roman ship (approximately 2000 years old), where we have analyzed their physical properties, their chemical composition and the marine microorganisms (microfungi and bacteria) within.
M T De Troya, M C Escorial, J Garcia, A Cabanas

Intraspecific variability of durability of Wapa courbaril (Eperua grandiflora) against Antrodia sp. and Coriolus versicolor: effect of radial and height position in the stem
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10531
The variation of a lesser-used species, Eperua grandiflora attacked by brown and white rot has been examined. Trees of this specie showed differences in their behaviour against the type of rot used and also showed evidence of intra and inter tree variation. The “tree” effect is very significant concerning natural resistance. In the same way, there is variation of durability observed according to radial and vertical position in the stem. Although the vertical effect is less significant from practises point of view.
N Amusant, J Beauchêne, M Fournier

Soft-rot in Tabebuia sp. wood used in water cooling tower: identification and degradation capacity of the fungi
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10253
Tabebuia sp. (ipe), a native Brazilian wood, is considered of high natural resistance to decaying fungi, and has been used in harsh environments, as cooling towers. Fifty-one fungi, belonging to mitosporic fungi group (Fungi Imperfecti), were isolated from deteriorated Tabebuia sp. wood samples, collected from the mist eliminator and packing of a cooling tower in operation for about 23 years. The degradation capacity of these fungi was evaluated by soft-rot tests using Eucalyptus grandis and Pinus elliottii wood. The microscopic examination of wood sections showed that Acremonium sp., A. kiliense, Phialophora sp. and Phialophora butyrii caused type 1 soft-rot attack in both mod species, while Fusarium oxysporum, Gliocladium spp., Moniliella-like, Penicillium sp., Pullularia pullulans, Trichoderma spp. and Verticillium sp. were not able to produce the same attack. These results and the analyses of weight loss suggested that Acremonium spp. and Phialophora spp. more important decaying organisms of Tabebuia sp. in the cooling tower.
S Brazolin, M Tomazello, I H Schoenlein-Crusius

Enzymatic study of Ceratocystis sp., blue-stain fungi on Pinus nigra
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10315
One of the main problems that the forest exploitation industry has with Pinus nigra wood is the blue-stain fungi, whose causing agent is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this work has been to study, through enzymatic tests of the isolated cultures, if these fungi infect Pinus nigra in any specific way. After the incubations, isolates of Ceratocystis were obtained. These were cultured in a saline medium with sawdust of Pinus nigra and Pinus sylvestris, which were used as reference species. At different incubation times, carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, cellobiohydrolase, laccase and manganese peroxidase were determinated. The results obtained show that the cellulolytic enzymes and laccase have higher activity on Pinus nigra sawdust than on Scots pine, while the Mn peroxidase showed higher values on the sawdust of the latter. Likewise, the cultures were developed in the same saline base medium with different monosacarides (glucose, galactose, mannose, xylose and arabinose), and in determining the residual sugar content, a marked prefrence for the consumption of pentoses in respect to the glucose was observed. The enzymatic activity tests carried out by APY ZYM also showed qualitative and semiquantitative differences between the isolated fungi and other Ceratocystis species tested, so, in addition to the above results, this could indicate a certain specificity of these fungi for this wood species.
M T De Troya, F Rubio, D Muñoz-Mingarro, F Llinares, C Rodríguez-Borrajo, M Yuste, M J Pozuelo, J I Fernández-Golfín

Destruction of wood and mangrove vegetation by marine borers in Goutami-Godavari estuary, east coast of India
1993 - IRG/WP 93-10021
This paper deals with the nature and extent of destruction caused by marine boring organisms to wood and mangrove vegetation in the Goutami-Godavari estuary along the east coast of India. Fifteen species, comprising of 11 teredinids, 1 pholad and 3 sphaeromatids were recorded from the area. For the first time, seasonality of recruitment, abundance and growth were studied for important species occurring at 2 Stations in port Kakinada, a fast developing intermediate port located in the estuarine system. Bankia carinata (Gray) and Bankia campanellata, Moll and Roch are dominant species at Station I, where low and fluctuating salinity conditions prevail. At Station II, where more stable conditions exist, Teredo furcifera Von Martens, Lyrodus pedicellatus (Quatrefages) and Martesia striata (Linne) are important. In the mangrove area (of approx. 30,000 ha), damage is mainly caused by Dicyathifer manni (Wright), Nototeredo edax (Hedley), Lyrodus pedicellatus; Bankia campanellata and Sphaeroma annandalei Stebbing. Factors, especially salinity, which play a significant role affecting abundance and distribution of these organisms are discussed.
K S Rao, L N Santhakumaran, M Balaji, V V Srinivasan

Utilisation of carbohydrates by stain fungi in agar culture
1998 - IRG/WP 98-10248
Stain fungi are often defined by their ability to utilise the starch and free sugars found in ray parenchyma cells, and their inability to utilise other wood constituents. However, several species of stain fungi produce bore holes in wood cell walls. This suggests that enzymatic activity capable of degrading structural polysaccharides and/or lignin is associated with the growth of the appressorium and transpressorium structures developed by these stain fungi. This pilot study examined possible base media for growth of three common blue-stain fungi isolated from hardwood sawmills in Victoria, Australia. Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, Graphium/Ophiostoma sp., and Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud were grown on agar supplemented with a variety of carbon sources, and mycelial growth rates were measured to determine which carbohydrates can be used by these fungi.
J Snow, P Vinden, S M Read

Degradation of resin constituents in various wood species by the white rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55
1999 - IRG/WP 99-10301
In previous studies, the white-rot fungus Bjerkandera sp. strain BOS55 was shown to cause extensive degradation of lipophilic extractives (resin) in Scots pine wood. Further research was carried out in order to investigate the ability of Bjerkandera sp. for reducing resinous constituents in various softwood (Douglas fir, larch and spruce) and hardwood species (birch, beech and poplar). The greatest resin reduction occurred in beech (79% in two weeks). High levels of resin elimination were also observed in softwood species like spruce (36%) or Scots pine (35%), as well as in hardwood species like poplar (32%) or birch (24%). In contrast, Bjerkandera sp. only caused a negligible loss of resin components in Douglas fir wood chips. HPLC analysis of acetone extracts from control and fungal-treated samples showed a rapid elimination of triglycerides, diglycerides, free fatty acids and sterols. Toxic constituents in softwood species like resin acids were partially removed in Scots pine, spruce and larch (29-34% in two weeks).
J Dorado, T A Van Beek, F W Claassen, R Sierra-Alvarez

Biological control in termite management – the potential of nematodes and fungal pathogens
2004 - IRG/WP 04-10521
A brief overview on the options for biological control of termites is presented. Many organisms have been identified as being able to kill termites, however, we do not know their real impact on field populations of termites. Most research has focused on some entomopathogenic nematodes and the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. To date, only a limited number of field studies have been conducted using both groups of organisms as control agents for termites. Work with M. anisopliae, notably from Australia, is discussed in more detail in this paper. Strains selected for field trials have to: be virulent; be able to tolerate temperatures above 30ºC; pose no health threats to humans and higher animals; be easily mass produced; and have long-lived spores that are robust enough for easy formulation and storage. Spores from virulent isolates of M. anisopliae are repellent to termites and behavioural defence mechanisms by termites can limit the effectiveness of conidia applications. A number of options are available to formulate the spore product thus rendering it less repellent. Applications of conidia as inundative treatments to termite sites, or within an attractive bait matrix, are options for termite control with M. anisopliae. Microbial pathogens will solve certain termite problems but may not help with others. However, they have their place as one of the tools in integrated termite (pest) management.
M Lenz

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