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Co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes: Progress report to May 1989
1989 - IRG/WP 2339
This document reports progress on the co-operative study between nine laboratories set up following the proposals contained in Document IRG/WP/2316. Results have been received from two laboratories. Toxic values data have been established successfully using the test fungus Coniophora puteana but problems have been encountered with the other test fungi.
A F Bravery, J K Carey
A direct method for testing plywood and particle boards against fungal decay
1984 - IRG/WP 2214
A method directly inspired from the French standard testing method of the resistance of particle boards against fungal decay (AFNOR N° 51.295 May 1980) is described. But in that experimentation, the infestation is localized and realized in non sterile conditions. Small blocks of Fagus sylvatica (60 x 20 x 10 mm³) used as " inoculates " are infested with basidiomycetes, in Kolle flask for 4 to 6 weeks, then tightly pressed against the middle part of the test specimens (190 x 15 x 15 mm³). The lower part of the inoculates is plunged in vermiculite kept constantly humid by water containing a selective fungicide. After twelve weeks of exposure in non sterile conditions, in a green house with constant temperature around 20°C, the test specimens are then submitted to a static bending test until fracture. The comparison of the fracture-stress between control test specimens and the specimens exposed to wood rotting basidiomycetes permits to evaluate the resistance of the studied materials against fungal decay.
L N Trong
Short-term field test method with accelerated infection of Basidiomycetes in wood
1981 - IRG/WP 2155
In the ŠIPAD - IRC Wood Protection Laboratory an attempt has been made to develop a simple short-term method for field testing out-of-ground contact wood using accelerated infections with Basidiomycetes. This method makes it possible to obtain a preliminary assessment of a preservative's quality and to estimate the possibility of achieving promising results in more expensive long-term tests. The idea was to use water traps (reservoirs) and 50 x 25 x 15 mm³ laboratory infected pine blocks as the substrate to improve the possibility of inoculation of L-joints.
Decay resistance of wood removed from poles treated with Trichoderma
1989 - IRG/WP 1386
Wood blocks removed from a distribution pole previously treated with a biological control product (Binab FYT pellets) were exposed in soil block tests to selected basidiomycetes. The blocks were removed from regions of poles where Trichoderma colonization had been confirmed by extensive sampling and computer mapping of microbial inhabitants. The results indicate that material from pole interiors colonized by Trichoderma is able to resist decay by Lentinus lepideus and Antrodia carbonica. Any decay prevention was lost however when the wood was steam sterilized prior to exposure to the basidiomycetes. The implications of the results for the use of biological control of internal decay in creosoted poles is briefly discussed.
A Bruce, B King, T L Highley
Field tests out of ground contact in France: Definition of the test procedure and preliminary results after 18 months
1981 - IRG/WP 2161
Criteria for basidiomycetes testing and ways of defining natural durability classes
1998 - IRG/WP 98-20144
Within the framework of a European research project several laboratories have tested a series of 17 wood species covering the total range of natural durability. Basidiomycete tests are part of the total set up. Although generally based upon standard methods some minor differences in execution of the tests were evaluated for their impact on the results. This variation was superimposed with the fact that the tests were performed in different laboratories using wood from the same origin. Another important issue is the definition of natural durability classes for wood species starting from mass losses resulting from basidiomycete decay tests carried out under laboratory conditions. This paper summarises proposals for different ways to calculate or define the natural durability of wood and discusses some critical parameters in fungal testing, as well.
J Van Acker, M Stevens, J K Carey, R Sierra-Alvarez, H Militz, I Le Bayon, G Kleist, R-D Peek
Report on the status of collaborative experiments within the Sub-group on Basidiomycete tests
1983 - IRG/WP 2194
This report summarises the results of co-operative work carried out within the Sub-Group on Basidiomycete tests up to December 1982. The principle findings are recorded in the Conclusions Section. Work intended between IRG-13 in Turkey and IRG-14 in Australia is cited under Future Programme. An Annex provides a response sheet for existing and new participants to notify their contributions.
A F Bravery
Determination of toxic limits of wood preservatives towards wood-destroying Basidiomycetes. Investigation on the effect of the use of two impregnated wood blocks and of one impregnated and an untreated block respectively in Kolle jars on the toxic limits of wood preservatives
1973 - IRG/WP 225
Report on the questionnaire sent out to IRG Members for the creation of a new Sub-group 4 "evaluation of superficial treatments for preventive action against basidiomycetes"
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2417
On Thuesday May 12th, 1992 a subgroup meeting was held between 16.00-17.00 h. About 50 people attended this meeting. The results of the questionnaire sent out last year to the IRG members, was discussed. The analysis as well as the practical conclussions of the discussions are retained in this document.
A R Valcke
Progress report on collaborative experiments on testing with basidiomycetes
1982 - IRG/WP 2184
The present Document reviews results provided by participants as at 1 May 1982 and draws preliminary conclusions.
A F Bravery
Sub-group on Basidiomycete tests: Responses to proposals for programme of work
1980 - IRG/WP 2137
A F Bravery
An attempt to develop a direct and reliable method for testing the preventive action of preservation treatments of wood against fungal decay
1980 - IRG/WP 2139
In wood preservation there are two classical ways for assessing the reliability of preventive treatments against wood decay: the laboratory tests in which the various parameters are evaluated independently and the field tests or service tests in which those parameters are acting together in the natural environment. One has always tried to build bridges between the two types of experiments and to establish correlations between their results, but a rather large gap is still persisting. The aim of the research which is reported was to develop a method for testing directly the preventive action against basidiomycetes decay when the treatments do not lead to a full impregnation of the wood, but only raise a barrier of limited depth. A method has been developed, testing the wood specimens (of various sizes and shapes for representing various types of end-uses) out of test vessels, i.e. in non sterile conditions, but with well checked pure cultures. The various steps of the research are exposed and the results so far obtained allow to expect some interesting possibilities of testing directly, rapidly and accurately the resistance of any wood product, in its ready to use form, to decay by basidiomycetes.
Proposals for further co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes
1985 - IRG/WP 2247
Document IRG/WP/2194 reported the status of the programme of co-operative experiments up to and including December 1982. During discussions at IRG-13 in Turkey members endorsed the decision to complete the programme of tests and conduct repeat tests. At IRG-14 in Brisbane the report was noted but no further action agreed. At IRG-15 in Sweden a number of interested parties in the European/Scandinavian area proposed that a further programme of work be established and that an informal project group be established. The agreed objective was to carry out co-operative tests essentially to refine the existing methodology currently preferred in Europe and used in support of long-established approval schemes. It was decided that the programme should take the form of a miniaturised wood block test with the objective of determining toxic values for specific fungicides and it should concentrate on approaches using sterile soil as well as pure cultures. Proposals submitted as Document No: IRG/WP/2237 were considered at Guaruja in May 1985 and approved with amendments. The present document presents the final proposals. This document aims to define the main test parameters. It is not a detailed specification of how to carry out the tests; where needed, practical guidance can be obtained from European Standard EN 113 (BS 6009:1982 and equivalent French and German versions) and the paper by Bravery in Document No: IRG/WP/2113 - Screening Seminar.
A F Bravery
Is laboratory testing of decay resistance questionable as a single criterion for natural durability?
1996 - IRG/WP 96-20096
In a laboratory test set up over 20 hardwood species were evaluated according to the European Standard EN 350-1 including Basidiomycete and soft rot testing. Half of the species used were of a known natural durability. The Basidiomycete testing was carried out using Coriolus versicolor, Gloeophyllum trabeum and Coniophora puteana in a malt agar test similar to EN 113. From this test it was not possible to rank the wood species according to known natural durability, only a distinct differentiation between species belonging to the group of durability classes 1 to 3 and the ones of durability classes 4 and 5 was noted. Since most wood species with little information on durability are so-called lesser known species belonging to the tropical hardwoods, it seems that only limited additional information is gained from brown rot tests supplementary to white rot tests. Both types of laboratory soft rot tests according to ENV 807 (vermiculite and soil) are able only to identify significantly the durability classes 1 to 4 from class 5, although somewhat better indications are obtained from the soil test. It is evident that other types of fungal attack like blue-stain in service, being an important parameter for window joinery, is not correlated at all with natural durability data obtained from soil testing. It is concluded from this research that durability testing would be better hazard class oriented in order to identify functionality of the end products derived.
J Van Acker, M Stevens, T Van Cauwenberghe, T Seynaeve
Resistance to decay of particle boards: Presentation of a test method
1986 - IRG/WP 2260
The experimentations were undertaken on particle boards 35 and 50 mm thick. The rot resistance tests were carried out on specimens whose dimensions were 600 x 75 x 35 mm³ for particle boards 35 mm thick and 800 x 75 x 50 mm³ for particle boards 50 mm thick according to a method derived from the one described in the documents IRG/WP/2214 and IRG/WP/2243. Two exposure periods were used: 12 and 16 weeks. After exposure to the fungi, the extent of the attack on the specimens was measured by a static bending test according to the french standard NF B 51.224. The tests showed that if a 12 week exposure period to the fungi leading to losses of static bending resistance of 20 to 60% (depending on the fungi used) proved to be adequate for 35 mm thick particle boards, an exposure time of 16 weeks was necessary for particle boards 50 mm thick (losses of static bending resistance varied from 40 to 70% according to the strains of fungi used).
G R Y Déon, N Trong
Proposals for further co-operative studies on determining toxic values against wood-destroying Basidiomycetes
1985 - IRG/WP 2237
Document IRC/WP/2194 reported the status of the programme of co-operative experiments up to and including December 1982. During discussions at IRG-13 in Turkey members endorsed the decision to complete the programme of tests and conduct repeat tests. At IRG-14 in Brisbane the report was noted but no further action agreed. At IRG-15 in Sweden a number of interested parties in the European/Scandinavian area proposed that a further programme of work be established and that an informal project group be established. The agreed objective was to carry out co-operative tests essentially to refine the existing methodology currently preferred in Europe and used in support of longestablished approval schemes. It was decided that the programme should take the form of a miniaturised wood block test with the objective or determining toxic values for specific fungicides and it should concentrate on approaches using sterile soil as well as pure cultures.
A F Bravery
Window test. Direct testing of wood resistance to decay: A study of its fitness, its reliability and its accelerating factor
1984 - IRG/WP 2219
This is the results of an experiment using the window-test specimens, exposing the specimens to three different types of testing procedure: 1. Natural infestation in the open air; 2. Artificial infestation and exposure in the open air; 3. Artificial infestation in a green-house. The results show good similiraties of the three parallel tests in term of decay, and assess the reliability of the window-test, its fitness and particularly its accelerating factor.
G R Y Déon, L N Trong
Variations in the virulence of test strains of Coniophora puteana (Schum ex Fr) Karst
1982 - IRG/WP 2185
In laboratory experiments using petri-dishes and small wood blocks (30 x 10 x 5 mm³) 6 different isolates of Coniophora puteana strain BAM 15 were compared with strain FPRL 11E for growth rate and decay capability. Only the recently received strain from EMPA was suitably active giving 24% weight loss after 6 weeks compared with 38.1% for 11E. Collation of data from standard test records revealed all weight losses for 11E as exceeding 20% whereas only 11 of 21 results for BAM 15 exceeded 20 per cent.
A F Bravery, J K Carey, W Worley
Development of a mini-block test method for the rapid evaluation of preservative performance against Basidiomycte fungi
1991 - IRG/WP 2379
Screening procedures for new biocides used as wood preservatives can be a time consuming process using conventional Basidiomycete assay procedures. This is due mainly to the long exposure periods required to achieve adequate levels of decay (weight loss) in the test blocks. A number of alternative methods have been developed but most utilise artificial substrates such as filter paper or agar in which inhibition of growth is the main criterion of efficacy assessment. Whilst these methods can provide a comparison of biological activity towards target fungi, they omit the interaction between wood substrate and active ingredient. A further limitation is the inability of these methods to determine preservative performance. A test method has, therefore, been developed based on conventional methodology but using small dimension samples and a reduced exposure period (3 weeks). Results have indicated good test reproducibility with high weight losses of untreated controls. Large numbers of active ingredients or formulations can be rapidly screened using this method and the data can be further used for the estimation of treatment concentrations required for more formal basidiomycete tests such as EN 113.
J Brown, S Caswell, G R Williams
The effect of soil pre-exposure on the results of laboratory Basidiomycete testing
1991 - IRG/WP 2385
Scots pine sapwood blocks were treated with several concentrations of copper chrome arsenic (CCA), copper chrome boron (CCB) and a copper modified quaternary ammonium compound (CMAAC). Leached and unleached samples were exposed in a basidiomycete monoculture test using Coniophora puteana, a copper tolerant brown rot. Prior to testing half of the blocks were buried in unsterile soil for 4 weeks. The soil pre-exposure had little effect on the performance of the CCA and CCB treated samples against the brown rot but the performance of the CMAAC treated samples improved greatly
S M Gray
In situ testing the influence of melamine resins on the enzymatic activity of basidiomycetes
1999 - IRG/WP 99-30194
Waterbased methanol etherificated melamine formaldehyde resins have the potential to increase the resistance of impregnated wood against wood destroying fungi. The mechanism of the increased wood durability is not clear yet. In the present paper the possible interference of melamine resins with wood degrading enzymes of Coniophora puteana and Trametes versicolor was investigated as a possible contribution to the increased wood durability. An in situ photometric assay was used to measure the enzymatic activity against Walseth cellulose, pine sapwood as well as lignin and xylan preparations.
D Lukowsky, F Büschelberger, O Schmidt
Physiological properties of fungal test strains according to the European Standard EN 113
1986 - IRG/WP 2258
For the discussion of the European standard EN 113 the EMPA's procedure of culturing the test fungi and the corresponding virulence of the test fungi as well as the wood moisture content at the end of the test are shown. It is mainly shown that within the standard the choice of the solvent may not be left at the test lab if reproducible results shall be obtained. The different solvents influence in different form the wood decomposition values due to fungal attack. A water leaching of the wood specimen impregnated with solvents generally Further increases the negative effect of the solvent on the fungi. It is therefore the task of the Technical Committee of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC3B) to agree to a standard solvent and to evaluate this in the original state as well as after a leaching followed by uniform drying periods by means of an interlaboratory test.
E Graf, B Zgraggen, P Manser
Screening of the technical performance and aquatic toxicity of N-methylolacrylamide treated wood
2000 - IRG/WP 00-40166
In the course of the last decades chemical modification of wood species, with a limited natural durability, has been subjected to intensive research. As a possible alternative and supplementary treatment of non-durable wood in a range of applications it remains one of the major topics in the wood preservation world. Different modification systems have been scaled-up and are now in an industrialising phase. In this paper a possible new chemical modification technique, with N-methylolacrylamide (NMA), is described. The main objective of chemical modification with this monomer is to improve the dimensional stability and the decay resistance of non-durable wood species. Data on the latter will be reported on comparative bases. The fact that NMA-monomer is a water-soluble monomer, can be put forward as one of the plus-points. This aspect on the other hand results in a possible risk for the aquatic food chain, which comprises a possible drawback in view of scaling-up. In this framework several aquatic toxicity tests have been executed on leachates of wood treated with NMA under different reaction conditions.
V Rijckaert, S De Geyter, J Van Acker, M Stevens
Sub-group on Basidiomycete tests: Experimental programme and schedule of participants
1980 - IRG/WP 2145
The objectives of this IRG COLLABORATIVE BASIDIOMYCETE TEST are to compare results and assess reproducibility of a miniaturised wood block toxicity test when undertaken by different workers in different laboratories. The co-operative scientists and institutes are: Dr K Messner from Vienna (Austria); Dr R S Smith from Forintek (Canada); Mr J Hansen from Sadolins (Denmark); Mr B Jensen from Gori (Denmark); Professor M Fougerousse from CTFT (France); Professor M Gersonde from BAM (Germany); Professor O Wälchli from EMPA (Switzerland); Dr A F Bravery from PRL (UK); Dr A Lewis from Hicksons (UK); Dr C Coggins from Rentokil (UK) Miss J M Taylor from Protim (UK); Dr E L Schmidt from Mississippi (USA). Scheme: Each laboratory to receive samples of PCP and CCA (as Tanalith CT 106) from PRL for comparable tests using mini-block system and own preferred method if desired. Wood blocks: Scots pine sapwood (Pinus sylvestris) 30x10x5 mm³ annual rings (2-6 per cm) parallel with 5 mm face (see Appendix A for suggested cutting scheme). Six replicates per concentration and additional three controls. Two treated and one untreated per culture vessel recommended. Preservative: PCP (in analar toluene) - PRL to despatch; CCA - (sample of Tanalith CT 106) - PRL to despatch. Concentration: PCP: 0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0% W/W; CCA: 0, 0.01, 0.04, 0.1, 0.25, 0.6 and 1.5% W/W. Test fungi: European standard strain Coniophora puteana (BAM 15) for PCP and CCA (PRL to despatch). Additional strains as preferred by participants. Incubation: 6 weeks at 22°C ± 1°C and 65 rh ± 5%. Care must be taken to ensure that the humidity in closed incubation cabinets does not exceed the figure given. Medium: 5% malt extract agar (2% agar). Optionally participants may wish to use in addition a sterilised soil/wood feeder block system for comparison. Sterilised filter papers have been used successfully as feeder strips in the petri-dish system. Culture vessels: Petri dishes (90x16 mm approximately) each containing 20 ml agar medium or sterilised soil if preferred. If alternative culture vessels are employed in comparative tests, they should provide a broadly similar surface area and ratio of amount of wood substance to growth medium. Supports: PVC or nylon mesh recommended (approximately 5-7 mm² openings and 2 mm thick). Sterilisation: PCP treated blocks must not be sterilised using propylene or ethylene oxide - radiation is preferred (see Appendix B). Scale: 7 concentrations: 6 replicants per concentration + 3 controls; 7x9 = 63 blocks per preservative / per fungus; 3 culture vessels per concentration = 21 culture vessels per preservative / per fungus. Results: A suggested format for summarising results is attached. Completed results sheets should be returned to Dr A F Bravery as soon as possible in order that a collation can be prepared for the next meeting of IRG in Yugoslavia (May 1981).
A F Bravery