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Biocidal Products Directive 98/8/EC and PT 08
2005 - IRG/WP 05-50224-1
The ECB Biocides Work Area is responsible for the scientific and technical issues concerning the approval of active substances in biocidal products as laid down in Directive 98/8/EC concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market. The first part of the presentation will deal with the Review Programme, especially it's legal context, the status of submitted dossiers and the problems that were encountered at this stage of the Review process. The second part of the presentation will shortly address exposure assessment for wood preservatives and the available Guidance Documents.
K van der Jagt


How to Document the Performance of Super-Critical Treated Wood in above Ground Situations?
2005 - IRG/WP 05-20316
The paper presents practical experiences from the preparation of a new preservative treated wood product for introduction to the market. The product in question is Superwood™, which is treated with organic biocides using CO2 in a supercritical state as a solvent. The question is how to evaluate the performance of a new product such as Superwood™ in order to get an acceptance on the market and fulfil the formal requirements. In the European Union countries, the EN 599-1 is the standard that needs to be complied when approving a new product for the market, but it only focuses on the toxic limit against representative decay fungi according to EN 113. However, decay test, above ground and other forms of field tests are optional, this is not in line with the traditional test philosophy in the Scandinavian countries. The open question is to which extent treatment to the level of the toxic threshold value also ensures a long service life and expected performance of the treated commodity. Superwood™ is evaluated using a strategy, in which basic laboratory tests are done to get the toxic value (according to EN 599-1) and in addition a number of field tests are done including accelerated testing in the tropics. These tests are focussed on the evaluation of the performance criteria such as durability and service life and maintenance requirements. These questions must be answered by the producer without having a full record of performance test for their new products. A short status on the test performed on super-critical treated wood (Superwood™) is presented. Based on a comparison between field test in Scandinavia and in the tropical Malaysia a service life of more than 25 years for a specific supercritical treated product is estimated. It is stated that the existing European standardisation system is insufficient when it comes to service life prediction. A number of important questions need to be addressed by the European standardisation system as soon as possible because the market and the public opinion change quickly due to environmental concern.
N Morsing, A H H Wong, F Imsgard, O Henriksen


Developments in the protection of wood and wood-based products
1980 - IRG/WP 340
Technology is playing an increasingly important role in the field of wood protection. This current review highlights how modern techniques have provided greater insight into the biological and physical processes affecting the durability of wood and wood-based products. Emphasis is also given to developments in preservative testing methodology and to the encouraging changes towards both the correct use of timber and the improvement of Standards and Codes of Practice. A final section, on recent technical developments in wood preservation, considers subjects ranging from an evaluation of new specific biocides to methods of increasing the permeability of refractory timber species.
J M Baker


European Biocides Directive (98/8/EC): Programme for systematic examination of all active substances of biocidal products on the market on May 13, 2000 Article 16(2)
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-03
PPT-Presentation
K Rasmussen, A B Payá Pérez


Synergistic effect of boron on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing conidial germination of sapstain and mold fungi
1992 - IRG/WP 92-1565
We evaluated the synergistic effect of boron (4% BAE solution of Tim-Bor or 4% boric acid) on Streptomyces rimosus metabolites in preventing spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi using plate bioassay, Southern yellow pine and sweetgum block tests, and green pine log sections: sapstain -- Ceratocystis coerulescens, Ceratocystis minor, and Aureobasidum pullulans; mold fungi -- Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp, and Trichoderma spp. Inhibition of spore germination in plate bioassay by metabolites with boron was more effective than without added boron. Treatment of wood samples with the mixture of boron and unconcentrated metabolites also resulted in the synergistic effect and completely inhibited spore germination of sapstain and mold fungi.
S C Croan, T L Highley


Eco-tax - A new threat for wood preservation? The Belgian experience
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50001-32
At the end of January 1993, a bill was put for Belgian Parliament related to the introduction called "Eco-taxes" on a series of products, such as packaging for drinks (especially on PVC-bottles), non-returnable articles (shavers, small cameras), batteries, pesticides for non-agricultural use and paper.
G Van Steertegem, F De Jaeger


The biocides directive
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-25
G Wilson


HCB - a new preservative combination for wood pole maintenance
1996 - IRG/WP 96-30122
New combination of heavy creosoted boron (HCB) applied on hardwood and softwood logs at different moisture content revealed successful diffusion of boron in all sapwoods within 7 days and in all sapwoods plus hardwoods within 15 days. The new cost effective paste sterilizes wood through diffusion and suitable for pole maintenance at groundline and above groundline e.g. cut ends, drilled holes, woodpecker's holes etc.
A K Lahiry


The Biocidal Products Directive ( 98/8/EC ) - its consequences for the wood preservation industry
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-04
1. The Current Position This European Union Directive is one of the most technically complex pieces of legislation that has been developed by the European Commission (EC). Although the Directive was to have been implemented in the legislation of individual Member States of the EU by May 2000 progress has been slow. A number of Member States have yet to declare the Competent Authority who will handle their legislation. The body text of the Directive cannot stand-alone and is dependent on ancillary regulations and the development of technical guidance for both the Competent Authorities in the Member States and also industry to understand their roles in the whole process for the regulation of biocides and the biocidal products containing them. The process is far from complete in terms of a piece of workable legislation and this leaves not only industry but also the Competent Authorities with significant areas of uncertainty. This is potentially economically and socially damaging to the marketing and use of biocides and biocidal products. Because of this evolutionary process this paper can only be written in general terms as by the time the symposium takes place some significant changes to the position at the time of writing may have occurred. 2. Background The Biocidal Products Directive (98/8/EC), (BPD), is a directive which requires that biocides ( as active substances) are approved for use within the EU and the individual biocidal products containing these active substances are approved for use by the Competent Authority(s) of the Member State(s) in which it is intended to market the product. The product authorisation obtained in the first Member State should be mutually recognised by the other Member States in which application for authorisation to place the product on the market is sought. The Directive has to be seen in the context various other Directives, notably the Plant Protection Directive 91/414/EC). Biocidal products are grouped in the directive into twenty three "product types" and wood preservatives are Product Type 8. The intention of the directive is to harmonise the requirements for the placing of biocidal products and active ingredients on the market throughout the EU. EU wide use of so-called Common Principles are intended to be used to assess the dossiers in order to achieve a common approach and eliminate the current situation where individual Member States apply their own particular national approaches and criteria in the assessment and regulation of products . Annex IIA of the directive identifies the data requirements for the active substance and Annex II B for the biocidal product. There are additional data requirements identified in Annexes IIIA and IIIB for each product type reflecting potential for exposure to man and the environment. 3. Entry onto Annex I Any new active substance will require approval before it or any biocidal products including it can be placed on the market. The dossier to be submitted to the EC will have to include additional data and risk assessments for the product types (as defined in the BPD) in which it will be intended to be used. For those active substances that are accepted as being existing substances on the market before May 2000 (say in wood preservatives) these will be ranked and prioritised. This process is being defined in the so-called: Review Regulations. 4. An environmental directive There is no doubt that this Directive has a high environmental content in terms of the data and the associated risk assessments which are to be prepared. The protocols and the end points for some of these data requirements are still being developed. In general the EC considers that modelling exposure using human and environmental exposure scenarios covering the end use of the product is an acceptable approach . Data are required to enable these scenarios to be modelled and risk assessments made. It is necessary that regulators do not make decisions based on hazard assessment alone in the absence of fully worked out and agreed emission scenarios to define exposure levels which generate a realistic worst case risk assessment. Risk is a function of both hazard and exposure. A lot of work has been done in the development of Technical Notes for Guidance intended to help the regulator and the applicant in the submission and the interpretation of the data. Whilst it may be the case that the human toxicity data requirements still leave questions to be answered it is in the environmental aspects part of the regulatory process where there is still much work to be done. The Directive would seem to rely heavily on the development of Pass / Fail criteria in simulation tests. This is a big subject and of key importance to the risk assessment. 5. Wood preservatives ---- a test case Wood preservation has achieved a certain reputation. On the one hand it is said that a prime reason for the development of the Biocidal Products Directive arose from European problems in the regulation of the marketing and use of dangerous substances, notably wood preservatives. On the other hand because wood preservatives have been regulated by a number of Member States for many years it is believed they are well understood. The EC and the Member States also wanted to be seen to have achieved early success in the implementation of the Directive therefore the decision was taken to start, following failings with the speed of progress of the Plant Protection Products Directive, with a product type they knew all about i.e. wood preservatives. There is no doubt that there is a much greater understanding on the exposure scenarios, both human and environmental, for wood preservatives than many other product types. However, would it not have been better to have tackled some of the other product types where such an understanding is much less well developed? It is regrettable that the EC and Member States did not feel able to accept the results of an EC sponsored study (Haskoning report) on the assessment of risks for all the product types covered under the BPD. The results of this study clearly showed that wood preservatives did not constitute the most significant risk to man or the environment and in fact the risk was significantly greater for other product types. 6. Wood preservatives and the OECD Biocides Programme Another speaker will be covering this subject in more detail. Suffice it to say that because of the perception there was good knowledge about wood preservatives again they were selected as the pilot for an OECD project looking at environmental and human exposure assessment under the OECD Biocides Programme. The findings from two OECD Workshops actually demonstrated there was still much to be learnt about wood preservatives in order to refine the risk assessments to a state where they would be sufficient for the requirements of the BPD. This work is ongoing but it clearly demonstrates the problems that both the regulator and industry will have in the preparation and the assessment of the dossiers for both the active substances and the biocidal products. This is especially the case for other biocidal products that have not been subject to the same kind of regulation that wood preservatives have subjected to in the past. 7. Inorganic and organic biocides With current wood preservation technology there is still a dependence on inorganic chemicals such as copper (in conjunction with other biocides) or with chromium, as well as arsenic and boron for many end use applications. This is very much the case where a long term service life is a key factor in the use of treated wood for that end use. These substances are commodity chemicals and are also covered under the Existing Substances Regulations (EC) 1488/94. There is also work going on revising the Technical Notes for Guidance covering them . This includes a significant addition in the environmental risk assessment area. Efforts are being made to integrate and coordinate the requirements for both the BPD and the Existing Substances Regulations and OSPAR ( OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic). OSPAR refers to the Oslo Paris Convention. Whilst the BPD seems primarily aimed at the regulation of biocides based on organic chemicals wood preservative products may contain both inorganic and organic components. Indeed there are probably few wood preservative formulations on the market that contain only one active substance. This must have a significant impact on the way the dossiers are prepared for the active substance and the biocidal products and how they are assessed both at the EC and the Member State level. 8. Consequences of the BPD for the wood preservation industry Whilst this paper addresses the consequences for the wood preservation industry per se, it must not be overlooked that there may be implications for the fabricaÈors of articles made from treated timber. Some current wood preservative formulations may over a period of time be withdrawn from the market because the risks and costs of generating the data and the preparation of the dossier make the product economically unviable. The presence of large working volumes of wood preservative solutions at treatment plants requires realistic withdrawal periods to avoid the unnecessary disposal and associated environmental risk of products that have been used satisfactorily for many years. 9. Availability of active substances The structure of the industry has changed dramatically in the past few months and there is no doubt that other changes both within and outside the wood preservation industry itself are yet to happen. The original differentiation between formulator of wood preservatives and active substance suppliers to the wood preservation industry has become blurred. Some of the active substances used in wood preservation are used in other either other biocidal product types or in products regulated under another directive, e.g. Plant Protection Products Directive 91/414/EC. 10. Data protection This continues to be a key issue for industry and some companies may find it strategically or financially necessary not to support an active substance in a particular product type thus leaving that sector without being able to use the active substance. The coming months will start to reveal which active substances are likely to be supported, at least through the notification process. Formulators are therefore in a close dialogue with their suppliers to try to determine their intentions on whether or not they intend to support their active substance. Today's wood preservative formulations are largely multi active substance based. Product costs, efficacy spectra, niche marketing and other considerations have made this process inevitable. New wood preservative formulations take time to research and develop and the continuity of availability of a choice of active substances is of key importance. A lack of adequate return on investment necessary to sustain the development of new products could have a negative impact on innovation and the rate of introduction of new products. It is extremely unlikely that any new active substance will be solely developed for use in wood preservation. This would be an effect contrary to expectations of the EC. The situation with wood preservatives is complicated by the fact that treated wood is a construction product and comes under the scope of the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EEC) (CPD). Products under the scope of the CPD are required to meet certain so-called essential requirements and one of these is durability. Demonstration of compliance involves the extensive suite of CEN wood preservative efficacy tests. Even relatively small changes in formulations may require extensive re-testing under the EN 599 regime in some Member States. 11. Task Forces Companies are encouraged by the EC to enter into Task Forces in order to reduce the burden of testing on animals and also to reduce the number of dossiers to be reviewed for each active substance. Ideally, and understandably, the EC would like one dossier per active substance. Parts of the wood preservation industry have been co-operating in Task Forces and much practical experience has been gained. Even closer co-operation will be required and this will enable companies to pool experience and expertise and manage their financial exposure to potentially high regulatory costs by sharing them amongst a larger number of parties. 12. Financial aspects Industry will have to make some best guesses with respect to its investment programmes for supporting its portfolio of products. Formulators and active substance suppliers are likely to group into Task Forces in order to reduce their costs in terms of data generation and the fees likely to be charged at the EU and the Member State level for the assessment of the dossiers. The compilation of the dossiers requires specialist expertise to assist the industrial applicant(s). This is likely to cost in the order of £100,000 per active substance, not including the costs of generating any data. The Rapporteur State's costs for reviewing the dossier is also expected to be of the same order. Clearly these kinds of costs will impact on innovation. An adequate payback must be available to the company to justify this level of investment. 13. Will mutual recognition work? Member States are required to recognise the authorisation of the biocidal product placed on the market in the first Member State when subsequent applications are made to place the product on the market. This is a fundamental principle of the BPD, although there is concern that Member States continue to have enough flexibility to prevent this happening if there are particular concerns in that Member State. Industry very much hopes this will not be the case and that mutual recognition, a fundamental principle of the BPD, will work in practice. 14. Environmental aspects Biocidal products such as wood preservatives are generally applied in controlled situations and not over large areas. Consequently any emissions can be considered to be from discreet sources, such as treated timber or potentially from timber treatment plants. This is in contrast to plant protection products and some other biocidal products that are usually dispersed over a relatively large area. Because of this a lot of work is required to be done to re evaluate how the environmental aspects of biocidal products such as wood preservatives can be assessed in an objective manner. The criteria that define an emission and how the PEC (Predicted Environmental Concentration) for each environmental compartment is determined are critical. The wood preservation industry, through the EWPM (European Wood Preservative Manufacturers Group), has been working with institutes and other interested parties in a co-operation known as the EFG (Environment Focus Group) to progress the development of appropriate methodology. Data will be required for both primary and secondary exposure to treated timber. The protocols for this work are yet to be agreed. This work is being further progressed in the OECD together with input from CEN TC 38 WG27. This co-operation between the OECD and CEN is extremely significant in that it is, I believe, the first time such a co-operation has taken place in the development of an OECD Guideline. If one considers all of the end uses where treated timber may be found carrying out a risk assessment with few guidelines on how it should be done is a very uncertain process for both industry and the regulator. Reliance on so-called expert opinion may be inadequate. 15. Comparative assessment (the substitution principle) This is a process whereby the health safety and environmental properties of acti_u101 ? substances used in the same product type could be compared and those with the most undesirable properties would not be placed on Annex I. Consequently biocidal products containing them would have to be removed from the market. This process is embodied in the BPD but it was initially considered that it would only be applied in the event of problems arising with active substances or products containing them rather than being used as a screening tool early on in the review process for active substances. This area is still an uncertain one with Member States having different interpretations of this principle. It is unfortunate that the wood preservation industry could be used to test out this concept at a European level. The consequences of this principle could be further losses of active substances available to the wood preservative formulators. 16. Substances of concern The BPD is not only concerned with the active substances that are formulated into the biocidal product but also with so-called "substances of concern". These are defined as any substance, other than the active substance, which has the inherent capacity to cause an adverse effect on humans, animals or the environment and is present or is produced in a biocidal product in sufficient concentration to create such an effect. There are significant implications for the formulator of the biocidal product . The formulator may have to submit an extensive dossier containing toxicological and metabolic as well as ecological data on each of the substances of concern when seeking approval for the biocidal product. There may be classes of compounds that become unavailable to the formulator either because of the risks posed by the co-formulant or because the cost of generating data will be uneconomic. 17. The wood preservation Industry's view on the BPD Industry has supported the development of the BPD since its conception in 1989. It is still supportive it but believes that the degree of complexity is disproportionate to the level of risk when it comes to wood preservatives. After all wood preservatives have been regulated for a long time and in reality there have been few significant health safety and environmental problems associated with them. Industry believes there is no need to determine an absolute understanding about a biocide and its application but rather there is a need to determine the level of understanding that will enable characterisation so that a risk assessment can be made. The wood preservation industry has sought either directly or through representative bodies a pro-active and collaborative approach with the regulators although at times this appears to have encouraged inappropriate demands. The regulators have invariably responded positively to this however they may not always understand the burden in both time and resource in having made wood preservatives the test case. Industry hopes that its efforts to be pro-active will be recognised and will be dealt with equitably when considered before the other product types defined in the Biocidal Products Directive.
D Aston


Developing the technical guidance document on data requirements for biocidal products
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-02
Finland has been developing a discussion document for EC and the Member States concerning the specified data requirements for 23 biocidal product types, including wood preservatives, and their active substances. This data is required when applying for authorisation for a wood preservative according to the forthcoming Biocides Directive. The data requirements comprise of the core data set, which is common for all product types, and the product type specific additional data sets. The core data set has been outlined in the common position of Biocide Directive adopted by the EU Council and has only been complemented with some technical details. The data required in the additional data set is supplementary to the core data set and it takes into consideration the product type specific properties and direct and indirect human and environmental exposure. At the same time other guides have also been preparing: a guide for risk assessment of active substances by Sweden and a guide for risk assessment of biocidal products by UK. Close cooperation with these projects is an essential part of the preparatory work. After finalizing the draft discussion papers by the end of February 1998 the formal discussion on these will take place with EC and the Member States during 1998. The proposals on the data requirements will be circulated for comments to the EC, the Member States, industry and other interested parties. The final document will be addressed to the authorities and the applicants.
P Karvinen, E Nikunen


Improved PEC preservatives with added biocides
1985 - IRG/WP 3322
Biocidal chemicals have been incorporated into formulations within the broad framework of pigment emulsified creosote (PEC) to provide novel potential multi-purpose preservatives. Preparations of PEC plus TCMTB, Boracol 40, copper ethanolamine nonanoate, Quatramine 80, arsenic trioxide, Troysan Polyphase, and CCA have been formulated and assessed for preserving ability in soil-jar and Accelerated Field Simulator tests. In addition, a cationic oil-in-water emulsion preservative combination of PEC and CCA (PECCA), and an anionic formulation of TCMTB with PEC (PECBUS) have been manufactured in 400 L quantities to treat hardwood pole stubs and pine posts. The results indicate the potential of these improved second generation PEC-based preservatives to provide low-creosote containing treatments able to protect commodities against biodeterioration as well as provide dry, clean surfaces.
H Greaves, C-W Chin, J B Watkins


Biocides - Efficacy assessment and doses for wood preservatives (product type 8). Local/geographical aspects. Termite control as case study
1999 - IRG/WP 99-20181
Currently, the efficacy of a wood preservative, as biocidal product type 8, is assessed as a ‚critical value' (CV), an efficient dose (retention in wood at a given depth of penetration). CVs are planned to be adapted for exposure to basic target organisms (5 hazard classes) and additional requirements concerning the occurrence of local target organisms in relation with climate, building design and relevant economical impact. Among them, the termite case study is illustrative. The vote of a french law, on 26 may 1999, aiming to protect consumers and to organize termite control puts termites, a "local target at the euro scale and a universal one in some euro territories", in the spotlights of actuality and helps to point out some of the remaining questions raised by the implementation of Dir 98/8 on Biocides. Based on CEN/TC/38 simulated use tests, which doses have to be used for conditions of exposure and climate, ranging from polar to tropical? Practical proposals are made to take into accound local prescription based on actual target organisms, and move on to standard biocide profiles.
G Ozanne


Evaluation of the leach resistance and preservative efficacy of novel biocides as surface treatments applied by brush to spruce (Picea abies)
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30170
The comparative leach resistance and preservative efficacy of a number of alternative organic preservatives (available from Zeneca Specialties) and selected commercially available biocides as surface coatings to wood in Hazard Class 3 have been assessed. Two concentrations of test preservatives were applied by brush to Spruce (Picea abies), including formulation and untreated controls. A leaching program was carried out involving the immersion of the treated blocks in water for a scheduled period of time. Blocks were then subjected to biological tests to determine preservative efficacy using the basidiomycetes Coniophora puteana and Gloeophyllum trabeum in a modified EN 113 system; sapstain and mould tests were separately undertaken according to a modified EN 152 test using mixtures of Aureobasidium pullulans and Sclerophoma pithyophila, and Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma saturnisporium. Of the four alternative actives tested, one Zeneca development product based on Hexaconazole compared very favourably against the selected commercial biocides tested. An aqueous system based on a Zeneca penetrating aqueous polymer coupled with the Zeneca development active demonstrated favourable performance in relation to an existing solvent based product.
I M Tierney, A Bruce, D C R Sinclair, T Yeates


Protection of Ochroma pyramidale from fungal decay with N,N-napthaloylhyroxylamine
1998 - IRG/WP 98-30182
Fungal decay of wood in service results in billions of dollars (U.S.) in losses annually. Recent environmental restrictions, both U.S. and international, are limiting and eliminating the use of broad-spectrum, heavy metal biocides for wood preservation. Restrictions result primarily from problems with disposal. New wood preservatives need to be developed and tested which specifically target key elements in the sequence of fungal decay mechanisms. Our laboratory has been experimenting with chemicals which inhibit pectin hydrolysis during incipient brown-rot and white-rot decay in southern pine sapwood (Inter. Biodeter. Biodegrad. 39:103). In the present paper these results are extended to include the tropical hardwood Ochroma pyramidale (balsa). Balsa blocks (24x18x12mm) were exposed to two brown-rot fungi and one white-rot fungus in ASTM soil block tests for 10 weeks. CCA (6.4 km/m3 ) was compared with the calcium binding agent N,N-napthaloylhydroxylamine (NHA; 1.6, 3.2 & 6.4 km/m3 ) in leached and unleached blocks. CCA protected balsa with minimal weight loss (> 7.4%) with no leaching effects. NHA (6.4 km/m3 ) protected balsa (0.3-1.2%) weight loss but leaching raised the weight losses to 25% with the brown-rot fungus Tyromyces palustris. We conclude that NHA can protect balsa against G. trabeum and T. versicolor with comparable efficiency to CCA (leached and unleached) but not T. palustris.
F Green III, T L Highley


Risk assessment and the approval of wood preservatives in the United Kingdom
1995 - IRG/WP 95-50040-23
An approval system operates in the United Kingdom (UK) for the regulation of wood preservatives. The regulatory authority uses a risk assessment approach to evaluate how far the potential for harm to people and the environment from wood preservatives is likely to be realised in practise, and hence the controls required for products to be, used safely. The evaluation for approval purposes also takes into account the effectiveness of wood preservatives. A tiered approach is adopted to data requirements, and likely exposures are considered under the proposed conditions of use so that testing is minimised and controls are commensurate with risk.
R M Turner


Status of wood preservation in India
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30386
Wood, despite the advent of other modern materials, continues to play an important role in man’s day to day life. Usage of wood ranges from fuelwood to engineered wood products and demand for it is increasing which has resulted in depletion of forests and diminishing wood supplies. Future needs are required to be met from plantation timbers after adopting processing technologies for their life enhancement. Preservation treatment can reduce timber requirement because of enhancing wood service life that can help in managing forests on a sustainable basis to serve the dual purpose of providing a stable raw material supply and maintaining ecological balance. India has given to the world two of the most effectives and widely used wood preservatives viz. CCA and CCB. However, the present level of wood treatment in the country is very low with negligible contribution to the wood economy. Different institutions have made significant research contributions and generated tremendous data on wood preservation but because of lack of general awareness and enabling legislative support, usage of wood preservation has not taken off in the country. Compounding the problem is extremely weak industry - user group-research linkages. In this paper, the overall status of wood preservation e.g. wood preservation research, treatment technology, industry perspective, regulatory and policy frameworks in the country is discussed is detail and recommendations made.
S C Gairola, P K Aggarwal


Data requirements for wood preservatives in the EU Biocides Directive
2001 - IRG/WP 01-50166-08
Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the placing of biocidal products (the Biocidal Products Directive, BPD) lays down the requirements on data needed for authorisation of a biocidal product and approval of its active substance(s). The dossier must contain data needed for the proper risk assessment of the biocidal product. A detailed technical guidance document on data requirements for biocides has been produced to ensure the harmonised decision making according to the BPD. The purpose of the guidance is to give detailed testing strategies e.g. for toxicology, ecotoxicology and efficacy of different biocidal products and active substances, including wood preservatives. The data requirements for biocides are divided in two parts: the common core data set lists the studies which are always required, and the additional data set lists the studies which may be required in certain cases e.g. on basis of the results of the tests in the common core data set, and proposed uses and the potential exposure for a biocidal product. The common core data set contains a very comprehensive list of toxicological studies and, therefore, their additional data set is very limited. Instead, for ecotoxicological studies the common core data set is very limited, but the additional data set is very broad. Therefore, the guidance document on data requirement lists those additional ecotoxicological studies that are usually always required for certain biocidal product types - also for wood preservatives - in the application for approval. Waiving for some toxicological studies may be needed to minimise the need for animal testing and to reduce the costs of testing. The technical guidance document for data requirements gives some guidance on such a possibility on exemptions on the data requirements. The need for additional ecotoxicological testing depends on the product type and potential exposure for a product. In addition, the environmental risk found as a result from common core data set is the basic criterion when deciding testing strategy and the need for the additional ecotoxicological testing on e.g. adsorption, degradation and bioconcentration. Issues important for wood preservatives are data required on efficacy and on leaching from treated wood.
H Braunschweiler


Environmental situation on wood preservation industries in Bangladesh
2000 - IRG/WP 00-50148
The hazard that wood preservative chemicals pose to people and the environment is serious. The lack of information, legislation and awareness create an unfavorable situation on wood preservation industries. In this regard, three wood preservation industries have been visited to collect the information about pollution. It was observed that different steps have been taken to minimize the contamination created by wood preserving chemicals. But in some stages, peoples are not aware in handling the treated materials and chemicals. The techniques of conditioning to allow fixation of CCA at the treating plants are rather haphazard. Soil is contaminated due to leaching from the freshly treated materials. Government and wood preserving industries should both share the responsibility to protect human life and the environment through proper management.
K Akhter


International standards and the biocide debate - Potential contribution
2000 - IRG/WP 00-20196
Downstream the European 98/8/EEC directive on biocides, a working party of O.E.C.D. has been developing a tremendous work to put together the background information necessary to assess wood preservative efficacy, environmental and human exposure. Standardization may contribute to those efforts, using traditional experience and methodology. Among them, the hazard classification system may be extended to human beings and their environment, in all situations of uses. While primary exposure to biocides seems to be a matter related to classes of processes, the situation differs with secondary exposure to treated wood, related to use categories: in principle, the doses are already restricted to targets in a given class. Additionally, those uses have been , until now, practically limited to construction products. The first need is to extend the hazard class system to all kinds of biocidal wood preservation and their related uses. A methodology is proposed to get access to biocide concentrations and flows in priority compartments, assessment of intake by non-targets and their ratio to no-effect values in order to quantify safety factors. This route could allow to select further priorities for risk reduction at the pre-marketing stage.
G Ozanne


Developements in the EEC on the regulation of wood preservatives
1993 - IRG/WP 93-50016
There is a wide variation in the regulation of wood preservatives within the EEC, ranging from product by product authorization under persticides legislation to controls via standards, or simple compliance with basic requirements on classification packaging and labelling. During the past two years the commission of the European Communitiesn has worked on a proposal concerning the placing on the marketof biocidal procducts. This includes wood preservatives. The proposal is aimed at ensuring completion of the internal market in respect of these products and providing a high degree of protection for man and the environment. It provides for the creation at the Community level of a positiv list of active substances with authorization of individual products by member states. Provision is made for mutual authorization of products containing active substances of the positive list. Applications for authorization must be supported by data. Common principles for evaluation of applications will be developed and a programme for review of eyisting active substances will be established.
K Atkinson


Contradiction between uptake of preservative in practical situation and laboratory testing
1992 - IRG/WP 92-2392
By brush treatment water- and solvent-based products were applied on boards of Scots pine and Norway spruce to achieve an uptake of 100 and 200 g/ml. In addition the scope of work to achieve the required uptake of preservative was determined under practical conditions for both product groups. EN 113 (RAL-GZ 830) tests were carried out to test the biological efficacy of products. After 18 months exposure to outdoor weathering, physical tests were carried out to evaluate the properties of the paint-film. Results of physical tests show the influence of binder-type, binder-content and paint-system on the long term stability of products. The scope of work to achieve an uptake of 100 and 200 g/m² for solvent based products is approximately two times higher than for water based products. EN 113 (RAL-GZ 830) tests with solvent based products demonstrate that contrary to water based products, the amount of applied preservative has a considerable influence on the results. Weight loss measured in accordance to the RAL-GZ 830 regulations demonstrates that for nearly all solvent based products an uptake of 100 g/m², for water based products an uptake of 200 g/m² were sufficiant to protect the wood against Gloeophyllum trabeum. Except for three tested products with an uptake of 200 g/m² neither product protects the wood against Poria placenta.
R Gründlinger, O Janotta, M Melzer


Long-term efficacy of wood dip-treated with multicomponent biocides
2005 - IRG/WP 05-30379
Biocides designed for prevention of indoor mold growth on wood-based materials need to provide long-term protection under conditions of high humidity. Specimens of kiln-dried southern pine and unseasoned southern pine, aspen, and Douglas-fir were dip-treated with borate-dimethylcocoamine (DMCA) supplemented with voriconazole, thiabendazole, or thujaplicin and evaluated at 4-week intervals for inhibition of three mold fungi, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Trichoderma viride, using the ASTM D4445 mold test. After 8 weeks, all treatments of aspen and Douglas-fir inhibited growth of test fungi, while kiln-dried pine only inhibited A. niger and unseasoned pine only inhibited T. viride despite average chemical retentions in pine up to four-fold greater than those in aspen and Douglas-fir. After 12 weeks, aspen and Douglas-fir treated with the thiabendazole-containing biocide continued to provide protection against growth of the test fungi. The thujaplicin-containing biocide provided partial protection of aspen and Douglas-fir for 12 weeks but failed to protect pine samples beyond 4 weeks. A comparison of tebuconazole, propiconazole, voriconazole, and thiabendazole in the borate-DMCA biocide system showed that thiabendazole and voriconazole provided superior protection against the test fungi, particularly T. viride. We conclude that multicomponent biocides with thiabendazole protect aspen and Douglas-fir against growth of test fungi for at least 12 weeks under the conditions of the ASTM 4445 mold test.
C A Clausen, V W Yang


The environment and the timber preservation in the Benelux countries
1990 - IRG/WP 3580
The environment has become a major issue in all industries. To focus on the timber preservation industry an analysis is made of the production chain. Suggestions are made for diminishing or excluding emissions of agents of pollution. After a review of the legislation in Holland, some important statements are made on the production process, the products involved and the waste materials. Finally raw materials and energy requirements are discussed. All stages of the product chain should take place in professional business units and under controlled circumstances. The innovations in timber preservation shall be based on existing products, which are very well known, such as CCA and creosote. A controlled and accelerated fixation process should be executed systematically. The preservatives have to be examined on their fixation properties. The industry has to take the initiative for guarantee systems on quality and certification.
C De Mey, R Leegwater


An initial evaluation of the environmental impact of potential marine biocides
1978 - IRG/WP 441
Pilings and other structures in the marine environment are protected primarily by impregnation with creosote alone, or in combination with coal tar or waterborne preservatives such as copper-chrome-arsenate. Some of these materials are considered as possible ecological hazards and face an uncertain future; perhaps newly developed treatments to replace these conventional ones will pose different problems. Today, for a toxic substance to be approved by cognizant government regulatory agencies it must undergo an extensive evaluation to determine its impact upon the environment. Consequently an initial assessment of the potential environmental impact must be determined for all compounds which have shown promise against marine borers and fungi in our investigations. This has been accomplished by determining their toxicity to marine algae which are the primary producers in the food chain. The principal organism used for this purpose has been Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, but Cyclotella nana and Chaetoceros galvestonensis have also been used.
J D Bultman, P J Hannan


Information regarding a report on the "Code of Good Practice" for the use of chlorophenoxides for wood preservation
1984 - IRG/WP 3302
In 1981 the British Columbia Chlorophenate Wood Protection Task Force was formed to respond to workers' health and environmental concerns regarding the use of chlorophenoxides for control of sapstain and mould fungi at sawmills and lumber export terminals. The task force consisted of representatives of both the federal government (Environment Canada) and the provincial government (British Columbia), the B.C. forest industry and labour unions. After two years of deliberations the task force has produced a document "Code of Good Practice" for the design and operation of wood protection facilities. This code provides recommendations for workers' health and safety and for the storage, transportation and disposal of chlorophenoxide liquids and contaminated water and solid wastes. The code details in ten sections such aspects as the need for wood protection; chlorophenols and chlorophenoxides - physical and chemical properties, toxicity, human health effects; personnel protection; general practices at wood protection facilities; recommended design features; recommended operating practices; transportation of chlorophenoxide-containing materials; disposal of wastes; spill contingency planning and a summary of the Canadian legislation on the topic.
V N P Mathur


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