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An appraisal of methods for environmental testing of leachates from salt-treated wood (2)
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50110
For wood preservatives for use in hazard class 4 information on the ecotoxicity of preservatives and ingredients as well as on the effect of losses from impregnated timber is needed for a proper environmental risk assessment. In the evaluation of a suitable test procedure the leaching behaviour of copper-based formulations was studied using analytical and ecotoxicological test methodology. These studies included an analytical comparison of end grain sealed and not sealed wood blocks. Using sensitive bioindicators in ecotoxicological studies, real effects of the leachates gained from EN 84 were measured. The possibility to use a laboratory test procedure based on the leaching according to EN 84 is shown and discussed for the risk assessment of treated timber.
H W Wegen, A Platen, G M F Van Eetvelde, M Stevens


Ecotoxicological behaviour of leachates from superficially treated timber as an approach for a test strategy of environmental risk assessment in wood preservation
1998 - IRG/WP 98-50101-09
At present for wood preservatives, which in Germany are subject to the quality mark of the RAL-Gütegemeinschaft Holzschutzmittel, health and safety as well as environmental aspects are evaluated by official authorities, as BgVV (Federal Institute for Consumer Health Protection and Veterinary Medicine) and the UBA (Federal Environmental Agency). From the environmental point of view to day there are additional requirements concerning the environmental behaviour of RAL-preservatives for timber used in hazard class 3. Information on the ecotoxicity of preservatives and ingredients as well as on the effect of losses from treated timber is requested in general. There is a lack of generally approved and harmonized test procedures in this field of wood preservation assessment. Therefore, a first test model was developed in accordance with the German federal environmental agency. This test procedure follows existing standards on efficacy of wood preservatives such as EN 84 and ecotoxicological testing of chemicals. Otherwise, it takes into account practical aspects of the application of wood preservatives. Ecotoxicological studies using fish, daphnids, green algae and luminescent bacteria as bioindicators were conducted with a range of formulations based on modern biocides. The ecotoxicity of leachates from treated timber is compared with the acute ecotoxicity of the formulations themselves. It becomes obvious, that a clear differentiation must be made between the effects of the formulations and the timber treated with them. In all trophic stages tested, it was shown, that enormous safety factors are existing for properly treated timber. It is possible to use the described test model for an environmental assessment with regard to the European Biocidal Products Directive. If ecotoxicological studies of a wood preservative are in accordance with the designed test model, additional ecotoxicological tests on the product or environmentally relevant components of it can be avoided or justifiably confined to a minimum.
H W Wegen, U J Lucks


Ecotox Testing of Leachates as an Alternative Approach for Environmental Impact Assessment of Wood Preservatives
2002 - IRG/WP 02-50185
Driven by the implementation of the EU Biocidal Product Directive (BPD) in the environmental assessment of treated wood different methodologies and test strategies are at present under discussion within industry, regulatory authorities and standardizing comittees. Test procedures for the analytical determination of emissions to different environmental compartments according to exposure scenarios are suggested for international harmonization. In addition ´fate and behaviour´ modelling as well as the PEC/PNEC consideration are proposed to produce an environmental risk assessment of treated wood. As an alternative approach direct ecotoxicological testing of leachates is presented with leachates from solvent based preservatives treated timber as example. Daphnids as very sensitive bioindicators exhibited differences due to the included biocides of the preservative formulation tested as well as the leaching procedure used. The methodology of direct ecotoxicological testing as an alternative to PEC/PNEC comparison is discussed for suitability in wood preservation.
H-W Wegen